Musoma is a city in north west of Tanzania. It is the capital of one of the administrative Regions of Tanzania, it serves as the administrative centre of Musoma Rural District and Musoma Urban District. The city sits on the eastern edge of Lake Victoria, close to the International borders of Tanzania with Kenya and Uganda. Musoma is located 60 kilometres, directly south of the geographical point where the borders of the three East African countries intersect; the town is located 225 kilometres, by road, northeast of Mwanza, the nearest large city. Musoma lies 480 kilometres, by road, northwest of Arusha, the location of the headquarters of the East African Community; the coordinates of Musoma are:1° 30' 0.00"S, 33° 48' 0.00"E. The name Musoma comes from a spit; the name refers to Musoma's many spits pointing into the surrounding Lake Victoria. Among the current resident ethnic groups of Mara, the site that developed into the town of Musoma was first settled by the Kurya subtribe of Abhakabhwa called Wakabwa.
They gave the name to the location. Hence, Musoma originates from the Kabwa word'Omusoma', which means a piece of land that protrudes into the Lake a peninsula. All the kingdoms in Mara, which are sub-kingdoms of people with a common ancestry use the word'Omusoma' and'Omosoma'; the full name is "Omosoma ghwa Nyabhamba". Musoma was hotly contested and witnessed many intra-ethnic wars between the Wakabwa and their kins, the Wakiroba - who were second to arrive in the location after the Wakabwa; the Wakabwa were on the tip of winning the war. The Wakiroba were still heading for defeat. Seeing the situation worsen, the Wakwaya and Wakiroba sought support from the Germans, who at that time had arrived in Mwanza but not yet conquered present day Mara, it was under severe attacks by the German Canons that the Wakabwa and their allies the Luo could be defeated and chased away from the area. A legacy of this war are several mass graves just outside Musoma in Nyabhange in Kiroba Land. From that time on, the Wakiroba and Wakwaya became resident neighbors of Musoma, dominating its population for a long time.
Now Musoma is cosmopolitan. The first headquarters of the occupying Germans was established in Nyabangi, but - just like in the case of Bagamoyo on the Indian Ocean Coast, the first Capital of German East Africa - it was abandoned due to shallow waters that made an unsuitable location for a harbour. Musoma became the new capital. Today, the old German'Boma' is testimony to this history of Musoma; the town is situated in a indented bay. The Mara River, after which the administrative region of Mara Region is named, flows into Lake Victoria, in nearby Kirumi in Kiroba/Simbiti Land. Musoma has produced many famous Tanzanians. Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere, the father of the nation and de facto leader of its people from 1954 when he became Chairman of Tanganyika African National Union, attended Mwisenge Primary School in Musoma. So did Justice Joseph Sinde Warioba, the country's former Prime Minister and Vice President. In fact the student list of Mwisenge reads like a'who is who' in Tanzania's first Republic: Joseph Warioba Butiku, Col. Selemani Kitundu, Moses Mang'ombe, others.
Other senior politicians from Mara include late Bhoke Munanka, Stephen Wassira, late Abel Mwanga, Makongoro Nyerere, Nimrod Mkono, Dr. Steven Kebwe, Shyrose Bhanji,Prof Sospeter Muhongo, Vedastus Matayo Manynyi, Gaudencia Kabaka and Athony Mtaka. Mara has produced many top rank military leaders of the country, including three Chiefs of Defence Forces: Generals David Musuguri, Late Ernest Kyaro, George Waitara. Other generals from Mara include Late Maj. General Mwita Marwa, Brg. Gen Christopher Gimonge, Lt. Gen Sylvester Ryoba, Late Col. Dr M M Nsimba and Lt. Col. Dr. Josiah Mekere. A list of retired Ambassadors who hail from Mara include late James Ndobho, Nimrod Lugoe and Charles Nyirabu and Ambassador Joshua Opanga. On the list of notable retired Ambassadors to hail from Mara Region are the former lecturer at the University of Dar es Salaam, Ambassador Dr. Marwa Mwita Matiko, Ambassador Mrs Nyasugara Kadege, Ambassador Dr. James Nzagi and Ambassador Professor Joram Mukama Biswaro, now AU Chairperson's Representative in South Sudan.
