SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Mutt and Jeff

Mutt and Jeff is a long-running and popular American newspaper comic strip created by cartoonist Bud Fisher in 1907 about "two mismatched tinhorns". It is regarded as the first daily comic strip; the concept of a newspaper strip featuring recurring characters in multiple panels on a six-day-a-week schedule had been pioneered through the short-lived A. Piker Clerk by Clare Briggs, but it was Mutt and Jeff as the first successful daily comic strip that staked out the direction of the future trend. Mutt and Jeff remained in syndication until 1983, employing the talents of several cartoonists, chiefly Al Smith who drew the strip for nearly fifty years; the series became a comic book published by All-American Publications and published by DC Comics, Dell Comics and Harvey Comics. It was published as cartoons, pop culture merchandise and reprints. Harry Conway "Bud" Fisher was a sports cartoonist for the San Francisco Chronicle in the early 1900s, a time when a newspaper cartoon was single panel, his innovation was to tell a cartoon gag in a sequence, or strip, of panels, creating the first American comic strip to pioneer that since-common format.

The concept of a newspaper strip featuring recurring characters in multiple panels on a six-day-a-week schedule had been created by Clare Briggs with A. Piker Clerk four years earlier, but that short-lived effort did not inspire further comics in a comic-strip format; as comics historian Don Markstein explained, Fisher's comic strip was similar to A. Piker Clerk, which cartoonist Clare Briggs... had done in the same daily format for The Chicago American in 1903. But tho Fisher was born in Chicago, it's unknown whether or not he saw the Briggs strip, so let's give him the benefit of the doubt and say he had an idea. Despite the Briggs primacy, A. Mutt is considered the first daily strip because it's the one that sparked a trend in that direction, which continues to this day. A. Mutt, the comic strip that became better known by its title and Jeff, debuted on November 15, 1907 on the sports pages of the San Francisco Chronicle; the featured character had appeared in sports cartoons by Fisher but was unnamed.

Fisher had approached his editor, John P. Young, about doing a regular strip as early as 1905, but was turned down. According to Fisher, Young told him, "It would take up too much room, readers are used to reading down the page, not horizontally."This strip focused on a single main character until the other half of the duo appeared on March 27, 1908. It appeared only in the Chronicle, so Fisher did not have the extended lead time that syndicated strips require. Episodes were drawn the day before publication, referred to local events that were making headlines or to specific horse races being run that day. A 1908 sequence about Mutt's trial featured a parade of thinly-disguised caricatures of specific San Francisco political figures, many of whom were being prosecuted for graft. On June 7, 1908, the strip moved off the sports pages and into Hearst's San Francisco Examiner where it was syndicated by King Features and became a national hit, subsequently making Fisher the first celebrity of the comics industry.

Fisher had taken the precaution of copyrighting the strip in his own name, facilitating the move to King Features and making it impossible for the Chronicle to continue the strip using another artist. A dispute between Fisher and King Features arose in 1913, Fisher moved his strip on September 15, 1915, to the Wheeler Syndicate, who gave Fisher 60% of the gross revenue, an enormous income in those times. Hearst responded by launching a lawsuit which failed. By 1916, Fisher was earning in excess of $150,000 a year. By the 1920s, merchandising and growing circulation had increased his income to an estimated $250,000. In 1918, Mutt and Jeff added a Sunday strip and, as success continued, Fisher became dependent on assistants to produce the work. Fisher hired Billy Liverpool and Ed Mack, artists Hearst had at one point groomed to take over the strip, who would do most of the artwork. Other assistants on the strip included Ken Kling, George Herriman, Maurice Sendak. Fisher appeared to lose all interest in the strip during the 1930s, after Mack died in 1932, the job of creating the strip fell to Al Smith.

In c. 1944, the new Chicago-based Field Syndicate took over the strip. Mutt and Jeff retained Fisher's signature until his death, however, so it wasn't until December 7, 1954, that the strip started being signed by Smith. Al Smith received the National Cartoonists Society Humor Comic Strip Award in 1968 for his work on the strip. Smith continued to draw Jeff until 1980, two years before it ceased publication. In the introduction to Forever Nuts: The Early Years of Mutt & Jeff, Allan Holtz gave the following reason for the strip's longevity and demise: The strip's waning circulation got a shot in the arm in the 1950s when President Eisenhower sang its praises, again in the 1970s when a nostalgia craze swept the nation, it took the 1980s, a decade focused on the here and now, a final creative change on the strip when Al Smith had had enough, to allow the strip the rest it had deserved for decades. During this final period it was drawn by George Breisacher. Andrews McMeel Universal continues to syndicate Mutt and Jeff under the imprint Classic Mutt and Jeff under the copyright of Pierre S. de Beaumont, founder of the Brookstone catalog and retail chain.

