Sunan Abu Dawood
Sunan Abu Dawood is one of the Kutub al-Sittah, collected by Abu Dawood. Abu Dawood compiled twenty-one books related to Hadith and preferred those ahadith which were supported by the example of the companions of Muhammad; as for the contradictory ahadith, he states under the heading of'Meat acquired by hunting for a pilgrim': "if there are two contradictory reports from the Prophet, an investigation should be made to establish what his companions have adopted". He wrote in his letter to the people of Mecca "I have disclosed wherever there was too much weakness in regard to any tradition in my collection, but if I happen to leave a Hadith without any comment, it should be considered as sound, albeit some of them are more authentic than others". Hadith Mursal has been a matter of discussion among the traditionists. Abu Dawood states in his letter to the people of Mecca: "if a Musnad Hadith is not contrary to a Mursal or a Musnad Hadith is not found the Mursal Hadith will be accepted though it would not be considered as strong as a Muttasil Hadith".
The traditions in Sunan Abu Dawood are divided in three categories. The first category consists of those traditions that Muslim; the second type of traditions are those which fulfil the conditions of Muslim. At this juncture, it should be remembered that Bukhari said, "I only included in my book Sahih Bukhari authentic traditions, left out many more authentic ones than these to avoid unnecessary length". Abu Dawood included only 4,800 in this collection. Sunnis regard this collection as fourth in strength of their six major hadith collections, it took Abu Dawod 20 years to collect the hadiths. He made a series of journeys to meet most of the foremost traditionists of his time and acquired from them the most reliable hadiths, quoting sources through which it reached him. Since the author collected hadiths which no one had assembled together, his sunan has been accepted as a standard work by scholars from many parts of the Islamic world after Ibn al-Qaisarani's inclusion of it in the formal canonization of the six major collections.
Sunan Abu Dawood has been translated into numerous languages. The Australian Islamic Library has collected 11 commentaries on this book in Arabic and Indonesian. Sahih Bukhari Sahih Muslim Jami al-Tirmidhi Sunan al-Sughra Either: Sunan ibn Majah, Muwatta Malik Arabic Wikisource has original text related to this article: Sunan Abu Dawud Translation and Commentaries in English, Urdu and Indonesian Languages English translation of Sunan Abu Dawud
Sahih Muslim is one of the Kutub al-Sittah in Sunni Islam. It is acclaimed by Sunni Muslims as well as Zaidi Shia Muslims, it is considered the second most authentic hadith collection after Sahih al-Bukhari. It was collected by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj known as Imam Muslim. Sahih Muslim, together with Sahih al-Bukhari is termed as Sahihayn; the collector of the Sahih Muslim, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, was born into a Persian family in 204 AH in Nishapur and died in 261 AH in the city of his birth. He traveled to gather his collection of ahadith, including to areas now in Iraq, the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt. Out of 300,000 hadith which he evaluated 4,000 were extracted for inclusion into his collection based on stringent acceptance criteria; each report in his collection was checked and the veracity of the chain of reporters was painstakingly established. Sunni Muslims consider it the second most authentic hadith collection, after Sahih al-Bukhari. Sahih Muslim is divided into 43 books. However, it is important to realize that Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj never claimed to collect all authentic traditions as his goal was to collect only traditions that all Muslims should agree on about accuracy.
According to Munthiri, there are a total of 2,200 hadiths in Sahih Muslim. According to Muhammad Amin, there are 1,400 authentic hadiths that are reported in other books the six major hadith collections. Many Muslims regard this collection as the second most authentic of the six major hadith collections, containing only sahih hadith, an honor it shares only with Sahih al-Bukhari, both being referred to as the Two Sahihs. Shia Muslims dismiss some of its contents as fabrications or untrustworthy due to the questionable reliability of some narrators. Despite the book's high stature, the consensus of scholars on that it is the second most valid categorized book of Hadith, after Sahih al-Bukhari, it is agreed upon that this does not mean that every element in it is true, in comparison to other Hadith books, but means that the book as a whole is valid; such as the preference of Sahih al-Bukhari to Sahih Muslim, which does not mean that every Hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari is more valid than every Hadith in Sahih Muslim, but that the total of what is contained Sahih al-Bukhari is more valid than the total of what is contained in Sahih Muslim, the validity of a certain Hadith form the two books of Hadith, over Hadith from other Sahih books, can not be inferred except after the correctness of that particular Hadith is shown.
