The terms Muslim world and Islamic world refer to the Islamic community, consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced. In a modern geopolitical sense, these terms refer to countries where Islam is widespread, although there are no agreed criteria for inclusion; the term Muslim-majority countries is an alternative used for the latter sense. The history of the Muslim world spans about 1400 years and includes a variety of socio-political developments, as well as advances in the arts, science and technology during the Islamic Golden Age. All Muslims look for guidance to the Quran and believe in the prophetic mission of Muhammad, but disagreements on other matters have led to appearance of different religious schools and branches within Islam. In the modern era, most of the Muslim world came under influence or colonial domination of European powers; the nation states that emerged in the post-colonial era have adopted a variety of political and economic models, they have been affected by secular and as well as religious trends.
As of 2013, the combined GDP of 49 Muslim majority countries was US$5.7 trillion, As of 2016, they contributed 8% of the world's total. As of 2019, 1.9 billion or about 24.4% of the world population are Muslims. By the percentage of the total population in a region considering themselves Muslim, 91% in the Middle East-North Africa, 89% in Central Asia, 40% in Southeast Asia, 31% in South Asia, 30% in Sub-Saharan Africa, 25% in Asia–Oceania, around 6% in Europe, 1% in the Americas. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Muslims are the overwhelming majority in Central Asia, the majority in the Caucasus and widespread in Southeast Asia. India is the country with the largest Muslim population outside Muslim-majority countries, having about 200 million Muslims. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, China and Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Muslim history involves the history of the Islamic faith: as it was revealed 1400 years ago as a religion and as a social institution.
The history of Islam began its development in the Arabian Peninsula when the Islamic prophet Muhammad received the first revelation of the Quran in the 7th century in the cave of Hira in the month of Ramadan. According to Islamist tradition, he was commanded by Allah to convey this message to the people of Mecca and others around it, to be patient with those hostile to it; these included the leaders and supporters of the Quraysh: the ruling tribe of Mecca, who opposed the assertion of tawhid and abolishing what Muhammed branded "idolatry", meaning the worship of gods other than Allah at the Kaaba, such as Hubal and the goddesses al-Lāt, Al-‘Uzzá and Manāt. After a little more than 13 years spreading this message, with increased persecution by the Quraysh and his followers migrated to Medina to establish a new state under the prophet's leadership and away from persecution; this migration in 622, called the Hijra, marks the first year of the Islamic calendar. Islam spread to other parts of the Arabian Peninsula over the course of Muhammad's life.
After Muhammad died in 632, his successors continued to lead the Muslim community based on his teachings and guidelines of the Quran. The majority of Muslims consider the first four successors to be'rightly guided' or Rashidun; the Rashidun Caliphate's conquests spread Islam beyond the Arabian Peninsula, stretching from northwest India, across Central Asia, the Near East, North Africa, southern Italy, the Iberian Peninsula, to the Pyrenees. The Arab Muslims were unable to conquer the entire Christian Byzantine Empire in Asia Minor, however; the succeeding Umayyad Caliphate attempted two failed sieges of Constantinople in 674–678 and 717–718. Meanwhile, the Muslim community tore itself apart into the rivalling Sunni and Shia sects since the killing of caliph Uthman in 656, resulting in a succession crisis that has never been resolved; the following First and Third Fitnas and the Abbasid Revolution definitively destroyed the political unity of the Muslims, who have been inhabiting multiple states since.
