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Mutual Broadcasting System

The Mutual Broadcasting System was an American commercial radio network in operation from 1934 to 1999. In the golden age of U. S. radio drama, Mutual was best known as the original network home of The Lone Ranger and The Adventures of Superman and as the long-time radio residence of The Shadow. For many years, it was a national broadcaster for Major League Baseball, the National Football League, Notre Dame football. From the mid-1930s and until the retirement of the network in 1999, Mutual ran a respected news service accompanied by a variety of popular commentary shows. During the late 1970s, Mutual pioneered the nationwide late night call-in radio show and introduced the country to Larry King. In the early 1970s, acting in much the same style as rival ABC had two years earlier, Mutual launched four radio networks: Mutual Black Network, which evolved to today's American Urban Radio Networks. Of the four national networks of American radio's classic era, Mutual had for decades the largest number of affiliates, but the least certain financial position.

For the first 18 years of its existence, Mutual was owned and operated as a cooperative, setting the network apart from its corporate owned competitors. Mutual's member stations shared their own original programming and promotion expenses, advertising revenues. From December 30, 1936, when it debuted in the West, the Mutual Broadcasting System had affiliates from coast to coast, its business structure would change after General Tire assumed majority ownership in 1952 through a series of regional and individual station acquisitions. Once General Tire sold the network in 1957, Mutual's ownership was disconnected from the stations it served, leading to a more conventional, top-down model of program production and distribution. Not long after the sale, one of the network's new executive teams was charged with accepting money to use Mutual as a vehicle for foreign propaganda; the network's reputation was damaged, but soon rebounded. Mutual changed ownership several times in succeeding years—even leaving aside larger-scale acquisitions and mergers, its final direct corporate parent, Westwood One, which purchased Mutual in 1985, was the seventh in a string of new owners that followed General Tire.

Attempts at establishing cooperatively owned. In 1929, a group of four radio stations in the major markets of New York City, Chicago and Detroit organized into a loose confederation known as the Quality Network. Five years a similar or identical group of stations founded the Mutual Broadcasting System. Mutual's original participating stations were WOR–Newark, New Jersey, just outside New York, WGN–Chicago, WXYZ–Detroit, WLW–Cincinnati; the network was organized on September 29, 1934, with the members contracting for telephone-line transmission facilities and agreeing to collectively enter into contracts with advertisers for their networked shows. WOR and WGN, based in the two largest markets and providing the bulk of the programming, were the acknowledged leaders of the group. On October 29, 1934, Mutual Broadcasting System, Inc. was incorporated, with Bamberger and WGN Inc. each holding 50% of the stock—five each of the ten total shares. The three national radio networks in operation—the Columbia Broadcasting System and the National Broadcasting Company's NBC Red and NBC Blue—were corporate controlled: programming was produced by the network and distributed to affiliates, most of which were independently owned.

In contrast, the Mutual Broadcasting System was run as a true cooperative venture, with programming produced by and shared between the group's members. The majority of the early programming, from WOR and WGN, consisted of musical features and inexpensive dramatic serials. WOR had The Witch's Tale, a horror anthology series whose "hunner-an'-thirteen-year-old" narrator invited listeners to "douse all lights. Now draw up to the fire an' gaze into the embers...gaaaaze into'em deep!... an' soon ye'll be across the seas, in th' jungle land of Africa... hear that chantin' and them savage drums?" WGN contributed Abner. Detroit's WXYZ provided The Lone Ranger, which had debuted in 1933 and was in demand, it is claimed that Mutual was launched as a vehicle for the Western serial, but Lum and Abner was no less popular at the time. What WLW brought was sheer power. On May 24, 1935, the network aired its inaugural live event—the first-ever night baseball game, between the Cincinnati Reds and the Philadelphia Phillies.

In September, WXYZ dropped out to join NBC Blue


Gitzo S. A. is a manufacturer of photographic accessories, including bags, but specialising in tripods and supports. Gitzo was founded in France by Arsène Gitzhoven in 1917 producing wooden and metal cassette filmbacks, expanding to include a line of cameras and cable releases. Between 1942 and 1944 during World War II, the company produced military support systems. During the late 1940s, tripods and tripod heads were introduced into their product range, shortly after, Gitzhoven retired in 1960, succeeded by his daughter, Yvonne Plieger, who modeled in early Gitzo advertising photographs, she and her husband became more and more dedicated to creating a range of high quality photographic tripods. In 1992, Gitzo became part of the Vitec group, which owns Manfrotto. Vitec are described in corporate literature as "a multinational holding company specialised in supporting professional photographers and filmmakers." 1992 marked the discontinuance of products outside camera support systems, including tripods and tripod heads.

Gitzo introduced the first professional carbon fiber tripod and monopod at Photokina in 1994. The Gitzo factory in Paris was expanded in 1996 to 6,200 m2. In 2005, Gitzo completed their transfer of production from France to Italy, a process which began in 2001. In August 1999, Gitzo unveiled their revised "Mk2" aluminum tripod range, eliminating the rivets in the joint connecting the leg to the shoulder and repositioning the center column lock on rapid models to above the'spider'. A number of different designs have been introduced under Vitec: Explorer – legs may be locked at any intermediate position between 0° and 90°, the center column may be inclined relative to the'spider' where the tripod legs come together, allowing flexibility for close-up and macro photography similar to the movements afforded by the Benbo/Uni-loc tripod range. Traveler – legs may be swiveled up by 180° to nest the head within the legs for a more compact fold when traveling. Leveling – center column may adjust by up to 12° from vertical to allow rapid leveling of camera.

