A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented. Anyone who composes, conducts, or performs music is referred to as a musician. A musician who plays a musical instrument is known as an instrumentalist. Musicians can specialize in any musical style, some musicians play in a variety of different styles depending on cultures and background. Examples of a musician's possible skills include performing, singing, producing, composing and the orchestration of music. In the Middle Ages, instrumental musicians performed with soft ensembles inside and loud instruments outdoors. Many European musicians of this time catered to the Roman Catholic Church, they provided arrangements structured around Gregorian chant structure and Masses from church texts. Notable musicians Phillipe de Vitry Guillaume Dufay Guillaume de Machaut Hildegard of Bingen John Jenkins Beatritz de Dia Renaissance musicians produced music that could be played during masses in churches and important chapels.

Vocal pieces were in Latin—the language of church texts of the time—and were Church-polyphonic or "made up of several simultaneous melodies." By the end of the 16th century, patronage split among many areas: the Catholic Church, Protestant churches, royal courts, wealthy amateurs, music printing—all provided income sources for composers. Notable musicians Giovanni Palestrina Giovanni Gabrieli Thomas Tallis Claudio Monteverdi Leonardo da Vinci The Baroque period introduced heavy use of counterpoint and basso continuo characteristics. Vocal and instrumental "color" became more important compared with the Renaissance style of music, emphasized much of the volume and pace of each piece. Notable musicians George Frideric Handel Johann Sebastian Bach Antonio Vivaldi Classical music was created by musicians who lived during a time of a rising middle class. Many middle-class inhabitants of France at the time lived under long-time absolute monarchies; because of this, much of the music was performed in environments that were more constrained compared with the flourishing times of the Renaissance and Baroque eras.

Notable musicians Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Joseph Haydn Ludwig Van Beethoven The foundation of Romantic period music coincides with what is called the age of revolutions, an age of upheavals in political, economic and military traditions. This age included the initial transformations of the Industrial Revolution. A revolutionary energy was at the core of Romanticism, which quite consciously set out to transform not only the theory and practice of poetry and art, but the common perception of the world; some major Romantic Period precepts survive, still affect modern culture. Notable musicians Ludwig van Beethoven Frédéric Chopin Franz Schubert Niccolò Paganini Franz Liszt Charles-Valentin Alkan Richard Wagner Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Johannes Brahms Johann Strauss II The world transitioned from 19th-century Romanticism to 20th century Modernism, bringing major musical changes. In 20th-century music and musicians rejected the emotion-dominated Romantic period, strove to represent the world the way they perceived it.

Musicians wrote to be"... objective. While past eras concentrated on spirituality, this new period placed emphasis on physicality and things that were concrete."The advent of audio recording and mass media in the 20th century caused a boom of all kinds of music—pop, dance, folk and all forms of classical music. Singer Composer Tour manager Musicians' or'Hi-Fi' earplugs Health problems of musicians Health problems of musicians Media related to Musicians at Wikimedia Commons


The term happiness is used in the context of mental or emotional states, including positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy. It is used in the context of life satisfaction, subjective well-being, eudaimonia and well-being. Since the 1960s, happiness research has been conducted in a wide variety of scientific disciplines, including gerontology, social psychology and positive psychology and medical research and happiness economics.'Happiness' is the subject of debate on usage and meaning, on possible differences in understanding by culture. The word is used in relation to two factors: the current experience of the feeling of an emotion such as pleasure or joy, or of a more general sense of'emotional condition as a whole'. For instance Daniel Kahneman has defined happiness as "what I experience here and now"; this usage is prevalent in dictionary definitions of happiness. Appraisal of life satisfaction, such as of quality of life. For instance Ruut Veenhoven has defined happiness as "overall appreciation of one's life as-a-whole."

Kahneman has said. Some usages can include both of these factors. Subjective well-being includes measures of life satisfaction. For instance Sonja Lyubomirsky has described happiness as “the experience of joy, contentment, or positive well-being, combined with a sense that one's life is good and worthwhile.” Eudaimonia, is a Greek term variously translated as happiness, welfare and blessedness. Xavier Landes has proposed that happiness include measures of subjective wellbeing and eudaimonia; these differing uses can give different results. For instance the correlation of income levels has been shown to be substantial with life satisfaction measures, but to be far weaker, at least above a certain threshold, with current experience measures. Whereas Nordic countries score highest on swb surveys, South American countries score higher on affect-based surveys of current positive life experiencing; the implied meaning of the word may vary depending on context, qualifying happiness as a polyseme and a fuzzy concept.

Some users continue to use the word because of its convening power. Philosophy of happiness is discussed in conjunction with ethics. Traditional European societies, inherited from the Greeks and from Christianity linked happiness with morality, concerned with the performance in a certain kind of role in a certain kind of social life. However, with the rise of individualism, begotten by Protestantism and capitalism, the links between duty in a society and happiness were broken; the consequence was a redefinition of the moral terms. Happiness is no longer defined in relation in terms of individual psychology. Happiness, remains a difficult term for moral philosophy. Throughout the history of moral philosophy, there has been an oscillation between attempts to define morality in terms of consequences leading to happiness and attempts to define morality in terms that have nothing to do with happiness at all. In the Nicomachean Ethics, written in 350 BCE, Aristotle stated that happiness is the only thing that humans desire for their own sake, unlike riches, health or friendship.