Amin Ahsan Islahi, the noted Islamic scholar, has summarized some unique features of Sahih Muslim: Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj recorded only such narratives as were reported by two reliable successors from two Sahabah which subsequently travelled through two independent unbroken isnāds consisting of sound narrators. Muhammad al-Bukhari has not followed such a strict criterion. Scientific arrangement of themes and chapters; the author, for example, selects a proper place for the narrative and, next to it, puts all its versions. Muhammad al-Bukhari has not followed this method. Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj informs us. For example, he says: haddathanā fulān wa fulān wallafz lifulān, he mentions whether, in a particular hadīth, the narrators have differed over the wordings over a single letter of zero semantic significance. He informs the readers if narrators have differed over a specific quality, relation or any other fact about a narrator in the chain. Siyanah Sahih Muslim by Ibn al-Salah, of which only the beginning segment remains Al Minhaj Be Sharh Sahih Muslim by Al-Nawawi.
Fath al-Mulhim by Shabbir Ahmad Usmani. Takmilat Fath al-Mulhim by Muhammad Taqi Usmani. Summarized Sahih Muslim by Abd-al-Hamid Siddiqui; the text is used in the USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts. Sharh Sahih Muslim by Allama Ghulam Rasool Saeedi Tafsir al-gharib ma fi al-Sahihayn by Al-HumaydīTranslations of commentaries of Sahih Muslims are available in numerous languages including English, Bangla and Bosnian. Kutub al-Sittah Sahih al-Bukhari Jami al-Tirmidhi Sunan al-Sughra Either: Sunan ibn Majah, Muwatta Malik http://sunnah.com/muslim https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=66a9EKs0cu0 Life of Imam Muslim by Navaid Aziz https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PsMxmp3GSjY English translation with Arabic text English translation English translation with Arabic text pdf books English Translation of the Introduction to Sahih Muslim English translation with Arabic text English translation from Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement
Man La Yahduruhu al-Faqih
Man Lā Yahḍuruhū al-Faqīh is a Hadith collection by the famous Twelver Shia Hadith scholar Abu Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn ʿAli ibn Babawayh al-Qummi known as Ibn Babawayh or Sheikh al-Saduq. This work is included among the Four Books of Twelver Shia Islam; the book name means "Him who does not have a scholar in his presence". Some have translated the title as "Every man his own lawyer". In his introduction to the book the author explains the circumstances of its composition and the reason for its title; when he was at Ilaq near Balkh, he met Sharif al-Din Abu'Abd Allah known as Ni'mah. He brought a book compiled by Muhammad b. Zakharia al-Razi entitled Man la yahduruhu al-Tabeeb or Every man his own doctor to the attention of Shaikh al-Saduq, he asked him to compile a book on Fiqh, The Halal and the Haram and al-shara-i' wa-'l-ahkam which would draw on all the works which the Shaikh earlier had composed on the subject. This book would function as a work of reference. Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih is concerned with Furoo al-Din.
The book is meant to be a reference book to help ordinary Shia Muslims in the practise of the legal requirements of Islam. The Isnad's is absent. Thus, the book is a summary of the study of legal traditions. Shaikh al-Saduq himself said about his work: I compiled the book without Isnads so that the chains should not be too many and so that the book's advantages might be abundant. I did not have the usual intention of compilers to put forward everything which they narrate but my intention was to put forward those things by which I gave legal opinions and which I judged to be correct Shi'a regards this book as among the most reliable Hadith collections. Thus, the book is included in The Four Books of the Shi'a, together with Al-Kafi, Al-Istibsar and Tahdhib al-Ahkam; as with all Hadith collections, there is no guarantee of the authenticity of each individual hadith and the reliability of each must be separately assessed. List of Shia books The Four Books Al-Istibsar Kitab al-Kafi Tahdhib al-Ahkam
Ḥadīth in Islam are the record of the words and silent approval, traditionally attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Within Islam the authority of hadith as a source for religious law and moral guidance ranks second only to that of the Quran. Quranic verses enjoin Muslims to emulate Muhammad and obey his judgments, providing scriptural authority for hadith. While the number of verses pertaining to law in the Quran is few, hadiths give direction on everything from details of religious obligations, to the correct forms of salutations and the importance of benevolence to slaves, thus the "great bulk" of the rules of Sharia are derived from ahadith, rather than the Quran.Ḥadith is the Arabic word for speech, account, narrative. Unlike the Quran, not all Muslims believe. Hadiths were not written down by Muhammad's followers after his death but several generations when they were collected and compiled into a great corpus of Islamic literature. Different collections of hadith would come to differentiate the different branches of the Islamic faith.
