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Muslim conquest of the Levant

The Muslim conquest of the Levant known as the Arab conquest of the Levant, occurred in the first half of the 7th century. This was the conquest of the region known as the Levant or Shaam to become the Islamic Province of Bilad al-Sham, as part of the Islamic conquests. Arab Muslim forces had appeared on the southern borders before the death of prophet Muhammad in 632, resulting in the Battle of Mu'tah in 629, but the real conquest began in 634 under his successors, the Rashidun Caliphs Abu Bakr and Umar ibn Khattab, with Khalid ibn al-Walid as their most important military leader. Syria had been under Roman rule for seven centuries prior to the Arab Muslim conquest and had been invaded by the Sassanid Persians on a number of occasions during the 3rd, 6th and 7th centuries. During the Roman period, beginning after the fall of Jerusalem in the year 70, the entire region was renamed Palaestina, subdivided into Diocese I and II; the Romans renamed an area of land including the Negev and the west coast of the Arabian Peninsula as Palaestina Salutaris, sometimes called Palaestina III or Palaestina Tertia.

Part of the area was ruled by the Arab vassal state of the Ghassanids' symmachos. During the last of the Roman-Persian Wars, beginning in 603, the Persians under Khosrau II had succeeded in occupying Syria and Egypt for over a decade before being forced by the victories of Heraclius to conclude the peace of 628. Thus, on the eve of the Muslim conquests the Romans were still in the process of rebuilding their authority in these territories, which in some areas had been lost to them for twenty years. Politically, the Syrian region consisted of two provinces: Syria proper stretched from Antioch and Aleppo in the north to the top of the Dead Sea. To the west and south of the Dead Sea lay the province of Palestine. Syria was a Syriac and Hellenized land with some Jewish presence and with a Arab population in its eastern and southern parts; the Syriacs, Greeks and Arabs had been there since pre-Roman times, some had embraced Christianity since Constantine I legalized it in the fourth century and moved the capital from Italy to Byzantium, from which the name Byzantine is derived.

After the religious tension and conflict led to a forced migration by most of the Jews towards places outside the control sphere of the Byzantine Empire, the majority of the indigenous and foreign populations presented in the land was Christianised, with a small Jewish and Samaritan minorities remaining and an increasing number of Christian immigrants settling in the land. The Arabs of Syria were people of no consequence until the migration of the powerful Ghassanid tribe from Yemen to Syria, who converted to Christianity and thereafter ruled a semi-autonomous state with their own king under Roman vassalage; the Ghassanid Dynasty became one of the honoured princely dynasties of the Empire, with the Ghassanid king ruling over the Arabs in Jordan and Southern Syria from his capital at Bosra. The last of the Ghassanid kings, who ruled at the time of the Muslim invasion, was Jabla bin Al Aiham; the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, after re-capturing Syria from the Sassanians, set up new defense lines from Gaza to the south end of the Dead Sea.

These lines were only designed to protect communications from bandits, the bulk of the Byzantine defenses were concentrated in Northern Syria facing the traditional foes, the Sassanid Persians. The drawback of this defense line was that it enabled the Muslims, advancing from the desert in the south, to reach as far north as Gaza before meeting regular Byzantine troops; the 7th century was a time of rapid military change in the Byzantine Empire. The empire was not in a state of collapse when it faced the new challenge from Arabia after being exhausted by recent Roman–Persian Wars, but utterly failed to tackle the challenge effectively. Military confrontations with the Byzantine Empire began during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad; the Battle of Mu'tah was fought in September 629 near the village of Mu'tah, east of the Jordan River and Karak in Karak Governorate, between the forces of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the forces of the Byzantine Empire and their Arab Christian Ghassanid vassals.