De Beaumont inherited ownership of the strip from his mother, Aedita de Beaumont, who married Fisher in 1925 (the couple parted after four weeks, bu

Kangavarma of Kadamba

Kangavarma was a ruler of the Kadamba Dynasty of India. He ruled from c.360/5 until c. 385/90. Talagunda inscription indicates that his rule was a turbulent one with many bitter wars, he was succeeded by Bhagiratha. Mayurasharma, who founded his dream empire, the Kadamba empire, on a well-established footing, left it to his son Kangavarma, who had to wage many costly wars; as the wars he waged were always not fruitful, they got the epithet "terrible wars". According to Talagunda inscriptions the period of the reign of Kangavarma was between 360 and 385 AD. According to Prof. Jouveau-Dubreuil, Prithivisena I of the kingdom of Vakasaka defeated Kangavarma. In spite of this defeat, Kangavarma was able to establish himself as an independent ruler commanding allegiance from the feudal leaders of the districts in his kingdom. According to Talagunda records he was considered a popular king of the Kadamba country, his son, succeeded him and reigned up to 420 AD, he was successful in regaining the territory which his father had lost in the war.

His reign has been described as one of the finest of the Kadamba dynasty. The Kadamba dynasty, though popular in the history of the Dekkan, did not receive its due share in history books but the rulers who succeeded Mayurasharma who established the kingdom, were successful in furthering the cause of their dynasty, till they lost their control to the Chalukyas of Badami around the seventh century. Mythical origin is attributed to the first ruler Mayaurasharma of the Kadamba dynasty, though he in fact was a historical figure, it is established that the authenticity of the name "Kadamba" is attributed to the Kadamba tree, in the courtyard of their residence when the kingdom was first established. BibliographyMoraes, George M.. "The Kadamba Kula: A History of Ancient and Mediaeval Karnataka". B. X. Furtado & Sons. Pp. 17–18

Atlas21

Atlas21 known as VIP, is a Japanese adult video company with headquarters in Tokyo, Japan. The AV company VIP Enterprise was founded in June 1981 and issued its first video, titled Women's Toilet Series, in December of that same year making it one of the first adult video companies to be established in Japan; the studio continued production in 1982 with works that included scatological themes. In 1983, the company changed its name from VIP Enterprise to VIP Incorporated. By 1985, the studio was using actresses with some background in entertainment, such as Anri Inoue who made her AV debut with VIP in August 1985 with the video Venus With Teardrops; the major event in the company's history in the 1980s was the debut of Hitomi Kobayashi in 1986 in her video Forbidden Relationship. With her style and looks, Kobayashi was a major factor in bringing in the concept of the AV Idol to the fledgling Japanese adult video industry, and, as the "AV Queen", she brought outstanding sales to VIP. In February 1987, Nao Saejima debuted with the company.

Another early star for VIP was Rui Sakuragi, who made her debut in April 1989 under the name Masako Ichinose but took the name Rui Sakuragi the following year. In January 1990, a new AV company, was formed as a subsidiary to VIP and, four years in May 1994, the company's name was changed from Stella to Atlas21. By July of that year, the company had undergone a major reorganization, the VIP company name and label were dropped in favor of the Atlas21 name and Atlas label. Two new labels, "OZ" and "SAURS", were introduced as part of the newly named Atlas21 studio. Sometime before 1997, Atlas21 joined with the Kuki group of companies, which, in addition to Kuki, comprised Alice Japan, Max-A, Media Station, Big Morkal and Sexia, they were, at the largest family of AV companies in Japan. Along with the other companies in the Kuki group, Atlas21 belonged to the voluntary ethics organization called the Nihon Ethics of Video Association or 日本ビデオ倫理協会 abbreviated as ビデ倫. Prominent AV actresses who appeared in Atlas21 videos in the late 1990s included Asami Jō, Jun Kusanagi, Yuri Komuro, Madoka Ozawa and Bunko Kanazawa.

In August 1998, the company revived the VIP name as a separate subsidiary company, Video Information Products Inc.. In addition to earlier Atlas21 AV stars Ai Kurosawa and Bunko Kanazawa, the new VIP featured such actresses as Akira Watase, Nao Oikawa, Naho Ozawa and Riko Tachibana. In 2005, the Atlas21 company reported capital of 13 million yen, it had 11 employees. Both Atlas21 and VIP ceased production of new adult video products in December 2006. From its official website, the company gives access to another site which offers downloads of many of the early classic videos produced by the company, including works by Hitomi Kobayashi, Rui Sakuragi and Ai Iijima; the VIP label is now used by Media Bank, another AV production company, issuing videos under this label since at least 2001. Atlas21 In addition to the Atlas label, the studio used: Gaia Oz SaursVIP In addition to the VIP label, the following were used: Chao God Ribon Noted directors who have worked for VIP or Atlas21: A selected list of some of the actresses who have appeared in videos for VIP and Atlas21: Some popular series produced by Atlas21 and VIP:Atlas21 Cos-Para Home Delivery Soapland 宅配ソープでございます The Call Girl ザ・コールガール The Neo Uniform Connection NEO出血大制服 The Uniform Connection 出血大制服 Violent Lips 激唇VIP Crime and Punishment 罪と罰 The Uniform Connection 出血大制服 "Atlas21 Official Website".

"DMM List of Atlas21 DVDs"