click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Mustard gas

Mustard gas, though technically not a gas and called sulfur mustard by scholarly sources, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents, which can form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs. They have a long history of use as a blister-agent in warfare and, along with organoarsenic compounds such as Lewisite, are the most well-studied of such agents. Related chemical compounds with similar chemical structure and similar properties form a class of compounds known collectively as sulfur mustards or mustard agents. Pure sulfur mustards are colorless, viscous liquids at room temperature; when used in impure form, such as warfare agents, they are yellow-brown and have an odor resembling mustard plants, garlic, or horseradish, hence the name. The common name of "mustard gas" is inaccurate because the sulfur mustard is not vaporized, but dispersed as a fine mist of liquid droplets. Mustard gas was assigned the name LOST, after the scientists Wilhelm Lommel and Wilhelm Steinkopf, who developed a method of large-scale production for the Imperial German Army in 1916.

Mustard agents are regulated under the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention. Three classes of chemicals are monitored under this Convention, with sulfur and nitrogen mustard grouped in Schedule 1, as substances with no use other than in chemical warfare. Mustard agents could be deployed by means of artillery shells, aerial bombs, rockets, or by spraying from warplanes or other aircraft. Mustard gas can be decontaminated through reaction with chloramine-T. Mustard gas is the organic compound with formula 2S. In the Depretz method, mustard gas is synthesized by treating sulfur dichloride with ethylene: SCl2 + 2 C2H4 → 2SIn the Levinstein process, disulfur dichloride is used instead: 8 S2Cl2 + 16 C2H4 → 8 2S + S8In the Meyer method, thiodiglycol is produced from chloroethanol and potassium sulfide and chlorinated with phosphorus trichloride: 3 2S + 2 PCl3 → 3 2S + 2 P3In the Meyer-Clarke method, concentrated hydrochloric acid instead of PCl3 is used as the chlorinating agent: 2S + 2 HCl → 2S + 2 H2OThionyl chloride and phosgene, the latter of, a choking agent, have been used as chlorinating agents, with the added possibility of both agents producing additional mechanisms of toxicity if they remain as impurities in the finished product.

Mustard gas is a viscous liquid at normal temperatures. The pure compound has a melting point of 14 °C and decomposes before boiling at 218 °C. Reaction of mustard gas with sodium ethoxide gives divinyl sulfide: 2S + 2 NaOEt → 2S + 2 EtOH + 2 NaCl The compound eliminates a chloride ion by intramolecular nucleophilic substitution to form a cyclic sulfonium ion; this reactive intermediate tends to cause permanent alkylation of the guanine nucleotide in DNA strands, which prevents cellular division and leads directly to programmed cell death, or, if cell death is not immediate, the damaged DNA may lead to the development of cancer. Oxidative stress would be another pathology involved in mustard gas toxicity. Mustard gas is not soluble in water but is soluble in fat, contributing to its rapid absorption into the skin. In the wider sense, compounds with the structural element BCH2CH2X, where X is any leaving group and B is a Lewis base are known as mustards; such compounds can form cyclic "onium" ions.

Examples are bisether, the amines, sulfur sesquimustard, which has two α-chloroethyl thioether groups connected by an ethylene group. These compounds have a similar ability to alkylate DNA, but their physical properties, e.g. melting points, may vary. Mustard agent has powerful vesicant effects on its victims. In addition, it is mutagenic and carcinogenic, due to its alkylating properties, it is lipophilic. Because people exposed to mustard agent suffer immediate symptoms, mustard-contaminated areas may appear normal, victims can unknowingly receive high dosages. Within 24 hours of exposure to mustard agent, victims experience intense itching and skin irritation, which turns into large blisters filled with yellow fluid wherever the mustard agent contacted the skin; these are chemical burns and are debilitating. Mustard agent vapor penetrates clothing fabrics such as wool or cotton, so it is not only the exposed skin of victims that gets burned. If the victim's eyes were exposed they become sore, starting with conjunctivitis, after which the eyelids swell, resulting in temporary blindness.

