Mohammed Shah I
Muhammad Shah I was the second ruler of the Bahmani Sultanate, a late medieval kingdom of India. He succeeded his father Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah, his reign was marked by a series of wars between his kingdom and two neighboring kingdoms, the Vijayanagara and the Warangal under Kapaya Nayaka. He was succeeded by his son Alauddin Mujahid Shah. Like his father Alauddin Bahman Shah, Muhammed was involved in wars with Vijayanagara; however he became embroiled in wars with Warangal. Muhammed died in 1375 from drinking too much
The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India; the region under British control was called British India or India in contemporaneous usage, included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, called the princely states. The whole was informally called the Indian Empire; as India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, 1936, a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945. This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria, it lasted until 1947, when it was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
At the inception of the Raj in 1858, Lower Burma was a part of British India. The British Raj extended over all present-day India and Bangladesh, except for small holdings by other European nations such as Goa and Pondicherry; this area is diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, the Thar Desert. In addition, at various times, it included Aden, Lower Burma, Upper Burma, British Somaliland, Singapore. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948; the Trucial States of the Persian Gulf and the states under the Persian Gulf Residency were theoretically princely states as well as presidencies and provinces of British India until 1947 and used the rupee as their unit of currency. Among other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between 1793 and 1798.
The kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states. The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a princely state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861; the Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, but not part of British India. India during the British Raj was made up of two types of territory: British India and the Native States. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions in Section 18: The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India; the expression "India" shall mean British India together with any territories of any native prince or chief under the suzerainty of Her Majesty exercised through the Governor-General of India, or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India.
In general, the term "British India" had been used to refer to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858. The term has been used to refer to the "British in India"; the terms "Indian Empire" and "Empire of India" were not used in legislation. The monarch was known as Empress or Emperor of India and the term was used in Queen Victoria's Queen's Speeches and Prorogation Speeches; the passports issued by the British Indian government had the words "Indian Empire" on the cover and "Empire of India" on the inside. In addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in 1878. Suzerainty over 175 princely states, some of the largest and most important, was exercised by the central government of British India under the Viceroy. A clear distinction between "dominion" and "suzerainty" was supplied by the jurisdiction of the courts of law: the law of British India rested upon the laws passed by the British Parliament and the legislative powers those laws vested in the various governments of British India, both central and local.
At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a governor or a lieutenant-governor. During the partition of Bengal, the new provinces of Assam and East Bengal were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship. In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, the new provinces in the east becam
South India is the area including the five Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana, as well as the three union territories of Lakshadweep and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area. Covering the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau, South India is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west and the Indian Ocean in the south; the geography of the region is diverse with two mountain ranges–the Western and Eastern Ghats, bordering the plateau heartland. Godavari, Kaveri and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Chennai, Hyderabad, Coimbatore, Visakhapatnam and Kochi are the largest urban areas; the majority of the people in South India speak one of the four major Dravidian languages: Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and culture in those regions.
Major dynasties that were established in South India include the Cheras, Pandyas, Satavahanas, Chalukyas and Vijayanagara. Europeans entered India through Kerala and the region was colonised by Britain and other nations. After experiencing fluctuations in the decades after Indian independence, the economies of South Indian states have registered higher than national average growth over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some socio-economic metrics, poverty continues to affect the region much like the rest of the country, although it has decreased over the years. HDI in the southern states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states. Literacy rates in the southern states are higher than the national average with 80% of the population capable of reading and writing; the fertility rate in South India is the lowest of all regions in India. South India known as Peninsular India has been known by several other names; the term "Deccan" referring to the area covered by the Deccan Plateau that covers most of peninsular India excluding the coastal areas is an anglicised form of the word Prakrit dakkhin derived from the Sanskrit word dakshina meaning south.