In Islamic historical sources, the battle is described as the Muslims' attempt to take retribution against the Ghassanids after a Ghassanid official executed Muhammad's emissary, en route to Bosra. During the battle the Muslim army was routed. After three Muslim leaders were killed, the command was given to Khalid ibn al-Walid and he succeeded in saving the rest of the forces; the surviving Muslim forces retreated to Medina. After the Farewell Pilgrimage in 632, the Prophet Muhammad appointed Usama ibn Zayd as the commander of an expeditionary force, to invade the region of Balqa in the Byzantine Empire; this expedition was known as the Expedition of Usama bin Zayd and its stated aim was to avenge the Muslim losses at the Battle of Mu'tah, in which Usama's father and Muhammad's adopted son, Zayd ibn Harithah, had been killed. Usama's expedition in May/June 632 was successful and his army was the first Muslim force to invade and raid Byzantine territory. Muhammad died in June 632, Abu Bakr was a

Bob Johnson (infielder)

Robert Wallace Johnson, nicknamed "Rocky", was an American professional baseball player. A utility infielder and pinch hitter, Johnson appeared in 11 Major League Baseball seasons, from 1960 through 1970. Johnson was a member of the 1966 World Series champion Baltimore Orioles, he threw and batted right-handed, stood 5 ft 10 in tall, weighed 175 lb. Johnson played for seven teams during his 11-season MLB career — which began with the Kansas City Athletics and ended with the same franchise, when it was based in Oakland, he was a member of the expansion Washington Senators during their maiden season in the American League moved on to the Orioles, where he would play four full seasons and establish himself as a top pinch hitter. In 1964 he led the American League with 45 pinch hit at 15 pinch hits. Three years in 1967, Johnson collected 13 pinch hits in 34 at-bats in a season split between the Orioles and the National League's New York Mets. Although Johnson's career batting average was only.272, he twice hit over.340 as a part-time player, for the 1967 Mets and the 1969 Athletics.

During the latter season, Johnson made 14 pinch hits in 50 at bats, in a season divided between Oakland and the St. Louis Cardinals. In the field, Johnson played every infield position: shortstop, second base, third base and first base, he collected 66 pinch hits in 243 career at bats — to match his career overall batting average of.272. Johnson died on November 12, 2019 at age 83. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference, or Retrosheet

Political repression in North Korea

This article relates to Political Repression in North Korea. For more general information about Democratic People's Republic of Korea, see North Korea. People in North Korea suffer political repression from every aspect of daily life, including speech, travel and religion; the Kim dynasty has ruled North Korea for three generations. It consolidates its supreme centralised power through the guidance of the political ideology of Juche and Songun. Juche is perceived as the practice of totalitarianism. Songun refers to'military-first Policy', which means that the Korean People's Army has the highest political and resource-allocation priority, sacrificing other parts of society. North Korea, as a one-party state, requires every citizen to memorise the details of Ten Principles for the Establishment of a Monolithic Ideological System compulsorily, as these principles ensure the absolute loyalty and obedience towards the Kim family. Additionally, punishment in a prison camp, reported execution, public execution applies if people's behaviours and consumption are not approved by the state or shows disrespect to the Kim family.

Juche Ideology is developed by Kim Il-sung, perceived as a variant of Marxism–Leninism at the beginning and gradually transforms to the ideology emphasising on'Political independence, Economic self-sustenance, Self-reliance' after the speech given by Kim Il-sung on 14 April 1965. Juche Ideology focuses on the leadership of masses, the only man who will lead the masses to be successful is Kim Il-sung; this theory consolidates Kim Il-sung's supreme position over North Korea. The theory describes the great leader as an'absolutist and supreme leader'; the great leader has the highest wisdom and the only human being who owns the legitimate representation to the working class. The great leader can realise the class conflicts, lead people to revolutionary changes and overcome the difficult tasks; the great leader is a flawless human being who never commits mistakes and always has the power to rule the masses. Only the introduction of unitary ideology system can make the great leader theory function.

