Deshabandu Muttiah Muralitharan is a Sri Lankan cricket coach and former cricketer, rated the greatest Test match bowler by Wisden Cricketers' Almanack in 2002. He retired from Test cricket in 2010, registering his 800th and final wicket on 22 July 2010 from his final ball in his last Test match. Muralitharan holds the world record for the most wickets in one-day cricket. In 2017, he became the only Sri Lankan to be inducted into the ICC Hall of Fame, he won the Ada Derana Sri Lankan of the Year in 2017. Murali became the highest wicket-taker in Test cricket when he overtook the previous record-holder Shane Warne on 3 December 2007. Muralitharan had held the record when he surpassed Courtney Walsh's 519 wickets in 2004, but he suffered a shoulder injury that year and was overtaken by Warne. Averaging over six wickets per Test, Muralitharan is one of the most successful bowlers in the game. Muralitharan held the number one spot in the International Cricket Council's player rankings for Test bowlers for a record period of 1,711 days spanning 214 Test matches.
Muralitharan took the wicket of Gautam Gambhir on 5 February 2009 in Colombo to surpass Wasim Akram's ODI record of 502 wickets. Muralitharan's career was beset by controversy over his bowling action for much of his international career. Due to an unusual hyperextension of his congenitally bent arm during delivery, his bowling action was called into question on a number of occasions by umpires and sections of the cricket community. After biomechanical analysis under simulated playing conditions, Muralitharan's action was cleared by the International Cricket Council, first in 1996 and again in 1999. Former Australian Test player Bruce Yardley, who himself was an off spinner in his day, was assigned with the task of ensuring Muralitharan bowled all his deliveries with the same vigour as he would do so in match conditions when tested in 2004. Muralitharan had not commenced bowling the doosra at this time; the legality of his doosra was first called into question in 2004. This delivery was found to exceed the ICC elbow extension limit by nine degrees, five degrees being the limit for spinners at that time.
Based on official studies into bowling actions, which revealed that 99% of bowlers whose actions were examined exceeded the elbow flexion limits, ICC revised the limits applying to all bowlers in 2005. The new limit of 15-degrees, one degree greater than Muralitharan was bowling his doosra, allowed him to continue without being called for throwing from on. In February 2009, after becoming cricket's highest wicket-taker in both forms of the game Muttiah Muralitharan hinted that he might retire at the conclusion of the 2011 World Cup, he want to play more. But after the next World Cup, I will have nothing left to achieve in the game; the World Cup should mark the end of my career." Muralitharan announced his retirement from Test cricket after the first Test against India at Galle which commenced on 18 July 2010. During that match he captured 8 wickets and became the first to reach the milestone of taking 800 Test wickets by dismissing Pragyan Ojha, he was the sixth international franchise player signed to the Caribbean Premier League and the first Sri Lankan player to be named to the new Twenty20 tournament.
Muralitharan was born 17 April 1972 to a Hill Country Tamil Hindu family in Sri Lanka. The eldest of the four sons to Sinnasamy Muttiah and Lakshmi. Muralitharan's father Sinnasamy Muttiah, runs a successful biscuit-making business. Muralitharan's paternal grandfather Periyasamy Sinasamy came from South India to work in the tea plantations of central Sri Lanka in 1920. Sinasamy returned to the country of his birth with his daughters and settled in Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu, India. However, his sons, including Muralitharan's father Muttiah, remained in Sri Lanka; when he was nine years old, Muralitharan was sent to St. Anthony's College, Kandy, a private school run by Benedictine monks, he began his cricketing career as a medium pace bowler but on the advice of his school coach, Sunil Fernando, he took up off-spinwhen he was fourteen years old. He soon impressed and went on to play for four years in the school First XI. In those days he batted in the middle order. In his final two seasons at St Anthony's College he took over one hundred wickets and in 1990/1 was named as the'Bata Schoolboy Cricketer of the Year'.
After leaving school he joined Tamil Union Cricket and Athletic Club and was selected for the Sri Lanka A tour of England in 1991. He failed to capture a single wicket. On his return to Sri Lanka he impressed against Allan Border's Australian team in a practice game and went on to make his Test debut at R. Premadasa Stadium in the Second Test match of the series; when his grandfather died at the age of 104 in July 2004, Muralitharan returned home from a tour of India to attend his funeral. Periyasamy Sinasamy's first wish to see Muralitharan claiming the world record for the most Test wickets was realised, but not his desire to live to see his grandson married. Muralitharan's grandmother had died one month earlier at the age of 97. Muralitharan's manager, Kushil Gunasekera stated that "Murali's family is knit and united, they respect traditional values. The late grandfather enjoyed a great relationship with Murali."Muralitharan married Madhimalar Ramamurthy, a Chennai native, on 21 March 2005.