Carnatic derived from "Karnād" or "Karunād" meaning high country has been associated with South India. Carbon dating on ash mounds associated with Neolithic cultures in South India date back to 8000 BCE. Artefacts such as ground stone axes, minor copper objects have been found in the region. Towards the beginning of 1000 BCE, iron technology spread through the region; the region was in the middle of a trade route that extended from Muziris to Arikamedu linking the Mediterranean and East Asia. Trade with Phoenicians, Greeks, Syrians and Chinese began from the Sangam period; the region was part of the ancient Silk Road connecting the Asian continent in the East and the West. Several dynasties such as the Cheras of Karuvur, the Pandyas of Madurai, the Cholas of Thanjavur, the Satavahanas of Amaravati, the Pallavas of Kanchi, the Kadambas of Banavasi, the Western Gangas of Kolar, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, the Chalukyas of Badami, the Hoysalas of Belur and the Kakatiyas of Orugallu ruled over the region from 6th century B.
C. to 14th century A. D; the Vijayanagara Empire, founded in 14th century A. D. was the last Indian dynasty. After repeated invasions from the Sultanate of Delhi and the fall of Vijayanagara empire in 1646, the region was ruled by Deccan Sultanates and Nayak governors of Vijayanagara empire who declared independence; the Europeans arrived in the 15th century and by the middle of the 18th century, the French and the British were involved in a protracted struggle for military control over the South India. After the defeat of Tipu Sultan in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War in 1799 and the end of the Vellore Mutiny in 1806, the British consolidated their power over much of present-day South India with the exception of French Pondichéry; the British Empire took control of the region from the British East India Company in 1857. During the British colonial rule, the region was divided into the Madras Presidency, Hyderabad State, Travancore, Vizianagaram and a number of other minor princely states; the region played a major role in the Indian independence movement.
After the independence of India in 1947, the region was organised into four states: Madras State, Mysore State, Hyderabad State and Travancore-Cochin. The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu; as a result of this Act, Madras State retained its name and Kanyakumari district was added to it from the state of Travancore-Cochin. The state was subsequently renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. Andhra Pradesh was created through the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of the Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala emerged from the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of the Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organised with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from the Bombay State, the
East Godavari district
East Godavari district or Toorpu Godavari Jilla is a district in Coastal Andhra region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Its district headquarters is at Kakinada; as of Census 2011, it became the most populous district of the state with a population of 5,151,549. Rajahmundry and Kakinada are the two largest cities in the Godavari districts in terms of population; the district of Rajahmundry was reorganized in 1859 into two districts of Krishna. Godavari District was further bifurcated into East and West Godavari districts in 1925. After Nov 1956's Andhra Pradesh was formed by combining parts of Naizam and Circars, in 1959, the Bhadrachalam revenue division, consisting of Bhadrachalam and Naguru Taluqs of East Godavari district were merged into the Khammam district. After June 2014's reorganisation and division of Andhra Pradesh, the Mandals of Bhadrachalam, Chinturu and Vara Rama Chandra Puram were re-added back to East Godavari District; the district, like the rest of the Deccan, was under the Mauryas in its early history.
After the fall of the Mauryan Empire, the district was under the Satavahanas until the 3rd century under the famous poet king Haala. Coins found during excavations have revealed the rule of Gautamiputra Satakarni, Vaasisthi-puttra Pulumaavi and Yajna Sri Satakarni. Gupta emperor Samudragupta invaded during the rule of both Pishtapura and Avamukta in the district in 350 A. D. Samudragupta's invasion was followed by the rule of the Mathara dynasty from 375 to 500; the earliest known ruler of the dynasty was Saktivarman. The district passed into the hands of Vishnukundinas during the rule of Vikramendra Varma I during the 5th century; the records indicate that their domain extended over Visakhapatnam, West Godavari and Guntur Districts in addition to East Godavari District. Indra Bhattaraka defeated the rulers of Vasistha Kula and re-established Vihsnukundina authority, but was shortly defeated by Kalinga armies. Indra Bhattaraka was followed to the throne by a few others, including Madhava Varma III and Manchana Bhattaraka, who tried to restore their kingdom.
