A vineyard /ˈvɪnjərd/ is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice. The science and study of production is known as viticulture. The earliest evidence of production dates from between 6000 and 5000 BC. Wine making technology improved considerably with the ancient Greeks but it wasnt until the end of the Roman Empire that cultivation techniques as we know them were common throughout Europe. In medieval Europe the Church was a supporter of wine. They owned and tended the best vineyards in Europe and vinum theologium was considered superior to all others, European vineyards were planted with a wide variety of the Vitis vinifera grape. However, in the late 19th century, the species was nearly destroyed by the plant louse phylloxera accidentally introduced to Europe from North America. Native American grapevines include varieties such as Vitis labrusca, which is resistant to the bug, the quest for vineyard efficiency has produced a bewildering range of systems and techniques in recent years.
Due to the much more fertile New World growing conditions. Innovation in palissage and pruning and thinning methods have replaced more general, traditional concepts like yield per unit area in favor of maximizing yield of desired quality. Many of these new techniques have since adopted in place of traditional practice in the more progressive of the so-called Old World vineyards. Other recent practices include spraying water on vines to protect them from sub-zero temperatures, new grafting techniques, soil slotting, such techniques have made possible the development of wine industries in New World countries such as Canada. Today there is increasing interest in developing organic, ecologically sensitive, biodynamics has become increasingly popular in viticulture. The use of irrigation in recent years has expanded vineyards into areas which were previously unplantable. The research includes developing improved grape varieties and investigating pest control, the International Grape Genome Program is a multi-national effort to discover a genetic means to improving quality, increasing yield and providing a natural resistance to pests.
The implementation of mechanical harvesting is often stimulated by changes in laws, labor shortages. It can be expensive to hire labor for periods of time. Numbers of New World vineyard plantings have been increasing almost as fast as European vineyards are being uprooted, the size of individual vineyards in the New World is significant
Sweetness of wine
The subjective sweetness of a wine is determined by the interaction of several factors, including the amount of sugar in the wine, but the relative levels of alcohol and tannins. Sugars and alcohol enhance a wines sweetness and bitter tannins counteract it and these principles are outlined in the 1987 work by Émile Peynaud, The Taste of Wine. Vintage, the Story of Wine, by Hugh Johnson, presents several methods that have been used throughout history to sweeten wine, the most common way was to harvest the grapes as late as possible. This method was advocated by Virgil and Martial in Roman times, in contrast, the ancient Greeks would harvest the grapes early, to preserve some of their acidity, and leave them in the sun for a few days to allow them to shrivel and concentrate the sugar. Stopping the fermentation enhanced a wines potential sweetness, in ancient times, this was achieved by submerging the amphoras in cold water till winter. Wine can be sweetened by the addition of sugar in some form, among the components influencing how sweet a wine will taste is residual sugar.
It is usually measured in grams of sugar per litre of wine, residual sugar typically refers to the sugar remaining after fermentation stops, or is stopped, but it can result from the addition of unfermented must or ordinary table sugar. Even among the driest wines, it is rare to find wines with a level of less than 1 g/L, due to the unfermentability of certain types of sugars, such as pentose. By contrast, any wine with over 45 g/L would be considered sweet, for example, the great vintages of Château dYquem contain between 100 and 150 g/L of residual sugar. The sweetest form of the Tokaji, the Eszencia – contains over 450 g/L, such wines are balanced, keeping them from becoming cloyingly sweet, by carefully developed use of acidity. This means that the finest sweet wines are made with grape varieties that keep their acidity even at very high levels, such as Riesling. How sweet a wine will taste is controlled by such as the acidity and alcohol levels, the amount of tannin present. A sweet wine such as a Vouvray can actually taste dry due to the level of acidity. A dry wine can taste if the alcohol level is elevated.
Medium and sweet wines have a perception among consumers of being of lower quality than dry wines. Süssreserve is a term referring to a portion of selected unfermented grape must, free of microorganisms. This technique was developed in Germany and is used with German-style wines such as semi-sweet Riesling or Müller–Thurgau, the technique not only raises the sugar level of the wine, but lowers the amount of alcohol. Under German law, no more than fifteen percent of the final volume may be the reserved juice
A winemaker or vintner is a person engaged in winemaking. Winemakers can be referred to as oenologists as they study oenology – the science of wine, a vintner is a wine merchant. In some modern use, particularly in American English, the term is used as a synonym for winemaker. The term started to be used in Middle English, when it superseded the earlier term vinter, a vigneron is someone who cultivates a vineyard for winemaking. The word connotes or emphasizes the role that vineyard placement. It is used when referring to a winemaker from France, vincent of Saragossa is the patron saint of vignerons. A négociant is the French term for a merchant who assembles the produce of smaller growers and winemakers. Négociants buy everything from grapes to grape must to wines in various states of completion, in the case of grapes or must, the négociant performs virtually all the winemaking. If it buys already fermented wine in barrels or en-vrac—basically in bulk containers, it may age the wine further, blend in other wines or simply bottle, the result is sold under the name of the négociant, not the name of the original grape or wine producer.