Mara has produced several top notch academics. The list of senior academicians from Mara include: Prof Dominic Kamabarage the Vice Chancellor for Mwalimu Julius Nyerere University of Agriculture and Technology, Prof Majura Selekwa who heads the Mechatronics and Robotics Laboratories at North Dakota State University in USA, Transportation Engineering Professor Deo Chimba of Tennessee State University in USA, Professor Thobias Sando of University of North Florida, Economics professor Samuel Mwita Wangwe, Professor Lloyd M. Binagi, Professor Kohi, Professor Bwatondi, Professor Mohabe Nyirabu and the late Professor Paul Masyenene Biswalo, Professor Sarungi, Professor Daudi Mukangara, Professor Julius Nyang'oro and Professor Sospeter Muhongo, Tanzania's first professor of Geology. Prof. Muhongo is now a minister, Dr Nyankomo Wambura Marwa a Senior Lecturer and Development Finance scholar at the University of Stellenbosch Business School in South Africa and Herbert Sm
Katavi Region is one of Tanzania's 31 administrative regions with a postcode number 50000. The regional capital is Mpanda. In March 2012, shortly after the Katavi Region was created, Dr. Rajab Mtumwa Rutengwe was appointed Katavi Regional Commissioner, he was the Mpanda District Commissioner. The region is administratively divided into three districts
Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam is the former capital as well as the most populous city in Tanzania and a regionally important economic centre. Located on the Swahili coast, the city is one of the fastest growing cities in the world; until 1974, Dar es Salaam served as Tanzania’s capital city, at which point the capital city commenced transferring to Dodoma, completed in 1996. However, as of 2018, it continues to remain a focus of central government bureaucracy, although this is in the process of moving to Dodoma. In addition, it is Tanzania's most prominent city in arts, media, music and television and a leading financial centre; the city is the leading arrival and departure point for most tourists who visit Tanzania, including the national parks for safaris and the islands of Unguja and Pemba. Dar es Salaam is the largest and most populous Swahili-speaking city in the world, it is the capital of the co-extensive Dar es Salaam Region, one of Tanzania's 31 administrative regions and consists of five districts: Kinondoni in the north, Ilala in the centre, Temeke in the south and Kigamboni in the east across the Kurasini creek.
The region had a population of 4,364,541 as of the official 2012 census. In the 19th century, Mzizima was a coastal fishing village on the periphery of Indian Ocean trade routes. In 1865 or 1866, Sultan Majid bin Said of Zanzibar began building a new city close to Mzizima and named it Dar es Salaam; the name is translated as "abode/home of peace", based on the Arabic dar, the Arabic es salaam. Dar es Salaam fell into decline after Majid's death in 1870, but was revived in 1887 when the German East Africa Company established a station there; the town's growth was facilitated by its role as the administrative and commercial centre of German East Africa and industrial expansion resulting from the construction of the Central Railway Line in the early 1900s. German East Africa was captured by the British during World War I and became Tanganyika, with Dar es Salaam remaining the administrative and commercial centre. Under British indirect rule, separate European and African areas developed at a distance from the city centre.
The city's population included a large number of workers from British India, many of whom came to take advantage of the trade and commercial opportunities presented to them. After World War II, Dar es Salaam experienced a period of rapid growth. Political developments, including the formation and growth of the Tanganyika African National Union, led to Tanganyika attaining independence from colonial rule in December 1961. Dar es Salaam continued to serve as its capital when in 1964 Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form Tanzania. In 1973, provisions were made to relocate the capital to Dodoma, a more centrally located city in the interior; the relocation process has not yet been completed, Dar es Salaam remains Tanzania's primary city. In 1967, the Tanzanian government declared the Ujamaa policy, that set Tanzania into a socialist path; the move slowed down the potential growth of the city as the government encouraged people not to move in cities but stay in Ujamaa socialist villages. But by the 1980s the Ujamaa policy proved to be a failure in combating increasing poverty and hunger that Tanzania faced, delayed the development that it needed.