Ghaznavids' rule was succeeded by the Ghurid Empire of Muhammad of Ghor and Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad, whose reigns under the leadership of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji extended until the Bengal, where Indian Islamic missionaries achieved their greatest success in terms of dawah and number of converts to Islam. Qutb-ud-din Aybak conquered Delhi in 1206 and began the reign of the Delhi Sultanate, a successive series of dynasties that synthesized Indian civilization with the wider commercial and cultural networks of Africa and Eurasia increased demographic and economic growth in India and deterred Mongol incursion into the prosperous Indo-Gangetic plain and enthroned one of the few female Muslim rulers, Razia Sultana. Notable major empires dominated by Muslims, such as those of the Abbasids, Almoravids, Ajuran and Warsangali in Somalia, Mughals in the Indian subcontinent, Safavids in Persia and Ottomans in Anatolia, were among the influential and distinguished powers in the world. 19th-century colonialism and 20th-century decolonisation have resulted in several independent Muslim-majority states around the world, with vastly differing attitudes towards and political influences granted to, or restricted for, Islam fro
The Gulf of Saint Euphemia is a gulf on the west coast of Calabria, southern Italy. It is part of the Tyrrhenian Sea and borders the province of Cosenza, the province of Catanzaro, the province of Vibo Valentia; the gulf extends from Campora San Giovanni in the north to Capo Vaticano in the south. The rivers Savuto and Angitola flow into the gulf; some of the important towns and cities near the gulf include Lamezia Terme, Vibo Valentia, Tropea. The land bordering the gulf is mountainous in the south with a plain in the middle. A narrow isthmus lies between the Gulf of Saint Euphemia and the Gulf of Squillace
The Citroën C3 R5 is a rally car built by Citroën World Rally Team. It is built to R5 regulations; the car made its début at the 2018 Tour de Corse where it was driven by the French crews of Stéphane Lefebvre and Gabin Moreau, Yoann Bonato and Benjamin Boulloud. In early 2017, Citroën began the development of the C3 R5; the C3 would be designed to improve on the previous offerings of Groupe PSA in the R5 discipline, the Peugeot 208 T16 and the Citroën DS3 R5, both of which proved problematic and unpopular with R5 customers. The C3 had little relation to its predecessor, the DS3. Throughout summer 2017, Citroën Racing Technologies employed factory Citroën drivers Stéphane Lefebvre and Craig Breen as part of the development team for the C3, along with Yoann Bonato, hired for the project; the first working model was completed in September of 2017, a month the test C3 made its public debut at the Rallye du Var, with Bonato driving a few stages as a non-competitive entrant to the rally. The Citroën C3 R5 passed international homologation on January 1st, 2018, was now ready for competition.
It made its competitive rallying debut at the Tour de Corse in April of that year, with Yoann Bonato taking second place in the WRC-2 class, 10th overall in the rally. Including the original test cars, a total of 26 C3s have been constructed as of May 1st, 2019, with 22 having been sold to independent teams. In the hands of Yoann Bonato, the C3 won the French Rally Championship in 2018, continues to be used by the Citroën World Rally Team in the WRC-2 Pro class of the World Rally Championship, in the hands of Mads Østberg. Mads Østberg would give the C3 its first World Championship-level victory at the 2019 Rally Argentina. - * scored points with different entries. - ** season still in progress. Citroën C3 WRC Group R Ford Fiesta R5 Hyundai i20 R5 Škoda Fabia R5 Volkswagen Polo GTI R5 Rally results of Citroën C3 R5
Minuscule 516, ε 144, is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 11th century. Scrivener labelled it with the number 502, it was adapted for liturgical use. The codex contains the complete text of the four Gospels on 287 parchment leaves with only one lacunae; the text is written in one column per page, 23 lines per page, in a elegant hand. The text is divided according to the κεφαλαια numbers of at the margin, the τιτλοι at the top of the pages. There is a division according to the Ammonian Sections, with references to the Eusebian Canons, it contains the Epistula ad Carpianum, the Eusebian tables are given at the beginning of the manuscript, tables of the κεφαλαια are placed before each Gospel, lectionary markings at the margin, Synaxarion and pictures. The Greek text of the codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type. Hermann von Soden included it to the textual family Kx. Aland placed it in Category V. According to the Claremont Profile Method it represents textual family Kx in Luke 1 and Luke 20.
In Luke 10 no profile was made. It was corrected by hand to Kr, it is dated by the INTF to the 11th century. In 1727 the manuscript came from Constantinople to England and was presented to archbishop of Canterbury, William Wake, together with the manuscripts 73, 74, 506-520. Wake presented it to the Christ Church College in Oxford; the manuscript was added to the list of New Testament minuscule manuscripts by F. H. A. Scrivener and C. R. Gregory. Gregory saw it in 1883, it is housed at the Christ Church in Oxford. List of New Testament minuscules Biblical manuscript Textual criticism Gregory, Caspar René. Textkritik des Neuen Testaments. 1. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung. P. 198. "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 2015-10-22
In Windows 8.1, apps can continually be resized to the desired width. Snapped apps may occupy half of the screen. Large screens allow up to four apps to be snapped. Upon launching an app, Windows allows the user to pick; the term "Metro-style apps" referred to "Metro", a design language prominently used by Windows 8 and other recent Microsoft products. Reports surfaced that Microsoft employees were told to stop using the term due to potential trademark issues with an unspecified partner. A Microsoft spokesperson however, denied these reports and stated that "Metro-style" was a codename for the new application platform. Windows 8 introduces APIs to support near field communication on Windows 8 devices, allowing functionality like launching URLs/applications and sharing of information between devices via NFC. Windows Store is a digital distribution platform built into Windows 8, which in a manner similar to Apple's App Store and Google Play, allows for the distribution and purchase of apps designed for Windows 8.