He observed that men sought riches, or honour, or health not only for their own sake but in order to be happy. For Aristotle the term eudaimonia, translated as'happiness' or'flourishing' is an activity rather than an emotion or a state. Eudaimonia is a classical Greek word consists of the word "eu" and "daimōn", thus understood, the happy life is the good life, that is, a life in which a person fulfills human nature in an excellent way. Aristotle argued that the good life is the life of excellent rational activity, he arrived at this claim with the "Function Argument". If it is right, every living thing has a function, that which it uniquely does. For Aristotle human function is to reason, and performing one's function well, or excellently, is good. According to Aristotle, the life of excellent rational activity is the happy life. Aristotle argued a second best life for those incapable of excellent rational activity was the life of moral virtue. Western ethicists have made arguments for how humans should behave, either individually or collectively, based on the resulting happiness of such behavior.

Utilitarians, such as John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham, advocated the greatest happiness principle as a guide for ethical behavior. Friedrich Nietzsche critiqued the English Utilitarians' focus on attaining the greatest happiness, stating that "Man does not strive for happiness, only the Englishman does." Nietzsche meant that making happiness one's ultimate goal and the aim of one's existence, in his words "makes one contemptible." Nietzsche instead yearned for a culture that would set higher, more difficult goals than "mere happiness." He introduced the quasi-dystopic figure of the "last man" as a kind of thought experiment against the utilitarians and happiness-seekers. These small, "last men" who seek after only their own pleasure and health, avoiding all danger, difficulty, struggle are meant to seem contemptible to Nietzsche's reader. Nietzsche instead wants us to consider the value of what is difficult, what can only be earned through struggle, difficulty and thus to come to see the affirmative value suffering and unhappiness play in creating everything of great worth in life, inclu

Flag of Cincinnati

The flag of Cincinnati is the municipal banner of the city of Cincinnati, Ohio, in the United States. The design was selected in an 1896 contest, it was formally adopted on June 15, 1940. The Cincinnati city flag is defined by city ordinance: The flag of Cincinnati shall be rectangular in shape, it shall have a white groundwork. In the center shall be a red letter "C". Extending horizontally from either side of the letter "C" shall be three wavy parallel lines of navy blue. Within the letter "C" shall be the seal of the city of Cincinnati in blue. Extending upward from a point at the top of the letter "C" and spaced from its center line shall be a cluster of five buckeye leaves in red; the proportional dimensions of the flag and of its various parts shall be according to the official design thereof on file in the council chamber of the city of Cincinnati. The blue waves represent the Ohio River, upon; the red "C" in the center stands for Cincinnati and a red buckeye leaf rests atop the letter to symbolize the State of Ohio.

The center of the C features the seal of Cincinnati as it was at the flag's introduction in 1896. On November 23, 1895, The Cincinnati Times-Star ran an editorial proposing a contest to choose a flag for the city, offering a $50 prize. Mayor John A. Caldwell appointed a Flag Commission to judge submissions. At least 50 designs were submitted by local artists. Many designs were rejected for being too elaborate or for symbolizing the Queen City with a crown, a device the mayor considered inappropriate for a U. S. city. On January 24, 1896, the commission awarded the $50 to "Zero of Burnet Woods", Emil Rothengatter, for the design, in use today. A German immigrant, Rothengatter was a foreman at Russell Morgan Lithographing Company and an influential designer of circus posters during the heyday of that genre; the Enquirer, the Times-Star's commercial and political rival, registered vehement opposition to the proposed flag. Editorials and interviewees protested that any local flag would compete with the Stars and Stripes and replace it in some contexts.

However, Mayor Caldwell was careful to describe the flag as a mere logo to advertise the city. There was concern that Cincinnati would be unable to protect the flag's design from misuse. Cleveland had adopted a municipal flag, only to see it trademarked by a cigar manufacturer, it was unknown. For its part, the Cleveland Plain Dealer dismissed the flag as a "garter". A fact that went unreported in the Enquirer was that, on the day of the flag's selection, the Times-Star editor, Rep. Charles Phelps Taft, had Congress grant the city exclusive rights to the design; the city council voted down a measure that would have made the flag official. There was still some measure of support for the flag: within the month, Reds manager Frank Bancroft ordered a set for League Park. By 1902, one author noted; the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce adopted a resolution calling upon the city to adopt the flag officially. However, city officials contended that the 1896 Congressional resolution made any city ordinance unnecessary.

In 1926, the city discovered with embarrassment that it had no replicas of the flag on hand as it prepared for a visit from Marie of Romania. In 1936, the city erected two flag poles on either end of Fountain Square and planned to fly an American flag from each. However, the double flag display was considered a violation of flag etiquette, so the city's flag was flown from one of the flagpoles. On days that a traffic fatality occurred within the city, a "black flag of death" took the place of the city flag; the municipal flag would not be formally adopted until June 15, 1940, as City Ordinance 181-1940, upon the suggestion of Mayor James Garfield Stewart. The ordinance was codified as C. O. 104-2 renumbered as C. M. C. 104-3 on January 1, 1972. In a 2004 poll on the North American Vexillological Association website, Cincinnati's flag was voted the 22nd best design among 150 U. S. city flags and the best city flag in Ohio. In 2016, fans of the soccer club FC Cincinnati began using blue and orange variants of the flag to show support for the team.

List of flags with Latin-language text Flag of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cincinnati The flag and seal of Cincinnati. John G. Reilley, illustrator. Cincinnati Flag Committee. CS1 maint: others Clifton Neighborhood, Ohio at Flags of the World Society of the Cincinnati at Flags of the World Cincinnati & Suburban Bell Telephone Co. flag