This led to the 1980s liberalization policy that ended socialism and its proponents within Tanzania's government. Until the late 1990s, Dar es Salaam was not put into the same category as Africa's leading cities like Nairobi, Lagos, or Addis Ababa, but the 2000s decade became the turning point as the city experienced one of Africa's fastest urbanization rates as businesses were opened and prospered, growth in the construction sector with multi-storey building and roads, Tanzanian banks headquartered in the city started to run more proper, the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange expanded, the Dar es Salaam harbour proved to be the most important in Tanzania and prominent for entrepot trade with landlocked countries like eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Zambia. The CBD skyline hosts tall buildings, among them the 35-floor PSPF Tower, finished in 2015, the Tanzania Ports Authority Tower under construction. Dar es Salaam is located at 6°48' South, 39°17' East, on a natural harbour on the eastern coast of East Africa, with sandy beaches in some areas.
The region of Dar es Salaam is divided into five districts. Dar es Salaam Region is divided into five administrative districts. All five are governed as municipal councils, so all of the city's suburbs or wards are affiliated with them; the regional commissioner is Paul Makonda. Kinondoni is the most populated amongst the districts, with half of the city's population residing within it, it is home to high-income suburbs. These include: Masaki and Ada Estate are the high-income suburbs located along the central beach. During the Colonial Era, they were the major European suburbs of the city. Now diplomats and expatriates reside in these areas. Oysterbay Beach known as Coco Beach, is the only white sandy beach east of Kinondoni. Mikocheni and Regent Estate are suburbs within the district. According to the 2012 census, the Mikocheni ward had a population of 32,947. Msasani is a peninsula to the northeast of the city center, it is home to expatriates from other western countries. Msasani contains a mixture of western-oriented resorts and stores.
Mbezi Beach is the beachfront suburb located along the northern Dar es Salaam Beach. It co
Central Line (Tanzania)
The Central Line known as the Tanganyika Railway is the most important railway line in Tanzania apart from TAZARA. It runs west from Dar es Salaam to Kigoma on Lake Tanganyika via Dodoma. A branch leads to Mwanza on Lake Victoria; the Central Line was the second railway project coming into existence in the colony of German East Africa after the Usambara Railway. For the Tanganjikabahn-project a company was founded, the Ostafrikanische Eisenbahngesellschaft which started railway construction in 1905 with 21 million marks provided by Adolph von Hansemann's Disconto-Gesellschaft bank; the building started at the capital of that time, Dar es Salam. From the start the engineers fought large difficulties, the tropical climate, periodic heavy rain and lack of appropriate building material. On the other hand, they could count on the experiences from the previous building of the Usambara Railway. There 1,000 mm, meter-gauge, was chosen; the Central Line is the largest technical inheritance of the German colonial age in Tanzania.
The route followed an old caravan route to Tabora. German settlers soon followed with plantations. So the small place of Tabora developed to a large agricultural centre. In 1907 Kilometer 200 was reached in the vicinity of the town of Morogoro. In 1909 the railhead reached Kilosa. Kigoma at Lake Tanganyika at kilometer 1252 was reached in 1914 just prior to First World War; the regular travel time over the total distance amounted to 58 hours. It was planned to develop the line further to Iringa and to reach Lake Malawi, a project, stopped due to the war; the construction of the line opened up trade between Lake Tanganyika and the east coast and spurred the growth of the ports at its termini. The British mandate added to the Central Line three branch lines: The most important one of 379 km from Tabora to Mwanza at the south bank of the Lake Victoria. Another one from Kilosa to Mikumi and a third one in 1931 from Manyoni to Kiniyangiri; the last one was shut down in 1948 already. After the independence of Tanzania the Central Line and the Usambara Railway were connected between the stations of Mruazi and Ruvu.
The Central Line starts at the Tanzanian metropolis of Dar es Salaam at the Indian Ocean with today's capital of Tanzania, Dodoma, in the center of the country and proceeds further to Tanzania’s most important port at the shore of Lake Tanganyika, Kigoma. It crosses central Tanzania with a length of 1,254 kilometers and overcomes the height of the east edge East African rift valley; the main stations on this line are: Dar es Salaam, Morogoro, Dodoma, Manyoni and Kaliua. The Mwanza Railway line connects with the main line at Tabora station and ends at Mwanza railway station; the distance covered by this railway line is 378 km. Its construction started at Tabora in 1923 and ended in Mwanza in 1928. A dry port was constructed at the town for freight transport to Rwanda and Burundi; the main stations along the Mwanza Railway line are: Tabora, Isaka and Mwanza. Today’s railservices are offered by the Tanzania Railways Corporation; the timetable offers three passenger services per week in each direction covering the whole length of the line.