Ocean – stainless steel casting and sealed leg locks to minimize intrusion of corrosive environments, such as salt water. Discontinued by 2015. Gitzo have used a variety of materials. Early Gitzo tripods and monopods were manufactured from aluminum alloys, finished in the characteristic'noir décor' hammered grey powder coating process developed in the 1970s. In 1994, carbon fiber legs were introduced into the range. In 2004, Gitzo introduced a new "basalt" series with tubes manufactured from silica fibers drawn from crushed and melted basalt rock, touting its vibration-damping properties. By 2015, carbon fiber was the sole leg material offered. Today, most cast parts are made from magnesium, replacing the aluminum alloys used, although Gitzo have made limited production items with more exotic'spider' materials, such as titanium and carbon fiber. Gitzo used a series of names interchangeably with the current "series" notation: Gitzo used the term "performance" to distinguish tripods which offered multiple leg angles of 24° and 55°, compared with "standard" tripods that had a fixed leg opening angle of 24°.

"Mountaineer" tripods and monopods are manufactured with carbon fiber legs. "Safari" tripods and monopods featured an olive drab finish and reversed legs, where the largest-diameter section is on the bottom, to improve environmental sealing. When center columns are fitted to tripods, "rapid" columns are secured with a friction-based twist lock and "geared" or "crémaillère" use a rack-and-pinion mechanism to adjust column height coupled with a twist lock. "Compact" and "geant" tripods feature more leg sections either for a more compact package when folded or to reach greater heights. "Compact" is applied to special short rapid columns intended to allow the tripod to get closer to the ground. Products introduced after 2007 follow a standardized coding system: Notes For instance, GT3541L means the product is a Series 3 carbon fiber tripod with "long" four-section legs, release/generation 1. Official website "Gitzo". Flickr. Retrieved 21 July 2017. 1987: "Gitzo Catalogue". Gitzo SA. 1987. Retrieved 14 August 2017.

1987: "Gitzo Monopod Catalogue". Gitzo SA. 1987. Retrieved 14 August 2017. 1987: "Gitzo Safari Tripods". Gitzo SA. 1987. Retrieved 14 August 2017. 1997: "Gitzo Products". Gitzo. 1997. Archived from the original on 12 October 1997. Retrieved 22 September 2018. 2000: "Gitzo Products". Gitzo. 2000. Archived from the original on 16 August 2000. Retrieved 22 September 2018. 2007: "International Catalogue". Gitzo. 2007. Archived from the original on 5 April 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2017. 2008: "photokina 2008: 2009 catalogue preview". Issuu. 2008. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 2009: "2009 Collection". Issuu. 2009. Retrieved 5 December 2017. "2009 Collection". In-motiongroup. 2009. Retrieved 22 September 2018. 2011: "Safari collection". Issuu. 2010–2011. Retrieved 5 December 2017. CS1 maint: date format 2012: "Systematic". Singer Photo. 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2018. 2014: "Products catalogue". Issuu. 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 2015: "Gitzo Product Catalogue". Blende7. 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2017

Bentinckia nicobarica

Bentinckia nicobarica is a species of flowering plant in the family Arecaceae found to occur in the Nicobar group of islands in the Bay of Bengal. This is an endemic Palm occurring in Great Nicobar, Katchal and Car Nicobar Islands; the occurrence of this species in Andaman and Nicobar group of islands other than Katchal Island is yet to be confirmed as natural/escape or by human introduction. It is an endangered species according to IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2016 with Red List Category & Criteria as C2a ver 2.3. Living specimens of this taxon is conserving at Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah and at the Field Gene Bank of Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram in India. Bentinckia nicobarica grows about 20m girth is about 25 cm; the stems are used by the local people in fence construction. It is seen along with other palm species such as Areca catechu, Pinanga manii and Rhopaloblaste augusta. Arkive. Media related to Bentinckia nicobarica at Wikimedia Commons


Jurahylobittacus is an extinct genus of hangingfly in the family Bittacidae and containing a single species Jurahylobittacus astictus. The species is known only from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation, part of the Daohugou Beds, near the village of Daohugou in Ningcheng County, northeastern China. Jurahylobittacus astictus is known only from one fossil, the holotype, specimen numbers "CNU-M-NN2007002-1" and "CNU-M-NN2007002-2" for the part and counterpart respectively; the specimen is composed of an complete specimen of unidentified sex and is preserved as a compression fossil in a sedimentary rock. The fossil was recovered from outcrops of the Jiulongshan Formation exposed in the Wuhua Township by Chung-Kun Shih; the type specimen is preserved in the Key Lab of Insect Evolution & Environmental Changes collections housed in the Capital Normal University, located in Beijing, China. Jurahylobittacus was first studied by Yan-Li Li, Dong Ren and ChungKun Shih of the Capital Normal University.