The unitary ideology system is Ten Principles for a Monolithic Ideological System. Supreme People's Assembly is the sole legislature in North Korea and holds the quinquennial elections to select the leading party and the top leader. Theoretically, there are three different parties including the Workers' Party of Korea, Korean Social Democratic Party and Chondoist Chongu Party, few deputies from other organisations, but in practice, three parties are all nominated by Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland and the Workers' party is always expected to win. All citizens aged 17 and above have the mandatory obligation to vote. Joining the supporting groups and expressing the happiness of voting to the great leadership of the nation are expected after leaving the polling station; the elections are criticised as a show because the turnout rate is invariably around 100%. Citizens nominally have rights to vote against the candidate by crossing out the candidate name and drop the ballot paper into the separate box.

However, the voting procedure is under the eye of officials. It is a risky action that secret police would tail after the person and suspect the disloyalty to the nation. For those who voted against may get the punishment in forms of losing jobs. Workers' Party led by Kim family hold the majority of votes in every election and the Supreme People's Assembly determines its dominant political power over North Korea; the table below shows the latest result in Supreme People's Assembly election. Total turnout is 99.99%. The secret police agency is an autonomous and separate agency, attached to the State Security Department in North Korea. According to the testimony of a former secret police instructor Kong Thak-ho, the selection process of secret police is based on the loyalty to the ruling party and Kim family, but the specific skills regarding police work are least important; the potential candidates will be investigated through relative's six generations and there must be someone holding the important position.

One of the main duties is to crackdown the political criminals who defy the Kim family and feel discontented with the regime. The secret police agency is authorised to go through special tribunal and report directly to Kim Jong-un. Secret police with a high ranking are responsible to censor all the publications in North Korea and grant approval. Another duty of secret police is to run the concentration camp in North Korea, they train the guards to maltreat the prisoners and guards will get punishment if they feel sympathy with the inmates' misfortune. North Korea official claims itself as atheistic; the religion in North Korea is hard to be observed by outsiders because of its extreme isolation from the world. Under the estimation carried out by Religious Intelligence UK, the majority of North Koreans are not religious. Korean shamanism and Chondoism are main religions and Buddhism and Christianity are being the minority; the table below illustrates the estimation of populations of religions in North Korea in the 2000s.

Party of the Young Friends of the Heavenly Way is the political embodiment of Chondoism, approved as the' national religion' by the state. The official compliments the unique characteristics of Chondoism, complying with the features of communism as minjung and revolutionary anti-imperialist; the development of Buddhism tradition in North Korea differs from the development in South Korea since the separation of the country. Buddhism activities are funded and authorised by the official Korea Buddhist Federat

Irukandji jellyfish

Irukandji jellyfish are any of several similar venomous species of box jellyfish. With an adult size of about a cubic centimeter, they are both the smallest and one of the most venomous jellyfish in the world, they inhabit the northern marine waters of Australia. They are able to fire their stingers into their victim, causing symptoms collectively known as Irukandji syndrome. There are about 16 known species of Irukandji, of which Carukia barnesi, Malo kingi, Malo maxima, Malo filipina and Malo bella are the best-known; the symptoms of Irukandji syndrome were first documented by Hugo Flecker in 1952. They were named after the Irukandji people, whose country stretches along the coastal strip north of Cairns, Queensland; the first of these jellyfish, Carukia barnesi, was identified in 1964 by Jack Barnes. Australian toxinologist Jamie Seymour made a documentary about the jellyfish called'Killer Jellyfish'. In 2015, North Queensland researchers discovered evidence that Irukandji jellyfish hunt prey.

The Irukandji jellyfish exists in the northern waters of Australia. The southern extent of the Irukandji's range on Australia's eastern coast has been moving south. Irukandji jellyfish are small, with a bell about 5 millimetres to 25 millimetres wide and four long tentacles, which range in length from just a few centimetres up to 1 metre in length. Malo maxima mature irukandji have halo-like rings of tissue around their four tentacles, it is the mature Irukandji that are venomous. Apparent Malo maxima juveniles have been identified without the halo-rings, without gonads, have demonstrated far weaker toxicity in stinging researchers; the stingers are in clumps, appearing as rings of small red dots around the bell and along the tentacles. The Irukandji's small size and transparent body make it difficult to see in the water. Little is known about the life cycle and venom of Irukandji jellyfish; this is because they are small and fragile, requiring special handling and containment. Their venom is powerful.