Developers will still be able to advertise desktop software through Windows Store as well. To ensure that they are secure and of a high quality, Windows Store will be the only means of distributing WinRT-based apps for consumer-oriented versions of Windows 8. In Windows 8.1, Windows Store features a redesigned interface with improved app discovery and recommendations and offers automatic updates for apps. Windows 8 features a redesigned user interface built upon the Metro design language, with optimizations for touchscreens. Metro-style apps can either run in a full-screen environment, or be snapped to the side of a screen alongside another app or the desktop. Windows 8.1 lowers the snapping requirement to a screen resolution of 1024x768. Users can switch between apps and the desktop by clicking on the top left corner or by swiping the left side of the touchscreen to invoke a sidebar that displays all opened Metro-style apps. Right-clicking on the upper left corner provides a context menu with options to switch between open apps.
The traditional desktop is accessible by launching a desktop app. The Alt+Tab ↹ shortcut cycles through all programs, regardless of type; the interface incorporates a taskbar on the right side of the screen known as "the charms", which can be accessed from any app or the desktop by sliding from the right edge of a touchscreen or compatible trackpad, by moving the mouse cursor to one of the right corners of the screen, or by pressing ⊞ Win+C. The charms include Search, Start and Settings charms; the Start charm dismisses the Start screen. Other charms invoke context-sensitive sidebars that can be used to access app and system functionality; because of the aforementioned changes involving the use of hot corners, user interface navigation in Windows 8 is fundamentally different when compared with previous versions of Windows. To assist new users of the operating system, Microsoft incorporated a tutorial that appears during the installation of Windows 8, during the first sign-in of a new user account, which visually instructs users to move their mouse cursor into any corner of the screen to interact with the operating system.
The tutorial can be disabled. Windows 8.1 introduces navigation hints with instructions that are displayed during the first use of the operating system, includes a help and support app. In Windows 8.1, the aforementioned hotspots in the upper right and the upper left corners can be disabled. Pressing ⊞ Win+X or right-clicking on the bottom left corner of the screen opens the Quick Link menu; this menu contains shortcuts to used areas such as Control Panel, File Explorer and Features, Search, Power Options and Task Manager. In Windows 8.1, the Quick Link menu includes options to restart a device. Windows 8.1 Update introduced changes that facilitate mouse-oriented means of switching between and closing Metro-style apps, patterned upon the mechanics used by desktop programs in the Windows user interlace. In lieu of the recent apps sidebar, computer icons for opened apps can be displayed on the taskbar; when a mouse is connected, an auto-hiding titlebar with minimize and close buttons is displayed within apps when the mouse is moved toward the top of the screen.
A number of apps are included in the standard installation of Windows 8, including Mail, Pe
March of Progress is the ninth studio album by progressive metal band Threshold. It is the first studio album on which original lead vocalist Damian Wilson sings since his return in 2007, it is their second album on their current label, Nuclear Blast. The Limited Edition includes a bonus track, "Divinity." "Ashes" – 6:51 "Return Of The Thought Police" – 6:09 "Staring At The Sun" – 4:25 "Liberty, Dependency" – 7:48 "Colophon" – 6:00 "The Hours" – 8:15 "That's Why We Came" – 5:40 "Don't Look Down" – 8:12 "Coda" – 5:24 "The Rubicon" - 10:25 "Divinity" - 06:27Bonus track on Limited Edition US and Digipack releases. Damian Wilson - lead vocals Karl Groom - guitar, backing vocals Richard West - keyboards Johanne James - drums Steve Anderson - bass guitar Pete Morten - guitar