In rare cases of extreme ocular exposure to mustard gas vapors, corneal ulceration, anterior chamber scarring, neovascularization have occurred. In these severe and infrequent cases, corneal transplantation has been used as a treatment option. Miosis, when the pupil constricts more than usual, may occur, the result of the cholinomimetic activity of mustard. At high concentrations, if inhaled, mustard agent causes bleeding and blistering within the respiratory system, damaging mucous membranes and causing pulmonary edema. Depending on the level of contamination, mustard agent burns can vary between first and second degree burns, though they can be every bit as severe and dangerous as third degree burns. Severe mustard agent burns are fatal, with death occurring after days or weeks have passed. Mild or moderate exposure to mustard agent is unlikely to kill, though victims require lengthy p

Sayon Camara

Sayon Camara or Taramakhè is a Guinean singer. She was chosen in 2003 as the first African UNESCO Artist for Peace. Camara was born in Faranah, her Malinke music is said to be "in line with the Mandingo art of the great griots". She and other musicians recorded her first album in Cote D'Ivoire at a studio in Abidjan; the 1998 album, established her reputation in Guinea and she earned the nickname "Taramakhè" because of her extravagant concerts. The following year she sang at UNESCO headquarters as part of the Félix Houphouët-Boigny Peace Prize ceremony when the Community of Sant'Egidio were awarded the prize. In 2002 her second album, "Saramaya" was again recorded in Abidjan and she returned to UNESCO headquarters and the Félix Houphouët-Boigny Peace Prize ceremony when Kay Rala Xanana Gusmão was awarded the prize. At the party to celebrate her album Saramaya she was given a house by her fans, she was chosen as a UNESCO Artist for Peace in 2003. She was the first African to be given this role

Thurlbear Wood and Quarrylands

Thurlbear Wood and Quarrylands is a 26.7 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest south of Stoke St Mary in Somerset, notified in 1963. Thurlbear Wood is a species-rich woodland managed in a traditional coppice-with-standards system and situated on soils derived from Rhaetic shales and limestones, it is managed by the Somerset Wildlife Trust. The recorded history of the site, its Medieval embankments and the presence of several plants confined to primary woods, all suggest that Thurlbear is of considerable antiquity; the woodland has been used for educational and research work for more than 60 years. The'quarrylands' are an area of calcareous grassland, scrub occupying 19th-century workings in Lias limestone. Over 80 species of flowering plant occur. There is an outstanding butterfly fauna, with 29 species recorded. Breeding birds associated with the site include buzzard and grasshopper warbler. "Thurlbear Wood". Somerset Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 21 August 2006

Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp

Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp is the second popular novel from American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. It was first published in two volumes by Phillips and Company in 1856. Although it enjoyed better initial sales than her previous, more famous, novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, it was less popular. Dred was of a more documentary nature than Uncle Tom's Cabin and thus lacked a character like Uncle Tom to evoke strong emotion from readers. Dred is the story of Nina Gordon, an impetuous young heiress to a large southern plantation, whose land is becoming worthless, it is run competently by one of Nina's slaves, who endures a murderous rivalry with Nina's brother Tom Gordon, a drunken, cruel slaveowner. Nina is a flighty young girl, maintains several suitors, before settling down with a man named Clayton. Clayton is and religiously liberal, idealistic, has a down-to-earth perpetual-virgin sister, Anne. In addition to Harry, the slave characters include the devoutly Christian Milly, Tomtit, a joker-type character.

There is a family of poor whites, who have but a single, devoted slave, Old Tiff. Dred, the titular character, is one of the Great Dismal Swamp maroons, escaped slaves living in the Great Dismal Swamp, preaching angry and violent retribution for the evils of slavery and rescuing escapees from the dog of the slavecatchers; the response to Stowe's first work impacted her second anti-slavery novel. Uncle Tom's Cabin drew criticism from abolitionists and African-American authors for the passive martyrdom of Uncle Tom and endorsement of colonization as the solution to slavery. Dred, by contrast, introduces a black revolutionary character, presented as an heir to the American revolution rather than a problem to be expatriated. Dred can thus be placed within an African-American literary tradition as well as a political revision of the sentimental novel. Dred himself is a composite of Denmark Vesey and Nat Turner, two real leaders of slave insurrections. Stowe included a copy of Nat Turner's famous confessions as an appendix to the novel.