A small minority of Muslims called. Because some ahadith include questionable and contradictory statements, the authentication of ahadith became a major field of study in Islam. In its classic form a hadith has two parts — the chain of narrators who have transmitted the report, the main text of the report. Individual hadith are classified by Muslim clerics and jurists into categories such as sahih, hasan or da'if. However, different groups and different scholars may classify a hadith differently. Among some scholars of Sunni Islam, the term hadith may include not only the supposed words, practices, etc. of Muhammad, but those of his companions. In Shia Islam, hadith is the embodiment of the sunnah, the words and actions of the Prophet and his family the Ahl al-Bayt. In Arabic, the noun ḥadīth means "report", "account", or "narrative", its Arabic plural is aḥādīth. Hadith refers to the speech of a person. In Islamic terminology, according to Juan Campo, the term hadith refers to reports of statements or actions of Muhammad, or of his tacit approval or criticism of something said or done in his presence.
Classical hadith specialist Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani says that the intended meaning of hadith in religious tradition is something attributed to Muhammad but, not found in the Quran. Scholar Patricia Crone includes reports by others than Muhammad in her definition of hadith: "short reports recording what an early figure, such as a companion of the prophet or Mohammed himself, said or did on a particular occasion, prefixed by a chain of transmitters", but she adds that "nowadays, hadith always means hadith from Mohammed himself."Other associated words possess similar meanings including: khabar refers to reports about Muhammad, but sometimes refers to traditions about his companions and their successors from the following generation. However, according to the Shia Islam Ahlul Bayt Digital Library Project, "... when there is no clear Qur’anic statement, nor is there a Hadith upon which Muslim schools have agreed.... Shi’a... refer to Ahlul-Bayt for deriving the Sunnah of Prophet." This means that in Shia Islam, the sunnah draws on the sayings and deeds of the Ahl al-Bayt, i.e. the Imams.
The word sunnah is used in reference to a normative custom of Muhammad or the early Muslim community. Joseph Schacht describes hadith as providing "the documentation" of the sunnah. Another source distinguishes between the two saying: Whereas the'Hadith' is an oral communication, derived from the Prophet or his teachings, the'Sunna' signifies the prevailing customs of a particular community or people.... A'Sunna' is a practice, passed on by a community from generation to generation en masse, whereas the Ahadith are reports collected by compilers centuries removed from the source.... A practice, contained within the Hadith may well be regarded as Sunna, but it is not necessary that a Sunna would have a supporting hadith sanctioning it; some sources limit hadith to verbal reports, with the deeds of Muhammad and reports about his companions being part of the sunnah, but not hadith. Joseph Schacht quotes a hadith by Muhammad, used "to justify reference" in Islamic law to the companions of Muhammad as religious authorities — "My companions are like lodestars."
According to Schacht, in the first generations after the death of Muhammad, use of hadith from Sahabah and Tabi‘un "was the rule", while use of hadith of Muhammad himself by Muslims was "the exception". Schacht credits Al-Shafi‘i — founder of the Shafi'i school of fiqh — with establishing the principle of the use of the ahadith of the Muhammad for Islami
Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya is a book of supplications attributed to Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, the great-grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. According to narrations, the book is said to have been composed after the Battle of Karbala and describes the relationship between man and God. Although the book is principally a collection of Islamic knowledge and thought in supplication form, it is said to have played an important part in the uprising against the Umayyads. According to some scholars, al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya is an example of the highest form of eloquence, its contents have been described and explained in many books of commentary; the main part of the book is mutawatir, but over the years a number of scholars have written addenda to it. Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya is an important book for Shia Muslims. Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya is a collection of supplications and whispered prayers composed by Sajjad, the great-grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad; the title "al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya" means "the book of Sajjad", Sajjad being the epithet of Ali ibn Husayn, the fourth Shia Imam.
Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya has several titles, such as "Sister of the Quran", "Gospel of the Holy Household" and "Psalms of the Muhammad dynasty", names which indicate the importance of the book for Shia Islam. In the form of supplication, it expresses Islamic knowledge and thought and involves all aspects of individual, economical and cultural life. Reason, human feelings and conscience are all addressed by it. Narrations state. Narrations state Imam Sajjad therefore used rich and meaningful supplications to reconstruct society and distribute Islamic knowledge, it seems al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya –, protected from government agents by Imam Sajjad’s sons and companions – was a sectarian and organisational booklet, which the access of the government agents to it make ineffective all Imam Sajjad's efforts. Many scholars see al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya as teaching theology in a personal and practical way, not in abstract language, as indicating the relation between man and God in a way that can be universally understood.
However, the book is not a conversation with God. It emphasizes detachment from the material world, addresses many moral and ethical issues. According to scholars, al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya exhibits the highest level of eloquence and purity to be found in Arabic literature after the Quran and the Nahj al-Balagha of Ali and son-in-law of Muhammad. Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya was at the forefront of the uprising against the Umayyads. Salutations to Muhammad and his dynasty are repeated in most of its supplications, while the Umayyad Caliphate tried to wipe out the name and memory of Muhammad and his family. In several supplications Imam Sajjad explains the concept of Imamate, he explains what Imamate means, allowed to be an imam, what the conditions of Imamate are, because the subject of prophet succession and the concept of Imamate were faced with serious challenge after the death of Muhammad and after the Battle of Karbala. For the protection of Islamic territory, won through the endeavours of Muhammad and his companions, Imam Sajjad in several supplications talks about important matters such as jihad and martyrdom, the protection of borders, enjoining good and forbidding wrong, combat power, the powerlessness of enemies, military equipment, so on.
In expressing the ideas, virtues and characteristics of God's fighters and border guards, he explains the true Islamic idea. According to Islamic tradition, Imam Sajjad collected his supplications and taught them to his family his sons, Muhammad al-Baqir and Zayd; these supplications were written down by others and the text over time became disseminated among all Shia. Specialists in the study of Hadith maintain. A number of scholars have written addenda to al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya; these comprise supplications that are attributed to Imam Sajjad, but they do not exist in the main al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya. Some of these addenda are: Second Scripture, compilation of al-Hurr al-Aamili, who compiled Wasa'il al-Shi'a Third Scripture, compilation of Mirza Abdollah Afandi, an expert in history and biographical evaluation Fourth Scripture, compilation of Mirza Husain Noori Tabarsi Fifth Scripture, compilation of Allamah Sayid Muhsin Amin Sixth Scripture, compilation of Sheykh Saleh ibn Mirza Fadhlollah Mazandarani Ha'eri Seventh Scripture, compilation of Hadi Kashif al-Qita Eighth Scripture, compilation of Mirza Ali Husaini Mar'ashi In his book, al-Tharia, Sheikh Agha Bozorg Tehrani has enumerated about 50 descriptions of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya, while others have enumerated about 80 descriptions.
Philip Woolley, a professor and researcher from Germany, asked for a copy of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya to be sent to him after his friend, a Roman Catholic Cardinal, saw the book in his library, studied part of it, impressed with its novelty insisted on taking it away with him. When the Vatican Library in Rome received an English version of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya, it said in its letter of acknowledgement: "This book contains great mystical themes, so we place it for researchers in the best position of the library." A leader of Germany's Social Democratic Party wrote to a friend, Professor Singler, saying
Shia Islam is one of the two main branches of Islam. It holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor and the Imam after him, most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm, but was prevented from the caliphate as a result of the incident at Saqifah; this view contrasts with that of Sunni Islam, whose adherents believe that Muhammad did not appoint a successor and consider Abu Bakr, who they claim was appointed Caliph through a Shura, i.e. community consensus in Saqifa, to be the first rightful Caliph after the Prophet. Unlike the first three Rashidun caliphs, Ali was from the same clan as Muhammad, Banu Hashim as well as being the prophet's cousin and being the first male to become Muslim. Adherents of Shia Islam are called Shias of Ali, Shias or the Shi'a as a collective or Shi'i or Shi'ite individually. Shia Islam is the second largest branch of Islam: as of the late 2000s, Shia Muslims constituted 10-15% of all Muslims. Twelver Shia is the largest branch of Shia Islam, with 2012 estimates saying that 85% of Shias were Twelvers.