They were erroneously blamed for killing 5 tourists during a 3-month period in Australia. In fact, no evidence exists to suggest that any of the five victims displayed two universal features of Irukandji syndrome: delayed onset and visible distress. Researchers conjecture that the venom possesses such potency to enable it to stun its prey, which consists of small and fast fish. Judging from statistics, it is believed that the Irukandji syndrome may be produced by several species of jellyfish, but only Carukia barnesi and Malo kingi have so far been proven to cause the condition. Unlike most jellyfish, which have stingers only on their tentacles, the Irukandji has stingers on its bell. Biologists have yet to discover the purpose of this unique characteristic; the hypothesis is that the feature enables the jellyfish to be more to catch its prey of small fish. Irukandji jellyfish have the ability to fire stingers from the tips of their tentacles and inject venom. Irukandji jellyfish's stings are so severe they can cause fatal brain hemorrhages and on average send 50-100 people to the hospital annually.

Robert Drewe describes the sting as "100 times as potent as that of a cobra and 1,000 times stronger than a tarantula's". Irukandji syndrome is produced by a small amount of venom and induces excruciating muscle cramps in the arms and legs, severe pain in the back and kidneys, a burning sensation of the skin and face, nausea, sweating, vomiting, an increase in heart rate and blood pressure, psychological phenomena such as the feeling of impending doom; the syndrome is in part caused by release of catecholamines. The venom contains a sodium channel modulator; the sting is moderately irritating. The symptoms last from hours to weeks, victims require hospitalisation. Contrary to belief, researchers from James Cook University and Cairns hospital in far north Queensland have found that vinegar promotes the discharge of jellyfish venom. "You can increase the venom load in your victim by 50 per cent," says Associate Professor Jamie Seymour from the Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine at the university.

"That's a big amount, that's enough to make the difference, we think, between someone surviving and somebody dying." However, other research indicates that while vinegar may increase the discharge from triggered stingers, it prevents untriggered stingers from discharging. Treatment is symptomatic, with antihistamines and anti-hypertensive drugs used to control inflammation and hypertension. Magnesium sulfate has been used to reduce pain and hypertension in Irukandji syndrome, although it has had no effect in other cases. Irukandji jellyfish are found near the coast, attracted by the warmer water, but blooms have been seen as far as five kilometres offshore; when properly treated, a single sting is not fatal, but two people in Australia are believed to have died from Irukandji stings in 2002 during a rash of incidents on Australia's northern coast attributed to these jellyfish—greatly increasing public awareness of I

Third Development Cabinet

The Third Development Cabinet was the Indonesian Cabinet which served under President Suharto and Vice President Adam Malik. The Cabinet was formed after Suharto was elected to a third term as president by the People's Consultative Assembly; the establishment of an environment and a situation which will ensure social justice for the people through the equity of Development and its results. The accomplishment of high economic growth; the consolidation of an stronger National Stability. The creation of a clean and legitimate State Apparatus; the continuing development of a stronger national unity and oneness with the Guide to Learn and Apply Pancasila as its foundation. The holding of a direct, universal and secret Legislative Election with the aim of strengthening Pancasila Democracy. Further developing a free and active foreign policy for the sake of National Interest and with the aim of strengthening National Resilience. President: Gen. Suharto Vice President: Adam Malik Coordinating Minister of Politics and Security: Gen. Maraden Panggabean Coordinating Minister of Economics and Industry/Chairman of the National Development Planning Body: Widjojo Nitisastro Coordinating Minister of People's Welfare: Gen. Surono Minister of Home Affairs: Gen. Amirmachmud Minister of Foreign Affairs: Mochtar Kusumaatmadja Minister of Defense and Security/Commander of the Armed Forces of the Republic: Gen. M. Jusuf Minister of Justice: Mujono Minister of Information: Lt. Gen. Ali Murtopo Minister of Finance: Ali Wardhana Minister of Trade and Cooperatives: Radius Prawiro Minister of Agriculture: Sudarsono Hadisaputro Minister of Industry: Suhud Minister of Mines and Energy: Subroto Minister of Public Works: Purnomosidi Hadisaroso Minister of Transportation: Air Marshal Rusmin Nurjadin Minister of Education and Culture: Daoed Joesoef Minister of Health: Suwardjono Suryaningrat Minister of Religious Affairs: Lt. Gen. Alamsjah Prawiranegara Minister of Social Affairs: Sapardjo State Minister/State Secretary: Lt. Gen. Sudharmono State Minister of State Apparatus Control: J. B.

