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Musketeer

A musketeer was a type of soldier equipped with a musket. Musketeers were an important part of early modern armies in Europe, as they comprised the majority of their infantry; the musketeer was a precursor to the rifleman. Muskets were replaced by rifles in most western armies during the mid-1850s; the traditional designation of "musketeer" for an infantry private survived in the Imperial German Army until World War I. The hand cannon was invented in China in the 12th century and was in widespread use there in the 13th century, it spread westward across Asia during the 14th century. Arquebusiers and musketeers were utilized in the armies of the Qing dynasties. Zhao Shizhen's book of 1598 AD, the Shenqipu, contains illustrations of Ottoman Turkish and European musketeers together with detailed diagrams of their muskets. There was an illustration and description of how the Chinese had adopted the Ottoman kneeling position when firing, while favoring the use of European-made muskets; the Chinese built the first repeating fire-arm: several barrels behind a small wooden shield.

The musketeer would turn these barrels lighting each barrel with a slow match one by one. These weapons were most effective when fired from high positions. Needham considered this weapon to be a "primitive machine-gun". Muskets became an integral part of Indian warfare in the 1600s, they were used as an effective defense against war elephants. The Mughals, Marathas and Sikhs made use of musketeers, firing from cover, to ambush opposing infantry and elephants. Many Indian gunsmiths existed during the 17th and 18th centuries, creating matchlock muskets for the Mughal infantry plus some combination weapons. In the Spanish army, the tercio or the Spanish square was a mixed infantry formation that theoretically could number up to 3,000 pikemen and musketeers, it was effective in its era, capitalizing on the close-quarter impact of the pike combined with the long-range projectile capabilities of the musket. It was far more flexible and deadly; the musketeers of the tercios were developed from the earlier arquebusier manned coronelías, who had established their reputation by defeating the French and capturing their king at the Battle of Pavia in 1525.

The Musketeers of the Guard were a junior unit of company strength, of the military branch of the Royal Household or Maison du Roi. They were created in 1622. Musketeers fought in battle both on horseback as dragoons. At the Battle of Fontenoy in 1745 the King's Musketeers served as regular cavalry, charging British infantry with drawn swords; as one of the junior units in the Royal Guard, the Musketeers were not linked to the royal family. Traditional bodyguard duties were in fact performed by the Cent-suisses; because of its establishment, the Musketeers were open to the lower classes of French nobility or younger sons from noble families whose oldest sons served in the more prestigious Garde du Corps and Chevau-legers. The Musketeers, many of them still teenagers, soon gained a reputation for unruly behaviour and fighting spirit, their high esprit de corps gained royal favor for the Musketeers and they were seen at court and in Paris. Shortly after their creation, Cardinal Richelieu created a bodyguard unit for himself.

So as not to offend the King with a perceived sense of self-importance, Richelieu did not name them Garde du Corps like the King's personal guards but rather Musketeers after the Kings' junior guard cavalry. This was the start of a bitter rivalry between the two corps of Musketeers. At the cardinal's death in 1642, the company passed to his successor Cardinal Mazarin. At Mazarin's death in 1661, the cardinal's Musketeers passed to Louis XIV to the disgust of both the King's Musketeers and the Cardinal's Musketeers; the Musketeers were subsequently reorganized as a guard cavalry regiment of two companies. The King's Musketeers became the first company, popularly known as "Grey Musketeers", while the Cardinal's Musketeers became the second company, known as "Black Musketeers" for riding grey and black horses, respectively. From their establishment, the Musketeers wore blue cloak-like cassocks, lined with red and edged with silver embroidery. From 1688, the cassocks were replaced by smaller soubrevestes or sleeveless coats in the same colours.

In the early decades of the corps, the musketeers had worn civilian dress under their cassocks, according to personal taste and means, but in 1677 a scarlet uniform was adopted. In terms of recruitment, the Musketeers were among the most sought after of the military companies of the Ancien Régime; this was due to the lower entrance requirements. The senior guard units were in effect closed to all but the most senior and wealthy of French nobles, so for the majority of French nobles, service in the Musketeers was the only way to join a mounted unit in the Royal Household and catch the King's eye. However, enlistment did require both letters of recommendation and evidence that a recruit had the family means to support the costs of service; these included the provision of horses, clothing, a servant and equipment. Only the musket, the sleeveless soubreveste and the distinctive blue cassock were provided by the monarch. In 1776, the Musketeers were disbanded for budgetary reasons. Following the first Bourbon Restoration, the Musketeers were reestablished on 6 Jul

Kachāshī

Kachāshī, sometimes romanized as katcharsee, is a form of festive Okinawan folk dance. In Okinawa, it is a feature of celebrations such as weddings and victory festivities after Okinawan wrestling matches and public elections. Traditionally, the dance is accompanied by the sanshin and drum, punctuated with finger whistling called yubi-bue; the dance curled for men. The hands alternate in a pulling and pushing, up and down elliptical motion, one hand facing outward and up while the other is facing inward and down; the hand movements are notoriously difficult to execute without training. The steps are improvised, but consist of a bow-legged stance, alternately lifting and lowering the feet to the rhythm of the music. Kachāshī dance songsTooshin dooi, the most famous kachāshī dance song Kaadikuuu, a courtship dance song Atchamee-gwaa Amakawa bushi Hoonen ondo Takoo-yama Kachāshī demonstration for women, Part 1 Kachāshī demonstration for women, Part 2 Kachāshī demonstration for men