Shia Islam is based on the Quran and the message of Muhammad attested in hadith, on hadith taught by their Imams. Shia consider Ali to have been divinely appointed as the successor to Muhammad, as the first Imam; the Shia extend this Imammah doctrine to Muhammad's family, the Ahl al-Bayt, some individuals among his descendants, known as Imams, who they believe possess special spiritual and political authority over the community and other divinely ordained traits. Although there are many Shia subsects, modern Shia Islam has been divided into three main groupings: Twelvers and Zaidis, with Twelver Shia being the largest and most influential group among Shia; the word Shia means followers and is the short form of the historic phrase shīʻatu ʻAlī, meaning "followers of Ali", "faction of Ali", or "party of Ali". Shi'a and Shiism are the forms used in English, while Shi'ite or Shiite, as well as Shia, refer to its adherents; the term for the first time was used at the time of Muhammad. At present, the word refers to the Muslims who believe that the leadership of the community after Muhammad belongs to Ali and his successors.
Nawbakhti states that the term Shia refers to a group of Muslims that at the time of Muhammad and after him regarded Ali as the Imam and Caliph. Al-Shahrastani expresses that the term Shia refers to those who believe that Ali is designated as the Heir and caliph by Muhammad and Ali's authority never goes out of his descendants. For the Shia, this conviction is implicit in the history of Islam. Shia scholars emphasize that the notion of authority is linked to the family of the prophets as the verses 3:33,34 shows: "Indeed, God chose Adam and Noah and the family of Abraham and the family of'Imran over the worlds – Descendants, some of them from others, and God is Hearing and Knowing." Shia Muslims believe that just as a prophet is appointed by God alone, only God has the prerogative to appoint the successor to his prophet. They believe God chose Ali to be Muhammad's successor, the first caliph of Islam; the Shias believe. Ali was Muhammad's first-cousin and closest living male relative as well as his son-in-law, having married Muhammad's daughter Fatimah.
Muhammad invited people to Islam in secret for three years. In the fourth year of Islam, when Muhammad was commanded to invite his closer relatives to come to Islam he gathered the Banu Hashim clan in a ceremony. At the banquet, he was about to invite them to Islam when Abu Lahab interrupted him, after which everyone left the banquet; the Prophet ordered Ali to invite the 40 people again. The second time, Muhammad invited them to join, he said to them, I offer thanks to God for His mercies. I praise God, I seek His guidance. I believe in Him and I put my trust in Him. I bear witness. God has commanded me to invite you to His religion by saying:. I, warn you, call upon you to testify that there is no god but God, that I am His messenger. O ye sons of Abdul Muttalib, no one came to you before with anything better than what I have brought to you. By accepting it, your welfare will be assured in the Hereafter. Who among you will support me in carrying out this momentous duty? Who will share the burden of this work with me?
Who will respond to my call? Who will become my vicegerent, my deputy and my wazir? Ali was the only one to answer Muhammad's call. Muhammad told him to sit down, saying, "Wait! Someone older than you might respond to my call." Muhammad asked the members of Banu Hashim a second time. Once again, Ali was the only one to respond, again, Muhammad told him to wait. Muhammad asked the members of Banu Hashim a third time. Ali was still the only volunteer; this time, Ali's offer was accepted by Muhammad. Muhammad "drew close, pressed him to his heart, said to the assembly:'This is my wazir, my successor and my vicegerent. Listen to him and obey his commands.'" In another narration, when Muhammad accepted Ali's eager offer, Muhammad "threw up his arms around the generous youth, pressed him to his bosom" and said, "Behold my brother, my vizir, my vicegerent... Let all listen to his words, obey him." Sir Richard Burton writes about the banquet in his 1898 book, saying, "It won for a proselyte worth a thousand sabers in the pers
Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Aḥmad Ibn Muḥammad Ibn Ḥanbal Abū ʿAbdullāh Ash-Shaybānī referred to as Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal or Ibn Ḥanbal or Ibn Hambal or Ahmad Ibn Hambal for short, or reverentially as Imam Aḥmad by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian and hadith traditionist. An enormously influential and vigorous scholar during his lifetime, Ibn Hanbal went on to become "one of the most venerated" and celebrated personalities in the traditionalistic Sunni Islam, within which he was referred to by such reverent epithets as True Shaykh of Islam, Proof of the Faith, Seal of the Mujtahid Imams, he has been retrospectively described as "the most significant exponent of the traditionalist approach in Sunni Islam," with his "profound influence affecting every area of" traditionalistic Sunni thought. One of the foremost classical proponents of the importance of using hadith literature to govern Islamic law and life, Ibn Hanbal is famous for compiling one of the most important Sunni hadith collections, the celebrated Musnad, an enormous compendium of prophetic traditions that has continued to wield considerable influence in the field of hadith studies up to the present time.