Their 2008 type description of the genus and species was published online and in print in the journal Zootaxa. The generic name was coined by Li, Ren and Shih from a combination of "Jura" a reference to the Jurassic; the etymology of the specific epithet astictus is in reference to the lack of maculae present on any of the holotype specimens' wings. Jurahylobittacus astictus is one of six genera of fossil Bittacidae to be described from China. Along with Jurahylobittacus and Formosibittacus are known from the Jiulongshan Formation, while Megabittacus and Sibirobittacus are from the Yixian Formation and Liaobittacus is from the Haifanggou Formation; the holotype specimen is complete with only the apical sections of the legs obscured. The fore and hind-wings of Jurahylobittacus do not show any signs color pattering unlike the genus Formosibittacus which it lived alongside. Unlike Formosibittacus the wings of J. astictus do not have any maculae. The fore-wings are 12.6 millimetres long and the hind-wings are 10.3 millimetres long.

The hind and forewings are similar in overall vein structure to the extinct Sibirobittacus and to the modern Hylobittacus but can be distinguished from both by the finer venation details. Overall the wings of Jurahylobittacus have a narrow base section widening to 3 millimetres along most of the length, while the body was 18 millimetres in length

Brazilian destroyer Santa Catarina (1909)

Santa Catarina was a Pará-class destroyer of the Brazilian Navy, serving from 1910 to 1944. She was named after the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina; the ship had a beam of 23.5 feet and a draught of 7 5⁄6 feet. She was powered by 2 triple expansion reciprocating steam engines, driving two shafts, which developed a total of 6,982 indicated horsepower and gave a maximum design speed of 27 knots. During the trials the contract speed was exceeded, the vessel was clocked at 27.30 knots. Steam for the turbines was provided by two double-ended Yarrow boilers. Santa Catarina carried a maximum of 140 long tons of coal that gave her a range of 3,700 nautical miles at 14 knots; the ship mounted two 4 in guns in single mounts. In addition, four 47 mm cannons in single mounts were deployed at the time of launching; the official full speed trial for Santa Catarina took place on February 2, 1910 on the Skelmorlie deep-water measured mile at the mouth of the Clyde. During a continuous three hour run with a 100 ton load, the ship exceeded her contract speed of 27 knots.

"Santa Catarina II." Serviço de Documentação da Marinha — Histórico de Navios. Diretoria do Departamento de História Marítima. Accessed 27 August 2017. Gardiner and Randal Gray, eds. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1906–1921. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1985. ISBN 0-87021-907-3. OCLC 12119866. "CT Santa Catarina - CT 9." Navios De Guerra Brasileiros. Accessed 27 August 2017

Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator

"Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator" is a monospecific genus of bacteria, which lives in depths from 1.5–3 kilometres below the Earth's surface in the groundwater. The name comes from a quotation from Jules Verne's novel Journey to the Center of the Earth; the hero, Professor Lidenbrock, finds a secret inscription in Latin that reads: Descende, audax viator, et terrestre centrum attinges. It is the only bacterium found in water samples obtained 2.8 kilometres underground in the Mponeng gold mine in South Africa. Four micrometres in length, it has survived for millions of years on chemical food sources that derive from the radioactive decay of minerals in the surrounding rock; this makes it one of the few known organisms that does not depend on sunlight for nourishment, the only species known to be alone in its ecosystem. Ca. D. audaxviator has genes for extracting carbon from dissolved carbon dioxide and for nitrogen fixation. It may have acquired genes from a species of archaea by horizontal gene transfer.

They have been isolated from Earth's surface for several million years because analyses of the water that they live in showed that it is old and has not been diluted by surface water. As the environment at that depth is so much like the early Earth, it gives a clue as to what type of creatures might have existed before there was an oxygen atmosphere. Billions of years ago, some of the first bacteria on the planet may have thrived in similar conditions; the newly discovered microbes could shed light into the origins of life on Earth."Ca. D. audaxviator" is a Gram positive sulfate-reducing bacterium. The genome possesses many sites of insertion, its complete intolerance of oxygen suggests long-term isolation. The hydrocarbons in that environment do not come from living organisms; the source of the hydrogen needed for their respiration comes from the decomposition of water by radioactive decay of uranium and potassium. The radiation allows for the production of sulphur compounds that these bacteria can use as a high-energy source of food.

"Ca. D. audaxviator" not only survives in a complete absence of organic compounds and oxygen, but in temperatures as high as 60 °C and a pH of 9.3. The physiology that enables it to live in these extreme conditions is a tribute to its unusually large genome, consisting of 2157 genes instead of the 1500 of its peers. If conditions become unfavorable for normal life, "Ca. D. audaxviator" is able to encyst, safeguarding its DNA from heat, extreme pH, the lack of water. List of sequenced archaeal genomes AngloGold Ashanti, operator of the Mponeng gold mine Dylan Chivian. "Environmental genomics reveals a single-species ecosystem deep within the Earth". Science. 322: 275–278. Bibcode:2008Sci...322..275C. doi:10.1126/science.1155495. PMID 18845759