Ellendale, Delaware

Ellendale is a town in Sussex County, United States. The population was 381 at the 2010 census, an increase of 16.5% since 2000. It is part of Maryland-Delaware Metropolitan Statistical Area. Ellendale is the "Gateway to Delaware's Resort Beaches" because it is the town located on U. S. Highway 113, the resort area's westernmost border, Delaware Route 16, the resort area's northernmost border with the eastern border being the Delaware Bay and Atlantic Ocean and the southern border being the state line with Maryland. Ellendale swamp on the divide between the Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay; the swamp was the hunting grounds of the Nanticoke Indian Tribe until they were driven out by the Lenni Lenape Tribe on the Battle Green near Chestnut Ridge, a hill on Ellendale's north side. The Lenape Trace, a main thoroughfare of a trail, passed through Ellendale as a Native American trade route from Pocomoke City, Maryland to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania. With the arrival of Europeans, the Ellendale area was a province of fur hunters.

Early in the 18th century and timbering pushed back the swamp that once covered the area. The tract of land on which the town would be built was deeded in 1740 as "Bennett's Pleasure"; the "Nanticoke Swamp," as the Ellendale Swamp was called, was depicted as a place where criminals hid from the law in the depositions of a 1759 murder that occurred. One of the main causes being the issue of jurisdiction as both Maryland and Delaware were in a boundary dispute and claimed the area; the Ellendale Swamp became a refuge for Loyalists at the time of the 1780 Black Camp Insurrection during the American Revolution. Harold Hancock describes the insurrection in his History of Sussex County: "With the removal of the British from Philadelphia in the spring of 1778, the number of enemy vessels in Delaware Bay decreased, the activities of Sussex County Tories diminished. Only one other insurrection in Sussex County occurred – the famous Black Camp Rebellion of 1780; the insurrectionists were from Cedar Creek and Slaughter Neck Hundred, their headquarters were in a swamp about six miles north of Georgetown.

Their leaders, Bartholomew Banynum and William Dutton, had about 400 men formed in “Associations” or militia companies. An investigator reported the causes as follows: ‘Some of these ignorant people were for opposing all law, others for establishing what they called the King’s Laws – and others for opposing the payment of taxes – but seem to have believed that all to the southward of Chesapeake Bay had laid down their arms and submitted to the King’s Laws – and that they should easy make Sussex County do the same.’ Militia from Kent County dispersed the insurrectionists. Some were sent off to serve in the Continental Army, thirty-seven were indicted for treason in the State Supreme Court. Eight were ordered to be hanged ‘by the neck but not till you be dead, for your bowels must be taken out and burnt before your face your head must be severed from your body, your body divided into four Quarters, these must be at the disposal of the Supreme Authority in the State; this sentence, customary for treason was not carried out, all the participants were pardoned by the General Assembly on November 4, 1780."There were two small villages in the area of Ellendale's current location by 1790.

They were Fleatown to the north, New Market to the east, both of which became ghost towns with the establishment of Ellendale. In the Federal era, the Old State Road was built to connect the newly founded county seat of Georgetown with the state capital of Dover. With emancipation, African Americans took up free lives in the area and the railroads came after the American Civil War. Ellendale was founded in the early 19th century and surveyed in 1866-1867. Ellendale was first settled near the Morris Tavern Crossroads, near the current Old State Road and Main Street intersection, by a handful of families; the city is rumored to be named after either the daughter of Whig Republican Alfred Short, a state legislator, the wife of Dr. John S. Prettyman who laid out the town, or the daughter of Mr. Thomas William Dale, the chief engineer of the railroad survey team. Ellendale's current site was established in 1866 when the families moved east to settle around the Junction and Breakwater Railroad Depot.

On July 16, 1873 the Ellendale Methodist Episcopal Church purchased land to erect a church and school. Ellendale's economy advanced as the RJ Clendaniel Sawmill, the Jester & Reed Canning Company, a brick yard, several peach evaporating and canning companies, basket factory, the Phillip J Ritter Ketchup Company, Ellendale Excelsior Company, button factory opened in the town; the railroad was purchased by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1905 and that same year the town was formally incorporated. In February 1895, the Queen Anne's Railroad was authorized by the Delaware legislature to extend its rail lines across the state to Lewes; the goal of the company was to establish a direct link between Baltimore and Delaware's coastal resorts. This additional rail line passed through Ellendale and provided passenger and mail services as far west as Queenstown and east to Rehoboth Beach with the first passenger trains passing through in 1897. A post office was erected, with a large second floor room, used by the Independent Order of Red Men, a break off group of the Improved Order of Red Men, established in the town, at the site of what is now the Town Hall.

In 1918, the DuPont Highway was completed. While this was