A trip from Dar es Salam to Kigoma takes 40 hours today according to the timetable. The long time of travel is due to the poor state of the railway’s infrastructure, which originates to a large extent still from the German colonial times. Three classes are offered, whereby the second class provides sleeping cars and the first class offers sleeping cars only; the standard of a sleeping car of second class corresponds rather to a couchette by European standards. Flooding in December 2009 caused serious disruption. History of rail transport in Tanzania Rail transport in Tanzania Railway stations in Tanzania Franz Balzer: Die Kolonialbahnen mit besonderer Berücksichtigung Afrikas. Berlin 1916. Reprint: Leipzig 2008. ISBN 978-3-8262-0233-9. Helmut Schroeter: Die Eisenbahnen der ehemaligen deutschen Schutzgebiete Afrikas und ihre Fahrzeuge = Die Fahrzeuge der deutschen Eisenbahnen 7. Frankfurt 1961. Interior of a 1st class passenger car of the Tanganjikabahn previous to 1918 Construction of the Central Line.
UN map Interactive map of Tanzania railways
Dodoma Region is one of Tanzania's 31 administrative regions. The regional capital is the city of Dodoma. According to the 2012 national census, the region had a population of 2,083,588, lower than the pre-census projection of 2,214,657. For 2002-2012, the region's 2.1 percent average annual population growth rate was the twentieth highest in the country. It was the seventeenth most densely populated region with 50 people per square kilometer; the main tribes of the region are the Gogo, the Warangi, the Wasandawi. The city of Dodoma, the largest city and capital of the region began as a small Gogo village in the early 19th century, consisting of several traditional tembe houses; the city was formally established in 1907 by German colonists during construction of the Tanzanian central railway. The region has a long history of famine and economic difficulties. Along with Kondoa and Singida it was struck hard by the famine of the 1910s. One report by a British officer in Dodoma in December 1916 reported that "The whole District has been ransacked for cattle".
The Germans had killed 26,000 animals, the British 5,659. The problems continued throughout 1917, in November 1917 drought turned it into a crisis; some 30,000, about 1 in 5 of the population of the district at the time died. Thousands of people emigrated, others sold starving cattle for just a shilling at the market in Dodoma. Smallpox was prevalent, a Spanish influenza epidemic killed an estimated 50,000–80,000 in Tanganyika between 1918 and 1920; when the British took over the country, they favoured Dar es Salaam and Arusha, the area began to decline in importance. The importance declined further in the 1960s when the Tanzam Highway was built by the Chinese, connecting Dar es Salaam to Morogoro and Iringa. On 9 December 1961, Tanganyika won independence from Britain, Dodoma remained the capital of the Central Province. In 1963, the provinces of the new nation were divided into smaller administrative units and were renamed regions, the Dodoma Region was established. However, in 1973, the Tanzanian government announced that the capital would be moved from Dar es Salaam to a more central location to better serve the needs of the people.
Dodoma was selected for this purpose, as it was an established town at a major crossroads with an agreeable climate and scope for development. The same year, the Tanzanian government launched a national soil conservation programme, known as the Dodoma Soil Conservation Programme, to improve soil fertility and productivity in the worst affected areas of the region; the Dodoma Region lies in the heart of Tanzania in the eastern-central part of the country, the main city being about 300 miles from the coast. The region, semi-arid, covers an area of 41,311 square kilometres, making it larger than Switzerland; the region is bordered by the Manyara Region to the north, the Tanga region to the north east, the Singida Region to the west, the Iringa Region to the south, the Morogoro Region to the east and southeast. The Wami River Sub-Basin "extends from the semi-arid Dodoma region to the humid inland swamps in the Morogoro region to Saadani Village in the coastal Bagamoyo district", the Kikuyu River flows through the region, flowing near the city of Dodoma itself.
