John "Jabo" Starks
John Henry "Jabo" Starks was an American funk and blues drummer best known for playing with James Brown as well as other notable musicians including Bobby Bland and B. B. King. A self-taught musician, he was known for his clean drum patterns, he was one of one of the most sampled drummers. Starks was born in Alabama, to Prince Starks and Ruth Watkins. One of five children he was nicknamed "Jabo" as a newborn, he grew up in Alabama. In seventh grade he was captivated by drum beats at a Mardi Gras parade in Mobile and decided to pursue drumming, he had no formal training. He said. Early on, he was influenced by the gospel music he heard in church. One of his drum idols was Shep Sheppard of the Bill Doggett band, he graduated at the time a high school. He performed at the Harlem Duke Social Club where he backed notable blues and R&B musicians including John Lee Hooker, Smiley Lewis, Clarence "Gatemouth" Brown, Big Mama Thornton and Howlin' Wolf. In 1959 Starks was the youngest member of the band, he said band members Pluma Davis and Joe Scott taught him the importance of holding the drum rhythm steady and having other musicians lock-in with drums.
He said musically, the best band he played with. He was with the band from 1959 to 1965 and recorded on the band's releases over this period, including "Turn on Your Love Light", "Stormy Monday Blues", "That's the Way Love Is", "I Pity the Fool" and "Don't Cry No More", he recorded with other artists during this time such as Junior Parker and Joe Hinton, on songs "Driving Wheel" and "Funny". In 1965 Starks joined James Brown's band. From 1965 to 1970 the band had two drummers and Clyde Stubblefield. Starks came from a blues background whereas Stubblefield came from a soul and jazz background, they each performed solo on songs. The two "created the grooves on many of Brown's biggest hits, laid the foundation for modern funk drumming in the process." In 1970 the band went through a major transformation with Stubblefield leaving the group in late 1970. Starks continued performing with the reconfigured band which became known as The J. B.'s. Band members included bassist Bootsy Collins and rhythm guitarist Catfish Collins who along with Starks formed the rhythm section.
The band included trombonist Fred Wesley. Starks toured and recorded with Brown until 1976. Starks' recordings during his eleven year association with Brown include "The Payback", "Sex Machine", "Soul Power", "Super Bad", "Talkin' Loud and Sayin' Nothing", "Doing It to Death", "Papa Don't Take No Mess", "Licking Stick – Licking Stick", he backed artists produced or managed by Brown, most notably Lyn Collins and Bobby Byrd, as well as the independent works released by The J. B.'s. Uncredited and Stubblefield rank as two of the most sampled drummers on contemporary hip hop and R&B recordings. Starks’ drum patterns have been sampled by LL Cool J, Kendrick Lamar, The Roots, A Tribe Called Quest, Black Eyed Peas, Kool Moe Dee, Rob Base and DJ E-Z Rock and others. About the lack of recognition he said "the least they could do is say where they got from."Starks left Brown's band in mid-1970s and joined blues artist B. B. King. Starks was well versed in blues music in his early career. In regard to his transition from uptempo funk to laid back blues, he said "to me, everything stems from playing the blues anyway."
He recorded with King for six years. His recordings with King include King Size. Starks and Stubblefield remained friends. In 1999 they performed on The J. B.'s album Bring the Funk on Down. The duo went on to release original music as the Funkmasters, they released the album Find the Groove in 2001 and the album Come Get Summa This in 2006. They released an instructional video titled Soul of the Funky Drummers. In 2007 the duo joined Bootsy Collins for the first tribute concert in memory of James Brown and performed on the soundtrack for the movie Superbad. In his years Starks lived in Mobile, Alabama. From the mid-1990s onward, when not touring or recording, he performed five nights a week at the Picolo Restaurant and Red Bar in Grayton Beach, on Sundays he played drums at his church in Mobile, he performed until March 2018. He said over the years. Starks died on May 1, 2018, at his home in Mobile, Alabama, at the age of 80, he was survived by his wife Naomi Taplin Starks, a daughter, a son, two grandchildren.
In 2013 Starks and Stubblefield received the Yamaha Legacy Award. In 2016 Rolling Stone magazine named Stubblefield the sixth best drummer of all time. According to National Public Radio, "the grooves the two drummers created have inspired generations of artists – not just in funk, but in hip-hop, where their steady but intricate patterns make natural material for sampling."Bassist Bootsy Collins called Starks the steady rock that he built his bass grooves on while with James Brown. Trombonist Fred Wesley called Starks his favorite drummer and said "I could just lose myself in that'stop your heart' groove and just blow free.” According to The Pacemakers drummer Frank "Kash" Waddy, Starks was a disciplined player and his "forte was to play clean straight ahead."According to drummer-journalist Ahmir Thompson, Starks was Brown’s "most effective drummer" and called his eight-on-the-floor style "unique". He credits Starks' drum patterns for the birth of New Jack Swing and Baltimore club/Jersey club styles.