One often-overlooked subplot involves Judge Clayton, who issues a proslavery opinion that absolves the man who attacked Cora's slave Milly of liability. This judge was constrained by the law from providing relief, it was humane sentiments rather than the rule of law. The novel is interesting in the historical context of runaway slave communities surviving for a long time in swamp areas. Swamps were places where runaway slaves could hide, therefore became a taboo subject in the south; the best hiding places were found on high ground in swampy areas. The novel contains detailed descriptions of the wetlands in the "Dismal Swamp" and is therefore interesting in the context of the way in which African Americans relate to the natural environment. Adams, John R.. Harriet Beecher Stowe. Twayne Publishers, Inc. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 63-17370. Delombard, Jeannine Marie. "Representing the Slave: White Advocacy and Black Testimony in Harriet Beecher Stowe's Dred." New England Quarterly 75.1: 80-106.

Grant, David. "Stowe's Dred and the Narrative Logic of Slavery's Extension." Studies in American Fiction 28.2: 151-78. Hamilton, Cynthia S. "Dred: Intemperate Slavery." Journal of American Studies 34.2: 257-77. Karafilis, Maria. "Spaces of Democracy in Harriet Beecher Stowe's Dred." Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature and Theory 55.3: 23-49. Levine, Robert. Introduction. Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp. Harriet Beecher Stowe. New York & London: Penguin Books 2000. Ix-xxxv. ISBN 0-14-043904-8 Otter, Samuel. "Stowe and Race." The Cambridge Companion to Harriet Beecher Stowe. Ed. by Cindy Weinstein. Cambridge Companions to Literature. Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 2004. 15-38. ISBN 0-521-82592-X Newman and Cindy Weinstein. "Staging Black Insurrection: Dred on Stage." The Cambridge Companion to Harriet Beecher Stowe. Cambridge Companions to Literature. Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 2004. 113-30. ISBN 0-521-82592-X Rowe, John Carlos. "Stowe's Rainbow Sign: Violence and Community in Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp."

Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature and Theory 58.1: 37-55. Smith, Gail K. "Reading with the Other: Hermeneutics and the Politics of Difference in Stowe's Dred." American Literature: A Journal of Literary History and Bibliography 69.2: 289-313. Full text of the first edition, 1856: Volume I. Full Text of both volumes at Wright American Fiction 1851-1875

A86 autoroute

A86 is the second ring road around Paris, France. It follows an irregular path around Paris with the distance from the city centre varying from 8–16 kilometres. A section of A86 contains one of the world's longest urban motorway tunnels, opened in two parts in 2009 and 2011; the tunnel is limited to a height of 2.0 m and commercial vehicles are prohibited as a result. A86 is a part of the four-ring-road system surrounding Paris and Île-de-France: Boulevard Périphérique, completed in 1973 an ellipse 9 km × 11 km and limits of Paris city. A86, completed in 2011, irregular, 20 km × 25 km, similar in size with London's North Circular and South Circular; the Francilienne, a partial ring, circa 50 km in diameter, comparable with London's M25 motorway. The Grand contournement de Paris, a wide loop bypassing Paris. Boulevard Périphérique Francilienne Official Website of the A86 West Tunnel System

Ostoria (gens)

The gens Ostoria written Hostoria, was a plebeian family at Rome. Members of this gens are first mentioned in the early years of the Empire. Although only a few of them achieved any prominence in the Roman state, many others are known from inscriptions; the most illustrious of the Ostorii was Publius Ostorius Scapula, consul during the reign of Claudius, afterward governor of Britain. The main praenomina of the Ostorii were Quintus, Marcus and Lucius, which were the five most common names throughout Roman history. Only the first three are known from the family of the Ostorii Scapulae; the only other praenomen found among the Ostorii is Spurius, a common name in the early Republic, but which fell out of use in imperial times. The cognomina of the Ostorii occurring in ancient historians were Scapula. Sabinus refers to a Sabine, indicates that the bearer was of Sabine ancestry. Scapula "shoulder-blade", was given to someone with prominent shoulders; the Scapulae were the only important family of the Ostorii, holding four consulships over the course of the first century.

This list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation. Quintus Ostorius Scapula, appointed by Augustus one of the first two prefects of the Praetorian Guard, in AD 2. Publius Ostorius Scapula, governor of Egypt during the latter part of the reign of Augustus, attested from AD 3 to 10 or 11, he was the brother of the praetorian prefect, father of Publius and Quintus, consuls during the reign of Claudius. Quintus Ostorius Scapula, consul suffectus in AD 41, he was the son of the governor of Egypt, but of the praetorian prefect. Publius Ostorius Scapula, consul suffectus circa AD 45, became governor of Britain the following year, he fought against a number of British tribes, defeating the Silures, being granted the insignia of a Roman triumph. He died before leaving office. Marcus Ostorius P. f. Scapula, served in his father's army in Britain, was commended for his bravery, he was consul suffectus ex kal. Juliis in AD 59. In the reign of Nero, he refused to support the accusation of maligning the emperor raised against Antistius Sosianus, but in AD 66, Sosianus accused him of conspiring against Nero.