The region produces beans, grain, coffee and tobacco. Cattle are raised and marketed; the region is administratively divided into seven districts: Dodoma is the centre of educational activity in the region, with two universities as of 2009. The University of Dodoma is situated at a 6,000 hectare site in the Chimwaga area about 8 kilometres east of downtown Dodoma. Established in 2007, in coordination with Tanzania’s Development Vision 2025, the University of Dodoma is expected to have some 50,000 students when functional. More than double the size of the University of Dar es Salaam; the university had an expected enrollment of 40,000 five years after opening. The second university is the St. John's University of Tanzania. Dodoma region is connected by paved trunk road that starts in Dar es Salaam on the coast, passes through Morogoro and Singida, ends at the Rwanda border. In 2016, a paved trunk road to Iringa was opened; the trunk road to Babati in Manyara Region was completed as of early 2018.
Dodoma lies along the Great North Road, a major infrastructural network of Africa which connects Cairo to Cape Town. The central railway of Tanzania passes through the city of Dodoma; the region is served by Dodoma Airport, 2 mi by road from the train station, about in the center of the city. Official website of the region
Arusha Region is one of Tanzania's 31 administrative regions. Its capital and largest city is the city of Arusha; the region is bordered by Kajiado County and Narok County in Kenya to the north, the Kilimanjaro Region to the east, the Manyara and Singida regions to the south, the Mara and Simiyu regions to the west. Major towns include Monduli, Namanga and Loliondo to the north, Mto wa Mbu and Karatu to the west, Usa River to the east; the region is comparable in size to the combined land and water areas of the United States state of Maryland. Arusha Region is the center of the northern Tanzania safari circuit; the national parks and reserves in this region include Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Arusha National Park, the Loliondo Game Controlled Area, part of Lake Manyara National Park. Remains of 600-year-old stone structures are found at Engaruka, just off the dirt road between Mto wa Mbu and Lake Natron. With a HDI of 0.721, Arusha is one among the most developed regions of Tanzania. Much of the present area of Arusha Region used to be Maasai land.
The Maasai are still the dominant community in the region. Their influence is reflected in the present names of towns, regional culture and geographical features; the administrative region of Arusha existed in 1922 while mainland Tanzania was a British mandate under the League of Nations and known as Tanganyika. In 1948, the area was in the Northern Province, which includes the present day regions of Manyara and Kilimanjaro. In 1966, under the newly independent Tanzanian government, Arusha was given its own regional status. In 2002, Manyara Region was split from Arusha Region. Portions of the former Arusha Region districts of Kiteto, Mbulu, a tiny piece of Monduli were incorporated into the Manyara Region. Arusha was the largest region in Tanzania from 1966-2002; the Great Rift Valley runs through the middle of the region north-to-south. Oldonyo Lengai is an active volcano to the north of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. Altitudes throughout the region vary but much of it ranges from 900 to 1,600 metres in elevation.
Mount Meru, the second highest mountain in Tanzania after Mount Kilimanjaro, peaks at 4,655 metres. Arusha Region has the highest number of extinct volcanoes in Tanzania. Other geographical features include the Monduli Mountains, Mount Loolmalasin, Mount Longido, the Olduvai Gorge; the city of Arusha, the capital of the region, is located at the southern foot of Mount Meru. The majority of Arusha residents live in the city and the surrounding southeastern part of Arusha Region. Arusha Region is divided into six districts, each administered by a council. Arusha National Park Empakaai Crater Engaruka Great Rift Valley Lake Manyara National Park Mount Longido Forest Reserve Mount Meru Forest Reserve Ngorongoro Conservation Area Ngurdoto Crater Oldonyo Lengai Olduvai Gorge Uhuru Monument According to the 2012 national census, the Arusha Region had a population of 1,694,310; the region is inhabited by communities. Among these are the Iraqw, Maasai, Sonjo, Chagga and Nguu. Nyama Choma, the northern Tanzanian barbecue, is a popular dish among some communities in the Arusha Region the Maasai.