Drummer-author Jim Payne wrote: Starks "
Matthew Russell Rolston is an American artist, photographer and creative director. Rolston is known for his signature lighting techniques and detailed approach to art direction and design and has been identified throughout his career with the revival and modern expression of Hollywood glamour. Born in Los Angeles, Rolston studied drawing and painting in his home town at the Chouinard Art Institute and Otis College of Art & Design, as well as in the Bay Area at the San Francisco Art Institute, he studied illustration, photography and film at Art Center College of Design in Pasadena, where in 2006, he received an Honorary Doctorate. While still a student at Art Center, Rolston was "discovered" by Andy Warhol, for Warhol's celebrity focused Interview magazine, where he began a successful career in photography. Soon after, Rolston began shooting covers and editorial assignments for founding editor Jann Wenner of Rolling Stone, as well as for other publications such as Harper’s Bazaar, Vanity Fair, W, GQ, Cosmopolitan, O: The Oprah Magazine and The New York Times.
Rolston has completed thousands of photoshoots in his career, including over 100 covers for Rolling Stone alone. Rolston's career spans the areas of photography, creative direction, experiential design, product design, new media ventures, fine art and publishing. Four monographs have been published of Rolston’s work: Big Pictures, A Book of Photographs, a collection of early work with an introduction by Tim Burton, published by Bullfinch Press, New York. Rolston conceives and directs film projects, having directed over 100 music videos and 200 television commercials in his career, including collaborations with artists as diverse as Madonna, Janet Jackson, Beyoncé Knowles, Miley Cyrus and Marilyn Manson, as well as numerous advertising campaigns - both print and television - for clients such as L’Oreal, Estée Lauder, Levi's, Elizabeth Arden and Polo Ralph Lauren, among others. Rolston’s original short film The Most Beautiful Woman in the World was screened as part of SF Shorts: The San Francisco International Festival of Short Films.
The Whitney Museum of American Art screened Whatta Man as part of its Through the Lens of the Blues Aesthetic: An Evening of Short Films Selected by Kevin Everson. Other films include Foolish Games for musical artist Jewel, which received a nomination for Most Stylish Music Video at the 1997 VH1 Vogue Fashion Awards. Responding to client needs, Rolston established a production unit he calls ‘R-ROLL’, its mission is to provide his clients with behind-the-scenes documentaries of his photo and creative direction assignments. According to Rolston, “there’s an overwhelming demand for filmed content, as clients expand their reach beyond traditional media.” R-ROLL was created to serve Rolston’s usual mix of editorial, advertising and hospitality clients. “I decided to call it R-ROLL as a joke on ‘B-roll’. The ‘R’ is for ‘Rolston'.” Since its inception, R-ROLL has produced projects for clients including Inc.. Amazon.com, ESPN and A&E/Lifetime Networks, among others. Said Rolston, “We’re now entering an era where the ‘making of’ is just as important as the ‘of’.
And clients seem to enjoy the integration of our media services. Print, design, you might say we’re a ‘one-stop-shop'.” Rolston has appeared as a guest expert on a spectrum of beauty-oriented broadcast programs, from Bravo's Shear Genius and Make Me a Supermodel to the CW's America's Next Top Model. As Rolston began to redefine the scope of his career, he expanded his practice into the fields of creative direction and branding, developing innovative projects in the area of experiential design, including hospitality projects, product design and new media ventures. Rolston’s first hospitality brand creation, developed for Los Angeles-based hotel and restaurant owner Sam Nazarian’s company sbe Entertainment, opened in 2010. Called The Redbury, Rolston was involved in every aspect of the project, from the naming to the logo, from design concepts to marketing strategies; as the brand's creative director, he oversaw every detail with an extensive team that included architects, interior designers, graphic designers, music supervisors, scent experts, the uniform company that created the staff wardrobe, more.
Rolston has created four photographic fine art projects that have led to a series of publications and exhibitions. Talking Heads: The Vent Haven Portraits, which consists of monumental portraits of ventriloquial figures housed in the Vent Haven Museum in Fort Mitchell, was Rolston's first self-assigned photographic series; the work debuted at Diane Rosenstein Fine Art in Los Angeles and has since traveled to venues in Miami and Berlin, among others. Rolston's third published monograph accompanied the exhibition. Hollywood Royale: Out of the School of Los An
Dance-pop is a pop and dance subgenre that originated in the early 1980s. It is uptempo music intended for nightclubs with the intention of being danceable but suitable for contemporary hit radio. Developing from a combination of electronic dance music and pop music, with influences of disco, post-disco and synth-pop, it is characterised by strong beats with easy, uncomplicated song structures which are more similar to pop music than the more free-form dance genre, with an emphasis on melody as well as catchy tunes; the genre, on the whole, tends to be producer-driven, despite some notable exceptions. Dance-pop borrowed influences from other genres, which varied by producer and period; such include contemporary R&B, trance, new jack swing, synthpop and some forms of Europop. Dance-pop is a popular mainstream style of music and there have been numerous pop artists and groups who perform in the genre. Notable ones include Cher, Britney Spears, Kylie Minogue, Gloria Estefan, Christina Aguilera, Jennifer Lopez, Spice Girls, Paula Abdul, Backstreet Boys, Michael Jackson, NSYNC, Destiny's Child, Janet Jackson, Taylor Swift, Miley Cyrus, Katy Perry, Lady Gaga, Ariana Grande and Selena Gomez As the term "disco" started to go out of fashion by the late 1970s to early 1980s, other terms were used to describe disco-based music, such as "post-disco", "club", "dance" or "dance-pop" music.