Currently, one of the largest Negociants in the United States and, some négociants have a recognizable house style. It was too expensive for growers to purchase the wine presses, owning only a small portion of a particular high-quality single vineyard meant that a grower often had insufficient wine from a parcel to vinify on its own. Under French inheritance laws, vineyard holdings were split until offspring owned no more than a single row of grapes. Many négociants are vineyard owners in their own right, in Burgundy for instance, négociants as Bouchard Père et Fils and Faiveley are among the largest owners of vineyards. Oenology Vignerons indépendants de France Viticulture Winemaking cooperative Winery
The Georgics is a poem by Latin poet Virgil, likely published in 29 BC. As the name suggests the subject of the poem is agriculture, the Georgics is considered Virgils second major work, following his Eclogues and preceding the Aeneid. The poem draws on a variety of sources, and has influenced many authors from antiquity to the present. The work consists of 2,188 hexametric verses divided into four books, the yearly timings by the rising and setting of particular stars were valid for the precession epoch of Virgils time, and so are not always valid now. Virgil begins his poem with a summary of the four books and it takes as its model the work on farming by Varro, but differs from it in important ways. Numerous technical passages fill out the first half of Book 1, of particular interest are lines 160–175, where Virgil describes the plow. In the succession of ages, whose model is ultimately Hesiod, the age of Jupiter and its relation to the golden age, of chief importance is the contribution of labor to the success or failure of mankind’s endeavors, agricultural or otherwise.
The book comes to one climax with the description of a storm in lines 311–50. After detailing various weather-signs, Virgil ends with an enumeration of the associated with Caesar’s assassination and civil war. Prominent themes of the book include agriculture as mans struggle against a hostile natural world, often described in violent terms. Like the first book, it begins with a poem addressing the divinities associated with the matters about to be discussed, trees, in the next hundred lines Virgil treats forest and fruit trees. Their propagation and growth are described in detail, with a contrast drawn between methods that are natural and those that require human intervention. Three sections on grafting are of particular interest, presented as marvels of man’s alteration of nature, included is a catalogue of the worlds trees, set forth in rapid succession, and other products of various lands. A point of cultural interest is a reference to Ascra in line 176 and these depict the growth and beauty that accompany springs arrival.
The poet returns to didactic narrative with yet more on vines, emphasizing their fragility, a warning about animal damage provides occasion for an explanation of why goats are sacrificed to Bacchus. The olive tree is presented in contrast to the vine. The next subject, at last turning away from the vine, is other kinds of trees, those that produce fruit, Virgil again returns to grapevines, recalling the myth of the battle of the Lapiths and Centaurs in a passage known as the Vituperation of Vines. The remainder of the book is devoted to extolling the simple country life over the corruptness of the city, the third book is chiefly and ostensibly concerned with animal husbandry
Grape syrup is a food produced in the United States, in ancient Rome, in Iranian cuisine, and in Greek cuisine. Along with other fruit syrups, it is used to top pancakes or waffles. It can be made from concentrated grape juice and one preparation is to boil grape juice, grape syrup was made in ancient Rome and was a source of lead poisoning because it was boiled using lead pots, in order to take on the sweetness of lead acetate. Grape syrup was added to Roman wine and was known by different names depending on the boiling procedure. In Iranian cuisine, grape syrup is used to sweeten ardeh, churchkhela, a sausage-shaped candy made from grape must and nuts Drakshasava, an Ayurvedic tonic made from grapes Defrutum Pekmez, a similar product in the Ottoman world
Traditional Balsamic Vinegar
Traditional Balsamic Vinegar is a type of balsamic vinegar produced in the Emilia Romagna region of Italy. Although the names are similar, TBV and the inexpensive imitation BVM are very different, a comprehensive study about the original making procedure, the aging conditions, and the sensory profile is not available. This and the few and often-confusing documents make the reconstruction of the history of TBV a challenge. The term balsamico derives from the Latin word “balsamum” and from the Greek word “βάλσαμον”, the art of cooking the must of grapes dates back to the ancient Romans, it was used both as a medicine and in the kitchen as a sweetener and condiment. The adjective balsamic has been used to any kind of generically aromatic vinegar. As far as the method is concerned, it is very similar to the Solera system used in Spain after Napoleonic Wars. TBV is produced in two different geographical areas of the Emilia Romagna Region so that two different designations were granted by the European Council, i.