Madhimalar is the daughter of late Dr S. Ramamurthy of Malar Hospitals, his wife Dr Nithya Ramamurthy, their first child, was born in January 2006. Muttiah Muralitharan holds Overseas Citizens
Avanidhar Subrahmanyam is a professor and named chair at the University of California Los Angeles. He is an expert in stock market activity and behavioral finance, has published a number of papers on financial markets. Subrahmanyam studied at the University of Los Angeles in the late 1980s, he graduated with a Ph. D. in finance in 1990. Subrahmanyam's career has operated in the fields of finance and economics, he held the role of assistant professor at Columbia University from 1990 until 1993. After his role at Columbia, he became a visiting associate professor at the University of California in 1993 to 1994. Subrahmanyam is known for two academic contributions: The first is a behavioral theory for the superior performance of value stocks and the phenomenon of stock market momentum; this contribution was adjudged to be the winner of the Smith Breeden prize for the best paper published in the Journal of Finance during 1998. The second contribution is to document that market liquidity exhibits systematic variation across stocks, just like returns, which led to a number of studies analyzing why trading costs fluctuate over time.
This contribution won the Fama-DFA award for the best paper in Capital Markets in the Journal of Financial Economics for 2000. In the press, Subrahmanyam discussed Apple Inc.'s stock price in 2013, when there was a spike in trading prices. Following it racing to a record high of over $700, the stock fell to below $400 for the first time since 2011. Appearing on CNBC, Subrahmanyam stated that the activity was due to over exuberance on the upside can lead to herd-like behaviour. During the same year, he commentated on the growth of the bitcoin currency. Subrahmanyam stated that he believed one of the biggest drawbacks of the crypto-currency was that merchants were not made to accept the currency, which leads to uncertainty in its everyday use, his research and work has led him to be the author or co-author of numerous articles in refereed finance and economic journals. Recent research positions have ranged from the relationship between a company's stock and their cost of capital, while studying theories on asset price behaviour and equity returns.
Subrahmanyam is a founding co-editor and advisory editor for The Journal of Financial Markets. He was an associate editor of The Review of Financial Studies and the Journal of Finance. Subrahmanyam has served as part of the Working Research Group on Market Microstructure at the National Bureau of Economic Research and on the organizing committee for the NBER annual conferences on market microstructure, he has served as a consultant to the UK Government Office for Science on stock market circuit breakers
Joseph John Benjamin is an English footballer who last played as a striker for Great Wakering Rovers. As a boy he was with West Ham United came through Northampton Town's Centre of Excllence to make his debut in the Football League on 23 August 2008 as a late substitute in a goalless draw with Millwall, he had a spell on loan to Southern League Premier Division club Brackley Town as work experience in early 2008, signed an 18-month professional contract with Northampton in January 2009. In November 2009, Benjamin signed a one-month loan deal with Conference National club Eastbourne Borough. Benjamin played six games for Eastbourne Borough, five of which were in the Conference and one in the Sussex Senior Cup, before being recalled back to Northampton in December, he rejoined the same club on loan for the remainder of the season in January 2010. He was released by the club on 12 May 2010 along with five other players. In August 2010, he joined Conference South side Ebbsfleet United. Benjamin left by mutual consent in September 2010 and switched to Boreham Wood of the Conference South.
He had a short spell at AFC Hornchurch of Isthmian League Premier Division from November until January, before going on trial with, signing for Wealdstone on the turn of the year. In August 2011 he joined Chelmsford City, he moved on to Tonbridge Angels of Conference South, in January 2012. In May 2012 he penned contract with Carshalton Athletic, but after a dispute with the management he left the club before the season kick-off to sign for Isthmian League Premier Division rivals Hampton & Richmond Borough. Bejamin moved on to Billericay Town in October 2012, he joined Hendon of the Isthmian League Premier Division on a dual registration basis from Billericay Town the following month, but was never involved in a match. He signed with Lowestoft Town. During the spring he made 14 appearances in the league before ending the season featuring in the playoff final on 6 May 2013. In June 2013, Benjamin joined St Neots Town who play in the Southern Football League Premier Division. Following the release from the club in September 2013, he re-signed for Billericay Town.
In June 2014 he departed the club to join Farnborough, but had his contract terminated the following month after a handful of pre-season games, was captured by Grays Athletic. They released him in September 2014, subsequently signed for Bury Town. In March 2015 he was transferred to Dulwich Hamlet, he dropped down to the Isthmian League Division One North to join Harlow Town in July 2015. After starting the 2016–17 season at Bishop's Stortford, he returned to Harlow Town on 18 August 2016, he spent two more seasons with The Hawks, before joining Haringey Borough, whom he helped earn promotion to Isthmian League Premier Division. Further moves include Northwood in March 2018, Barking ahead of the 2018–19 season, he left Barking in September 2018. On 25 September 2018 he was picked for the Great Wakering Rovers squad that played Canvey Island in the Isthmian League North Division, but was an unused substitute. Benjamin is the cousin of former Arsenal prospect Paul Rodgers, they played together at Northampton Town, St Neots Town, Billericay Town and Bishop's Stortford.