Madhava Varma III was the last important ruler of this family. The Pulakesi II of Badami Chalukyas and his brother Kubja Vishnu Vardhana acquired Pishtapura in the 7th century; the Eastern Chalukya dynasty, founded by Kubja Vishnu Vardhana, ruled at first form Pishtapura from Vengi, from Rajamahendravaram. Many rulers held sway over the kingdom and their history is at times a record of disputes over succession. Chalukya Bhima I of this dynasty built a Shiva temple at Draksha Ramam. Jata Choda Bhima of PedaKallu killed Daanaarnava of this dynasty and occupied Vengi in 973 A. D. Daanaarnava's two sons, Sakti Varma I and Vimala Aditya, fled from the kingdom and took refuge in the court of the Chola king Rajaraja Chola I. Rajaraja killed Jata Choda Bhima. Satya Raya of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyani did not like the Chola influence in Vengi and the area witnessed many wars between the Cholas and Chalukyas. After the death of Vijaya Aditya VII in 0175 A. D. the Eastern Chalukya dynasty came to an end.
Kulottunga Chola I, a rival of Vijay Aditya VII, fought along the sides of Cholas and established the Chalukya Cholas province. The district along with the rest of the Vengi kingdom became part of their empire. Major portions of the district were under trustworthy chieftains to his. Rulers of this dynasty included Gonka I, Rajendra Choda I, Gonka II and Rajendra Choda II. Vikram Aditya vii of Western Chalukyas occupied this region for short period, but it was recovered by Chalukya Cholas and Velanati Chodas. Velanati chiefs suppressed rebellions from Haihayas of Kona, Gonka II and Rudra of the Kakatiya dynasty. Inscriptions at this region including the ones at Draksha Ramam in 13th-century throw light on their history. Prola II of the Kakatiya dynasty declared independence from the western Chalukyas and became a subject of Chalukya Cholas, his son Rudra obtained the Godavari delta as a gift from the Rajaraja II of Chalukya Cholas. Rudra's authority over the Godavari delta was challenged by the Velanadu Chodas.
The Velanati king Rajendra Choda II sent an army under his minister Davana Preggada against Rudra. Rudra was succeeded by his younger brother Mahadeva who died in a conflict with the Yadavas of Devagiri, his son Ganapati succeeded to the Kakatiya throne. Ganapati defeated Kalinga armies on the north, Pandyas of Madura and Cholas with the help of Nellooru Chodas; the Kakatiya power remained undisturbed in the Godavari region throughout the reign of Ganapati and her daughter Rudrama devi. Pratapa Rudra faced many attacks from Sultans of Delhi. After his defeat by Muhammad-bin-Tughluq in 1323, the district came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate. Muhammad-bin-Tughluq divided South India into appointed governors. Delhi sultans faced rebellions from the confederacy of local chiefs under the authority of Prolaya of the Musunuri Nayaks clan; the Reddis of Addanki, Koppula Telagas of Pithapuram and the Recharla Velamas of Rachakonda helped him. Warangal was liberated and Telugu land enjoyed freedom for fifty years.
Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka appointed his relatives Toyyeti Anavota Nayaka and Mummadi Nayaka as governors in Godavari region. Mummadi Nayaka married the niece of Kapaya Nayaka. Mummadi Nayaka lived till 1388, he had three sons who ruled for a period of 40 years and they were reduced to submission by the R
Ma'bar Sultanate, unofficially known as the Madurai Sultanate, was a short lived independent kingdom based in the city of Madurai in Tamil Nadu, India. The sultanate was proclaimed in 1335 when the viceroy of Madurai, Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan declared his independence from the Delhi Sultanate. Ahsan Khan and his descendants ruled Madurai and surrounding territories until 1378 when the last sultan, Ala-ud-Din Sikandar Shah fell in battle against the forces of the Vijayanagara Empire led by Kumara Kampana. In this short reign of 43 years, the Sultanate had 8 different rulers. In the early 14th Century, South India was subjected to repeated invasions by armies of the Delhi Sultanate. There were three separate invasions within a period of fifteen years; the first invasion in 1311 CE was led by Malik Kafur. Following this there were two more expeditions from the Delhi Sultanate - the second in 1314 CE led by Khusrav Khan and the third in 1323 CE by Ulugh Khan; these invasions shattered the Pandyan empire beyond revival.