Sumarlin State Minister of Development Supervision and Environment: Emil Salim State Minister of Research and Technology: B. J. Habibie Junior Minister of Housing: Cosmas Batubara Junior Minister of Cooperatives: Maj. Gen. Bustanil Arifin Junior Minister of Female Empowerment: Lasijah Susanto Junior Minister of Youth Affairs: Lt. Col. Abdul Gafur Attorney General: Ali Said Governor of the Central Bank: Rachmat Saleh Commander of the Operational Command for the Restoration of Security and Order: Admiral Sudomo KOPKAMTIB Chief of Staff: Maj. Gen. Daryatmo May 1978: Daryatmo retired from the armed forces as KOPKAMTIB Chief of Staff to assume the office of Chairman of MPR/Speaker of the People's Representative Council, he was replaced by Lt. Gen. Yoga Sugama. October 1982: Amirmachmud resigned as Minister of Home Affairs and became Chairman of MPR/Speaker of DPR, replacing Daryatmo. Sudharmono was appointed to the Ministry of Home Affairs. Simanjuntak, P. N. H. Kabinet-Kabinet Republik Indonesia: Dari Awal Kemerdekaan Sampai Reformasi, Jakarta: Djambatan, pp. 344–357, ISBN 979-428-499-8

Kundol Lake

Kundol Lake known as Kundol Dand, is a lake in Swat Valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, located in the north of Utror valley at a distance of 20.8 kilometres away from kalam. There is a well known story about the lake, that every night in a month, a golden bowl appears in the center of the lake and glistens like moon but no one has touched that bowl due to magical powers inside it. Kundol Lake lies in the lap of Hindu kush mountains at an elevation of, in the north of Utror, encompassed by snow clad mountains and towering trees; the trail to the lake from Ladu is easy to follow as a large stream flows down from the lake, which merges with River Swat in Kalam valley. It takes you to the lake. On the way, lush green forests, picturesque spots and gushing waterfalls welcome one's to the region; the mountains around the lake are covered by thick blanket of vegetation that enhances the beauty of the lake much. The margins of kundol lake serve as the camping site during the summer season for the trekkers. Kundol lake is fed by melting springs of the Mount Hindu kush.

It gives rise to utror Khwar, the major right tributary of the Swat River. Kundol Lake is accessible only during the summer, it can be accessed by unmetalled road from Kalam up to Utror in a four-wheel automotive where a link road ends in a green valley called Ladu in the foothills of the mountain. Earlier, jeeps used to go till a higher village called Ladu but now bridge and jeep track is destroyed due to floods and rains. One way track time is around 2 to 3hrs till the lake. There are small refreshment huts in Ladu valley where one can take tea and get something for eating. From Ladu it takes four to six hours to reach the lake; the mountains around this small valley are covered with tall pine trees. Lake Saiful Muluk - Kaghan Valley Dudipatsar Lake - Kaghan Valley Katora Lake - Kumrat Valley Mahodand Lake - Kalam Valley Daral Lake - Swat Valley List of lakes in Pakistan