Nyama Choma is properly served with a side of french fries, Pili Pili sauce and a cold local beer or soda. The A-23 Arusha-Himo road runs east-west and enters the region near Kilimanjaro International Airport, it connects Arusha with Moshi and Himo at the Kenyan border. This roads ends at its junction with the A-104 road in the center of Arusha; the A-104 runs northward, to the west of Mount Meru, from Arusha to Longido and Namanga at the Kenyan border before continuing to Nairobi. The A-104 runs westward past Monduli to its junction at Makuyuni with the B-144 road that leads to Mto wa Mbu and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. After that, the A-104 curves southward to the east of Lake Manyara and continues on to Babati and Dodoma. Most overland travel is done by bus from the city of Arusha. Within the city and smaller towns owned and operated dala-dalas are used; the region is landlocked, there are no navigable rivers. The larger lakes in the Rift Valley are not used for transportation; the region is home to Lake Eyasi, Lake Natron, Lake Duluti, Lake Empakaai, the Momella lakes.
Arusha Region is served by the Kilimanjaro International Airport located in Hai District of Kilimanjaro Region. Its international carriers are Airkenya Express, Air Uganda, Edelweiss Air, Ethiopian Airlines, Kenya Airways, KLM, Precision Air, Qatar Airways, RwandAir, Safarilink Aviation, Turkish Airlines; the smaller Arusha Airport serves small and personal planes to popular tourist areas such as Serengeti National Park, Ndutu, Zanzibar etc. Planes using Kisongo Airport include Coastal Air, Flying Doctors, AMREF, Precision Air, TFC, Auric Air, Grumeti Air and other personal planes. Filbert Bayi grew up in the Arusha Region. Edward Sokoine Tanzania's second prime minister Edward Lowassa Tanzania's tenth prime minister from 2005-2008 Frederick Sumaye Tanzania's ninth prime minister from 1995-2005 The chief administrative officer of the region is the regional commissioner. Below is a table showing the regional commissioners serving the Arusha region from 1962 to present: Arusha Accords Arusha Airport Arusha Cultural Heritage Centre Arusha Declaration Geography of Tanzania Mguu wa Zuberi Selian River Language map for Tanzania MS Training Centre for Development Cooperation
Bukoba is a city situated in the north west of The United Republic of Tanzania on the south western shores of Lake Victoria. It is the capital of the Kagera region, the administrative seat for Bukoba Urban District. Population estimate: 100,000; the city is served by Bukoba Airport and regular ferry connections to and from Mwanza, as well as roads linking to Uganda's Rakai District for the cross border car commuters with plans underway for a standard gauge railway construction to fulfil the high ambitions of Uganda. Situated on the south western shores of Lake Victoria, Bukoba lies only 1 degree south of the Equator. Bukoba city is situated at the South Western shores of Lake Victoria in the north western region of The United Republic Of Tanzania; the regional capital and Kagera's biggest town is the gateway to the region. At the moment Bukoba is Tanzania's second largest port on the lake such as Mwanza. Bukoba is at the moment is served by the National Electric Utility Company TANESCO; the climate is mild most of the year.
It can sometimes get cool in the evenings during the two rainy seasons, but never as cold as the winter season in Europe. Kagera's Regional Commissioner Col. Fabian Massawe resides and has his head office in The Bukoba Central Business District; the city is compact, forming a bowl as it is surrounded by hills. The town has a bus stand, a big airport and a port with a ferry that used to travel from Bukoba via Kemondo bay port to Mwanza on Monday,Wednesday and Friday nights, but was suspended in 2014 when the ferry broke down irreparably; the Airport is located south east of the city. The address on Sokoine Road. Auric Air flies three times a day to Mwanza. In 2010 the airport was being extended as more flights were expected in line with capacity growth milestones of The Air Terminal reviewed after published reports every quarter of the year. Bus Station from Kampala for Bukoba at 11 am every day, it boasts a large market, a port tennis courts and a swimming pool. It has 3 banks, two of which take VISA cards in the ATM.
Bukoba Town itself has the status of a municipal Council. It has a municipal Director and other local government officials like other district councils in the region. Bukoba is represented in the Tanzanian Premier League by football club Kagera Sugar, it is the home to several charities - including SHARE in Jambo Bukoba. Both are focused on the educational sector; the Kaitaba Stadium is found in south east of Bukoba on Jamhuri Road. Official Bukoba webguide