While the previous invasions were content with plunder, Ulugh Khan annexed the former Pandyan dominions to the Delhi Sultanate as the province of Ma'bar. Most of South India came under the Delhi's rule and was divided into five provinces - Devagiri, Kampili, Dorasamudra and Ma'bar. In 1325, Ulugh Khan acceded to the throne in Delhi as Muhammad bin Tughluq, his plans for invading Persia and Khorasan, bankrupted his treasury and led to the issuing of token currency. This further worsened the sultanate's finances, he was unable to pay his huge army and the soldiers stationed in distant provinces revolted. The first province to rebel was Ma ` bar soon followed; the Governor of Ma'bar, Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan declared independence and set up the Madurai Sultanate. The exact year of founding of the Madurai Sultanate is not clear. Numismatic evidence points to 1335 CE as the founding year; the Persian historian Firishta however places the year of Ma'bar's revolt as 1340 CE. This short lived Muslim dynasty at Madurai came into existence following the decline of the Second Pandyan empire, ruled Madurai and parts of South Arcot, for the next 48 years, first as feudatories of the Delhi Sultanate and as independent monarchies lasting until 1378.
The Madurai Sultanate was destroyed by the rise of Vijayanagar followed by the Madurai Nayaks. A rich merchant from the Ma'bar Sultanate, Abu Ali 孛哈里, was associated with the Ma'bar royal family. After falling out with them, he moved to Yuan dynasty China and received a Korean woman as his wife and a job from the Mongol Emperor, the woman was 桑哥 Sangha's wife and her father was 蔡仁揆 채송년 Ch'ae In'gyu during the reign of 忠烈 Chungnyeol of Goryeo, recorded in the Dongguk Tonggam, Goryeosa and 留夢炎 Liu Mengyan's 中俺集 Zhong'anji. 桑哥 Sangha was a Tibetan. Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan declared independence from Delhi Sultanate around 1335 CE, his daughter was married to the historian Ibn Battuta and his son Ibrahim was the purse bearer of Muhammad bin Tughluq. When Tughluq heard of Jalaluddin's rebellion he had Ibrahim killed in retaliation. Jalaluddin is variously referred to as "Syed", "Hasan" or "Hussun" by the historians Firishta and Ziauddin Barani. Tughluq tried to conquer the Tamil region, known in Muslim chronicles as Ma'bar back in 1337 CE.
But he had to return to Deogiri. His army was defeated by Jalaluddin. Jalaluddin was killed by one of his nobles in 1340 CE. After Jalaluddin's murder, Ala-ud-Din Udauji Shah took power in 1340 CE, he was succeeded by his son in law Qutb-ud-Din Firuz Shah, who in turn was assassinated within forty days of taking power. Qutbuddin's killer Ghiyas-ud-din Dhamagani took over as Sultan in 1340. Ghiyasuddin was defeated by the Hoysala king Veera Ballala III at first, but managed to capture and kill Ballala in 1343 CE during the siege of Kannanur Koppam. Ghiyasuddin captured Balalla, robbed him of his wealth, had him killed and his stuffed body displayed on the walls of Madurai. Ghiyasuddin died in 1344 CE from the after effects of an aphrodisiac. During his reign, Ibn Battuta, the Muslim Moroccan explorer known for his extensive travels through Africa and Asia, visited his court, while on his way to China, he married Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan's daughter. His travel notes mentions Ghiyas-ud-Din Muhammad Damghani's atrocious behaviour towards the local population.
