Muslin mousseline or Malmal, is a cotton fabric of plain weave. It is made in a wide range of weights from delicate sheers to coarse sheeting. Muslins were imported into Europe from Bengal and Odisha, in the eastern regions of the Indian subcontinent, during much of the 17th and 18th centuries and were manufactured in Scotland and England. While English-speakers call it muslin because Europeans believed it originated in the Iraqi city of Mosul, its origins are now thought to have been farther east — in particular Dhaka and Murshidabad. Dhaka's jamdani muslin, with its distinctive patterns woven in layer by layer, was one of the Mughal Empire’s most prestigious and lucrative exports. Early muslin was handwoven of uncommonly delicate handspun yarn. In 2013, the traditional art of weaving Jamdani muslin in Bangladesh was included in the list of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO. Muslin from French mousseline, from Italian mussolina, from Mussolo ‘Mosul’. Although this view has the fabric named after the city where Europeans first encountered it, the fabric is believed to have originated in Dhaka, the capital of present-day Bangladesh.
In the prehistoric period, a mother goddess figurine from Indus Valley Civilisation appears to be draped in a thin tight tunic top compared to her skirt which exposes her bosoms which maybe a cloth-like muslin. Muslin is depicted in terracotta figurines as early as 2nd century BCE in Chandraketugarh, an archaeological site in modern-day West Bengal, India. In the fifth century Sigiriya painting depicts royal females drapped in muslin. In the 9th century, an Arab merchant named. Bengali muslin was traded from the Middle East to Southeast Asia. In many Islamic regions, such as in Central Asia, the cloth was named Daka, after the city of Dhaka. During the Roman period, muslin was the foremost export of Masulipatam, in Andhra Pradesh, India. Bengali khadi muslin was so prized by well-dressed ladies of Rome that according to Roman legend, "an ounce of muslin used to sell in Rome for an ounce of gold". In 1298 CE, Marco Polo described the cloth in his book The Travels, he said it was made in Iraq. The 16th-century English traveler Ralph Fitch lauded the muslin.
During the 17th and 18th centuries, Mughal Bengal emerged as the foremost muslin exporter in the world, with Mughal Dhaka as capital of the worldwide muslin trade. It became popular in 18th-century France and spread across much of the Western world. Under British rule, the British East India company could not compete with local muslin with their own export of cloth to the Indian subcontinent; the colonial government favored imports of British textiles. Colonial authorities attempted to suppress the local weaving culture. Muslin production declined and the knowledge of weaving was nearly eradicated, it is alleged that in some instances the weavers were rounded up and their thumbs chopped off, although this has been refuted as an alleged misreading of a report from 1772. The Bengali muslin industry was suppressed by various colonial policies; as a result, the quality of muslin suffered and the finesse of the cloth was lost. There have been various attempts at reviving the muslin industry in modern Bangladesh.
In the present day, many different types of muslins are produced in many different places, including Dhaka. The word muslin is used colloquially. In the United Kingdom, many sheer cotton fabrics are called muslin, while in the United States, muslin sometimes refers to a firm cloth for everyday use, which in the UK and Australia is known as calico; when sewing clothing, a dressmaker may test the fit of a garment, using an inexpensive muslin fabric before cutting pieces from expensive fabric, thereby avoiding potential costly mistakes. This garment is called a "muslin," and the process is called "making a muslin." In this context, "muslin" has become the generic term for a test or fitting garment, regardless of what it is made from. Muslin is often used as a backing or lining for quilts, thus can be found in wide widths in the quilting sections of fabric stores. In Asia, Muslin is used for making sarees. Bengali or Dhakai Muslin Saree is popular in Asia. Muslin is used as a French polishing pad. Muslin can be used as a filter: In a funnel when decanting fine wine or port to prevent sediment from entering the decanter To separate liquid from mush To retain a liquidy solid Muslin is the material for the traditional cloth wrapped around a Christmas pudding.
Muslin is the fabric wrapped around the items in barmbrack, a fruitcake traditionally eaten at Halloween in Ireland. Muslin is used. Beekeepers use muslin to filter melted beeswax to clean it of particles and debris. Muslin is the cloth of choice for theater sets, it is used to establish the mood or feel of different scenes. It receives paint well and, can be made translucent, it holds dyes well. It is used to create nighttime scenes because when dyed, it gets a wavy look with the color varying such that it resembles a night sky. Muslin shrinks after it is painted or sprayed with water, desirable in some common techniqu
The Anglican Church of St George in Sampford Brett, England was built around 1300. It is a Grade II* listed building; the parish Church of St George was built around 1300, dedicated in 1306. The north transept and tower were added in the late early 15th centuries. In the 1830s and 1840s the chancel and west end of the nave were rebuilt; the west porch and organ chamber were restored between 1960 and 1962 following damage during World War II. The west windows were rebuilt in 1967; the parish is part of Quantock Towers benefice within the Diocese of Wells. The stone building has slate roofs; the two-stage tower has exposed quoins. The walls and gates around the church were added in the mid 19th century. In the churchyard is celtic style cross, erected in 1919 and serves as the war memorial for the village. List of ecclesiastical parishes in the Diocese of Bath and Wells
Radnički Nogometni Klub Split known as RNK Split, is a Croatian football club based in the city of Split. The club had a strong fanbase in the Split's shipyard; the club was founded on 16 April 1912 as Anarch, but has had several names like Borac, Jug, HAŠK, Arsenal since then. During the Spanish Civil War, RNK Split organized an unsuccessful expedition of his volunteers for the fight on the side of the anti-fascist coalition against Francisco Franco's forces. In World War II, the club became well-known because 120 of its players were killed fighting on the side of Josip Broz Tito's Partisans, fighting against Axis forces. After achieving three consecutive promotions from 2008 to 2010, the club went from playing in Croatia's fourth tier to playing in the Croatian First League, Croatia's top division. In the team's first season in the top flight in the 2010–11 season, they achieved a respectable third spot; because of its finish that season, they qualified to play for Europe for the first time in the club's existence and entered into the 2011–12 UEFA Europa League second qualifying round where they met Slovenian side Domžale.
They won 5–2 on aggregate and in the third qualifying round they were drawn against Premier League side Fulham, whom they lost to 2–0 on aggregate. In the 2014–15 season, the club managed to reach the Europa League playoff round after defeating Mika, Hapoel Be'er Sheva and Chornomorets Odesa, but lost 1–0 on aggregate to Italian Serie A side Torino. Founded as HRŠD "Anarch", the club's first colors were black. HRŠD stood for Hrvatsko radničko športsko društvo. In 1933, as influence of "red" youth grew stronger, the club changed its colors to all red and its name to Radnički nogometni klub Split. During SFR Yugoslavia RNK Split played in the top football division four times, but did not win a Championship or Cup title; the biggest success in the Yugoslav Cup was in the season of 1960–61, when they lost in the semi-finals against the Macedonian team Vardar in the game on Vardar's home stadium. 1. HNL Third place: 2010–11 Croatian Football Cup Runners-up: 2014–15 Yugoslav Second League Winner: 1956–57, 1959–60 Croatian Republic Football League Winner: 1983–84 2.
HNL Winner: 1996–97, 1997–98, 2009–10 3. HNL Winner: 2008–09 4. HNL Winner: 2007–08 Source: uefa.com, Last updated on 28 August 2014Pld = Matches played.