Additionally, Ibn Hanbal is honored as the founder of the Hanbali school of Sunni jurisprudence, one of the four major orthodox legal schools of Sunni Islam. Having studied fiqh and hadith under many teachers during his youth, Ibn Hanbal became famous in his life for the crucial role he played in the Mihna, the inquisition instituted by the Abbasid Caliphate al-Ma'mun towards the end of his reign, in which the ruler gave official state support to the Mutazilite dogma of the Quran being created, a view that contradicted the orthodox doctrine of the Quran being the eternal, uncreated Word of God. Suffering physical persecution under the caliph for his unflinching adherence to the traditional doctrine, Ibn Hanbal's fortitude in this particular event only bolstered his "resounding reputation" in the annals of Islamic history. Throughout Islamic history, Ibn Hanbal was venerated as an exemplary figure in all the traditional schools of Sunni thought, both by the exoteric ulema and by the mystics, with the latter designating him as a saint in their hagiographies.
The fourteenth-century hadith master al-Dhahabi referred to Ibn Hanbal as "the true Shaykh of Islām and leader of the Muslims in his time, the ḥadīth master and Proof of the Religion."In the modern era, Ibn Hanbal's name has become controversial in certain quarters of the Islamic world. This is due to the influence some believe he had upon the Hanbali reform movement known as Wahhabism, which cites him as a principal influence along with the thirteenth-century Hanbali reformer Ibn Taymiyyah; however it has been argued by certain scholars that Ibn Hanbal's own beliefs played "no real part in the establishment of the central doctrines of Wahhabism," as there is evidence, according to the same authors, that "the older Hanbalite authorities had doctrinal concerns different from those of the Wahhabis," rich as medieval Hanbali literature is in references to saints, grave visitation and relics. In this connection, scholars have cited Ibn Hanbal's own support for the use of relics as one of several important points upon which the theologian's opinions diverged from those of Wahhabism.
Ahmad ibn Hanbal's family was from Basra and belonged to the Arab Banu Shayban tribe. His father was an officer in the Abbasid army in Khurasan and settled with his family in Baghdad, where Ahmad was born in 780 CE. Ibn Hanbal had two wives and several children, including an older son, who became a judge in Isfahan. Imam Ahmed studied extensively in Baghdad, traveled to further his education, he started learning jurisprudence under the celebrated Hanafi judge, Abu Yusuf, the renowned student and companion of Imam Abu Hanifah. After finishing his studies with Abu Yusuf, ibn Hanbal began traveling through Iraq and Arabia to collect hadiths, or traditions of the Prophet Muhammad. Ibn al-Jawzi states that Imam Ahmad had 414 Hadith masters whom he narrated from. With this knowledge, he became a leading authority on the hadith, leaving an immense encyclopedia of hadith, the al-Musnad. After several years of travel, he returned to Baghdad to study Islamic law under Al-Shafi'i, he became a mufti in his old age, founded the Hanbali madhab, or school of Islamic law, now most dominant in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
Unlike the other three schools of Islamic jurisprudence, the Hanbali madhab remained traditionalist or Athari in theology. In addition to his scholastic enterprises, ibn Hanbal was a soldier on the Islamic frontiers and made Hajj five times in his life, twice on foot. Ahmad Ibn Hanbal died on Friday, 12 Rabi-ul-awwal, 241 AH/ 2 August, 855 at the age of 74-75 in Baghdad, Iraq. Historians relate that his funeral was attended by 800,000 men and 60,000 women and that 20,000 Christians and Jews converted to Islam on that day. Ibn Hanbal was famously called before the Inquisition or Mihna of the Abassid Caliph al-Ma'mun. Al-Ma'mun wanted to assert the religious authority of the Caliph by pressuring scholars to adopt the Mu'tazila view that the Qur'an was created rather than uncreated. According to Sunni tradition, ibn Hanbal was among the scholars to resist the Caliph's interference and the Mu'tazila doctrine of a created Qur'an—although some Orientalist sources raise a question on whether or not he remained steadfast.
Ibn Hanbal's stand against the inquisition by the Mu'tazila led to the Hanbali school establishing itself as not only a school of fiqh (legal jurisprude