His army under his personal orders had the habit of rounding up the local villagers, indiscriminately impaling them on sharpened wooden spikes and left to die. These accounts of were published in the Rihla. Ghiyasuddin was succeeded by his nephew Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Damghan Shah a soldier of lowly origins who originated from Delhi, he upon ascension started dismissing and killing many of the officers and nobles and various political enemies who were to disturb his possession of the throne. He too was killed in a short time. From contemporary historical accounts, the rulers of Madurai Sultanate come across as tyrants and persecutors of Hindus. Both Ibn Batutta's and Gangadevi's accounts contain graphic descriptions of atrocities committed by the Muslim Sultans on the Hindu population. Ibn Batuta describes Ghiyasuddin Dhamgani's actions as: the Hindu prisoners were divided into four sections and taken to each of the four gates of the great catcar. There, on the stakes, the prisoners were impaled.
Afterwards their wives were tied by their hair to these pales. Little children were massacred on the bosoms of their mothers and their corpses left there; the camp was raised, they started cutting down the trees of another forest. In the same manner did they tr
Pithapuram or Peetika Puram is a town and a municipality in East Godavari district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The town forms a part of Godavari Urban Development Authority; the temple town is one of fifty five Sakti Peetikas. Shripada Shri Vallabha, believed to be an incarnation of Lord Dattatreya by his devotees, lived in Pithapuram, he is considered one of the first complete avatars of the deity Dattatreya in Kali Yuga. Pithapuram was called Pishtapura; the earliest extant inscription to mention the city is the 4th century king Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar inscription, which states that he defeated the king Mahendra of Pishtapura. The inscriptions of the 4th and 5th century Vasishtha and Mathara dynasties mention Pishtapura, describing it as a part of Kalinga. In the 7th century, the Chalukya king Pulakeshin II annexed Pishtapura to his kingdom; the town hosts temple of Puruhitika devi. It is one among 108 shakti peethas. Pithapuram is located at 17.1167°N 82.2667°E / 17.1167. It has an average elevataion of 10 meters.
It is located near several beaches though not one in particular. It is in between 2 major cities. Pithapuram is landlocked and most of the economic activity takes place in Kakinada. Pithapuram is well known for the CBM Christian Medical Centre, started by Missionary Doctor Dr. E. Smith; as of 2011 Census of India, the town had a population of 52,360. The total population constitute, 25,891 males, 26,469 females and 5,116 children, in the age group of 0–6 years; the average literacy rate stands at 75.00% with 35,434 literates, higher than the national average of 73.00%. Pithapuram railway station is classified as a D–category stations in the Vijayawada railway division of South Central Railway zone; the primary and secondary school education is imparted by government and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state. The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English, Telugu
The Pallava dynasty was an Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India. They gained prominence after the eclipse of the Satavahana dynasty, whom the Pallavas served as feudatories. Pallavas became a major power during the reign of Mahendravarman I and Narasimhavarman I and dominated the Telugu and northern parts of the Tamil region for about 600 years until the end of the 9th century. Throughout their reign they were in constant conflict with both Chalukyas of Badami in the north and the Tamil kingdoms of Chola and Pandyas in the south and Pallava were defeated by the Chola Aditya I in the 9th century CE. Pallavas are most noted for their patronage of architecture, the finest example being the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Mahabalipuram; the Pallavas, who left behind magnificent sculptures and temples, established the foundations of medieval South Indian architecture. They developed the Pallava script from which Grantha descended; the Pallava script gave rise to several other southeast Asian scripts.