e, Traditional Balsamic Vinegar of Modena and Traditional Balsamico Vinegar of Reggio Emilia. The sensory profile of TBV is evaluated by hedonic judgment expressed through a numeric score, the sensory score achieved is used to rank TBV in different commercial classes. The specific regulations allow adding Extra Vecchio to the designation when the product is aged for 25 years at least. TBV results as a blend of vinegars of different composition and age due to the traditional making procedure, actually, an easy-to-use mathematical method for evaluating the actual residence time of TBV within each cask of the barrel set has been recently published. This method is a tool helping aging certification. An easy-to-use spreadsheet of the model is available for download here. At present, independent agencies that officially state TBV authenticity of both the TBVM and TBVRE havent adopted it or any analogous procedure as an evaluation system, making process of the TBV starts from freshly squeezed grape juice and finishes with sensory evaluation of the aged vinegar.
Cooking of the juice is carried out in open vessels directly heated by fire for 12 –24 hours reducing the grape juice by about 50%. The production regulations require starting from a grape must with 15°Bx at least to reach at the end of cooking 30°Bx for TBVRE, for TBVM and it is possible to find cooked musts with sugar concentration beyond 50°Bx. The operation allows profound chemical and physical modifications affecting the end quality of TBV, sugar fermentation and ethanol oxidation occur as a two-step biological transformation of the cooked must. The first requires anaerobic conditions and the aerobic conditions. The two biological conversions occur inside a vessel, called the badessa
In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate the Mediterranean region and Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa and it is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, politics, art, architecture, warfare, religion and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond, its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia, the Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia and it would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires.
Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of history from the pre-medieval Dark Ages of Europe. King Numitor was deposed from his throne by his brother, while Numitors daughter, Rhea Silvia, because Rhea Silvia was raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. The new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, a she-wolf saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. Romulus became the source of the citys name, in order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted.
This caused a problem for Rome, which had a large workforce but was bereft of women, Romulus traveled to the neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables they all refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins, after a long time in rough seas, they landed at the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, one woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent them from leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships, the Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid
The Summa Theologiæ is the best-known work of Thomas Aquinas. Although unfinished, the Summa is one of the classics of the history of philosophy and it was intended as an instructional guide for theology students, including seminarians and the literate laity. It was a compendium of all of the theological teachings of the Catholic Church. It presents the reasoning for almost all points of Christian theology in the West, the Summas topics follow a cycle, the existence of God, Man, Mans purpose, the Sacraments, and back to God. The Summa is Aquinas most perfect work, the fruit of his mature years, among non-scholars, the Summa is perhaps most famous for its five arguments for the existence of God, which are known as the five ways. The five ways, occupy under two pages of the Summas approximately 3,500 pages and he completed the Prima Pars in its entirety and circulated it in Italy before departing to take up his second regency as professor at the University of Paris. The Summa is composed of three parts, each of which deals with a major subsection of Christian theology.
Each part contains several questions, each of which revolves around a more specific subtopic, each question contains several articles phrased as interrogative statements dealing with specific issues, such as Whether Christ should have led a life of poverty in this world. The Summa has a format for each article. A series of objections to the conclusion are given, one such objection, a short counter-statement, beginning with the phrase sed contra, is given, this statement almost always references authoritative literature, such as the Bible, Aristotle, or the Church Fathers. The actual argument is made, this is generally a clarification of the issue. For example, Aquinas states that it was fitting for Christ to lead a life of poverty in this world for four distinct reasons, individual replies to the preceding objections are given, if necessary. These replies range from one sentence to several paragraphs in length and this method of exposition is derived from Averroes, to whom Aquinas refers respectfully as the Commentator.
The Summa makes many references to certain thinkers held in respect in Aquinass time. The arguments from authority, or sed contra arguments, are almost entirely based on citations from these authors, some were called by special names, The Apostle, Paul the Apostle. He wrote the majority of the New Testament canon after his conversion and he was considered the most astute philosopher – the one who had expressed the most truth up to that time. The main aim of the Scholastic theologians was to use his precise technical terms and he was among the foremost commentators on Aristotles works in Arabic, and his commentaries were often translated into Latin. Writer of the dominant theological text for the time, The Sentences The Theologian, considered the greatest theologian who had ever lived up to that time, Augustines works are frequently quoted by Aquinas