He took his own life. Marcus Ostorius Scapula, consul in AD 98, during the reign of Nerva. Ostoria, daughter of Ostorius Euhodus and Caprilia Cassia, buried at Rome, aged fifteen years and fifteen days. Ostoria, mother of Ostoria and Gaius Ostorius Capitonius, buried at Capena in Etruria. Ostoria, daughter of Ostoria and sister of Gaius Ostorius Capitonius. Ostoria, buried at Rome. Ostoria S. f. Quarta, mother of Calpurnia Ostoria Pia, buried at Anagnia. Ostorius, a man of consular rank, was legate of Cilicia during the reign of Severus Alexander. Hostorius, a freedman buried in the sepulchre of Lucius Ostorius Felix. Marcus Ostorius, named in an inscription from Pompeii. Marcus Ostorius, mentioned in a funerary inscription from Capua. Publius Hostorius, dedicated a monument at Rome to his children, Publius Hostorius and Hostoria Helena. Publius Hostorius P. f. brother of Hostoria Helena, buried at Rome. Publius Ostorius, a boxer named in a list of gladiators found at Pompeii. Quintus Ostirius, named in an inscription from Rome.

Spurius Ostorius, the father of Ostoria Quarta. Ostorius Amandus, buried at Ostia. Ostoria P. l. Amma, freedwoman of Publius Ostorius Scapula, buried at Rome. Gaius Ostorius C. l. Anthimus, freedman of Gaius Ostorius Italus, buried at Puteoli in Campania. Ostorius Aprilis, dedicated a monument at the present site of Settecamini in Rome, to his son, Gnaeus Fresidius Marsus, quaestor; the tomb dates to the second century. Gaius Ostorius Athenio, a chorales buried at Carthage. Ostoria Autodice, named in an inscription from Rome. Ostoria Auxinis, a freedwoman, the wife of Publius Octavius Chryseros, buried at Rome. Gaius Ostorius Capitonius, son of Ostoria, brother of Ostoria. Ostoria Chelido, wife of the senator Ostorius Euhodianus, buried at Rome, her monument dates to early fourth century. Ostorius Crysis, a freedwoman, buried in the sepulchre of Lucius Ostorius Felix. Ostoria Dia, a freedwoman, the wife of Gaius Julius Faustus, named in an inscription from Puteoli. Lucius Ostorius Dionysius, named in an inscription from Narona in Dalmatia.

Publius Ostorius P. f. Dorus, son of Publius Ostorius Telesphorus, buried at Rome, aged five. Ostoria Dynamis, the mother of Publius Ostorius Ingenuus, buried at Rome. Quintus Ostorius Epagathus, named in an inscription from Rome. Quintus Hostorius Evangelus, husband of Marcia, buried at Rome. Ostorius Eugraphianus, a youth buried at Novaria in Cisalpine Gaul. Ostorius Euhodianus, a senator, consul designate during the late third or early fourth century, dedicated a monument at Rome to his wife, Ostoria Chelido. Ostorius Euhodus, husband of Caprilia Cassia, who dedicated a monument at Rome to their daughter, Ostoria. Ostorius Euhodus, buried at Portus. Ostoria Eutychia, wife of Gaius Julius Similis, buried at Rome. Ostoria Felicitas Erindinis, a child buried at Corfinium in Samnium, aged ten months, her caretakers, Aulus Vercius Auxilaris and Adauta, dedicated a monument to her. Ostorius Felix, husband of Claudia Procula, buried at Rome. Lucius Ostorius Felix, husband of Seppia Pyrallis, patron of Lucius Ostorius Fortunatus, buried at Rome.

Ostoria Fortunata, buried at Portus in Latium. Ostorius Fortunatianus, one of the magistri quinquennales of the collegium fabrum at Rome, during the reign of Maxentius. Lucius Ostorius Fortunatus, dedicated a monument to his patron, Lucius Ostorius Felix, his family. Gaius Os