Chinese traveller Xuanzang extolled their benign rule. There were numerous theories about the origin of Pallavas. According to many notable scholars like Gabriel Jouveau, N. S Ramaswamy early pallavas originated in Andhradesa, which forms present day Andhra region and extended till kanchipuram of present day Tamilnadu; the early literary works of pallavas were traced in Prakrit and sanskrit from third century to sixth centuary and tamil literary records of pallavas were only available from seventh century. Velurpalaiyam plates dated to 852 AD, mentioned Virakurcha to be the first king of the Pallava dynasty as grant tells that Virakurcha grasped the complete insignia of royalty after marrying a Naga princess of Cutu-Nagas of Vanavasi who were feudatories of Andhras. Early relations between Nagas and Pallavas became well-established before the myth of Pallava's birth to Ashvatthama took root. A prashasti, composed in 753 on the dynastic eulogy in the Kasakadi plates, by the Pallava Trivikrama, traces the Pallava lineage from creation through a series of mythic progenitors, praises the dynasty in terms of two similes hinged together by triple use of the word avatara, as below:The Proceedings of the First Annual Conference of South Indian History Congress notes: The word Tondai means a creeper and the term Pallava conveys a similar meaning.
Since the Pallavas ruled in the territory extending from Bellary to Bezwada, it led to the theory that they were a northern dynasty who contracted marriages with princesses of the Andhra Dynasty and so inherited a portion of southern Andhra Pradesh. Historian K. R. Subramanian says the Pallavas were a Telugu power rather than a Tamil one. Telugu sources know of a Trilochana Pallava as the earliest Telugu king and they are confirmed by inscriptions; the first Chalukya king is said to have been met and killed by the same Trilochana near Mudivemu. A Buddhist story describes Kala the Nagaraja, resembling the Pallava Kalabhartar as a king of the region near Krishna district; the Pallava Bogga may be identified with the kingdom of Kala in Andhra which had close and early maritime and cultural relations with Ceylon. K. A. Nilakanta Sastri postulated that Pallavas were descendants of a North Indian dynasty who moved southwards, adopted local traditions to their own use, named themselves as Tondaiyar after the land called Tondai.
K. P. Jayaswal proposed a North Indian origin, putting forward the theory that the Pallavas were a branch of the Vakatakas; the earliest inscriptions of the Pallavas were found in the districts of Bellary and Nellore and all the inscriptions of the dynasty till the rise of Simhavishnu were found in the latter two of those. The mention of the Pallava king Vishnugopa of Kanchi, in the Allahabad record of Samudragupta in the fourth century, is noted as an important milestone in early Pallava history; the Pallavas captured Kanchi from the Cholas as recorded in the Velurpalaiyam Plates, around the reign of the fifth king of the Pallava line Kumaravishnu I. Thereafter Kanchi figures in inscriptions as the capital of the Pallavas; the Cholas drove the Pallavas away from Kanchi in the mid-4th century, in the reign of Vishugopa, the tenth king of the Pallava line. The Pallavas re-captured Kanchi in the mid-6th century in the reign of Simhavishnu, the fourteenth king of the Pallava line, whom the Kasakudi plates state as "the lion of the earth".
Thereafter the Pallavas held on to Kanchi until the 9th century, until the reign of their last king, Vijaya-Nripatungavarman. The Pallavas were in conflict with major kingdoms at various periods of time. A contest for political supremacy existed between the Kadambas. Numerous Kadamba inscriptions provide details of Pallava-Kadamba hostilities. Kadamba dynasty's founder Mayurasharma first succeeded in establishing himself in the forests of Shriparvata by defeating the Antharapalas of the Pallavas and subduing the Banas of Kolar in 345 CE; the Pallavas under Skandavarman were unable to contain Mayurasharma and recognised him as a sovereign in the regions from the Amara Ocean to Prehara. Some historians feel that Mayurasharma was appointed as a commander in the army of the Pallavas, as the inscription uses such terms as Senani and calls Mayurasharma Shadanana. After a period of time, due to the confusion caused by the defeat of Pallava Vishnugopa by Samudragupta, Mayurasharma formed his kingdom with Banavasi as his capital.