These genres were, in essence, a more modern variant of disco music known as post-disco, which tended to be more experimental and producer/DJ-driven using sequencers and synthesizers. Dance-pop music emerged in the 1980s as a combination of dance and pop, or post-disco, uptempo and simple, club-natured, producer-driven and catchy. Dance-pop was more uptempo and dancey than regular pop, yet more structured and less free-form than dance music combining pop's easy structure and catchy tunes with dance's strong beat and uptempo nature. Dance-pop music was created and produced by record producers who would hire singers to perform the songs. In the beginning of the 1980s, disco was an anathema to the mainstream pop. According to prominent Allmusic critic Stephen Thomas Erlewine, Madonna had a huge role in popularizing dance music as mainstream music, utilizing her charisma and sex appeal. Erlewine claimed that Madonna "launched dance-pop" and set the standard for the genre for the next two decades.
As the primary songwriter on her self-titled debut album and a co-producer by her third record, Madonna's insistence on being involved in all creative aspects of her work was unusual for a female dance-pop vocalist at the time. The staff of Vice magazine stated that her debut album "drew the blueprint for future dance-pop."In the 1980s, dance-pop was aligned to other uptempo electronic genres, such as Hi-NRG. Prominent producers in the 1980s included Stock and Waterman, who created Hi-NRG/dance-pop for artists such as Kylie Minogue, Dead or Alive and Bananarama. During the decade, dance-pop borrowed influences from funk, new jack swing, contemporary R&B. Other prominent dance-pop artists and groups of the 1980s included the Pet Shop Boys and Kim, Samantha Fox, Debbie Gibson, Tiffany. By the 1990s, dance-pop had become a major genre in popular music. Several dance-pop groups and artists emerged during the 1990s, such as the Spice Girls, Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera, Jessica Simpson, Backstreet Boys, and'NSYNC.
During the early 1990s, dance-pop borrowed influences from house music, as well as contemporary R&B and new jack swing. By the late 1990s, electronic influences became evident in dance-pop music. Additionally in 1998, Cher released a dance-pop song called "Believe" which made usage of a technological innovation of the time, Auto-Tune. An audio processor and a form of pitch modification software, Auto-Tune is used as a way to correct pitch and to create special effects. Since the late 1990s, the use of Auto-Tune processing has become a common feature of dance-pop music. Celine Dion released a midtempo dance-pop song, "That's the Way It Is" by the end of 1999. During this period, some British bands connected with Britpop and alternative pop experimented with dance pop as a form - examples include Catatonia single Karaoke Queen, Kenickie's final single Stay in the Sun and Romo band Orlando's major label debut single "Just For A Second." Another Britpop band, Theaudience was fronted by Sophie Ellis Bextor who went on to a successful solo career in artist-driven dance-pop.
At the beginning of the 2000s, dance-pop music was still prominent, electronic in style, influenced by genres such as trance, house and electro. Nonetheless, as R&B and hip hop became popular from the early part of the decade onwards, dance-pop borrowed a lot of its influences from urban music. Dance-pop stars from the 1980s and 1990s such as Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera, Janet Jackson and Kylie Minogue continued to achieve success at the beginning of the decade. Whilst a lot of dance-pop at the time was R&B-influenced, many records started to return to their disco roots.
UK Singles Chart
The UK Singles Chart is compiled by the Official Charts Company, on behalf of the British record industry, listing the top-selling singles in the United Kingdom, based upon physical sales, paid-for downloads and streaming. The Official Chart, broadcast on BBC Radio 1 and MTV, is the UK music industry's recognised official measure of singles and albums popularity because it is the most comprehensive research panel of its kind, today surveying over 15,000 retailers and digital services daily, capturing 99.9% of all singles consumed in Britain across the week, over 98% of albums. To be eligible for the chart, a single is defined by the Official Charts Company as either a'single bundle' having no more than four tracks and not lasting longer than 25 minutes or one digital audio track not longer than 15 minutes with a minimum sale price of 40 pence; the rules have changed many times as technology has developed, the most notable being the inclusion of digital downloads in 2005 and streaming in July 2014.
The OCC website contains the Top 100 chart. Some media outlets only list the Top 75 of this list; the chart week runs from 00:01 Friday to midnight Thursday, with most UK physical and digital singles being released on Fridays. From 3 August 1969 until 5 July 2015, the chart week ran from 00:01 Sunday to midnight Saturday; the Top 40 chart is first issued on Friday afternoons by BBC Radio 1 as The Official Chart from 16:00 to 17:45, before the full Official Singles Chart Top 100 is posted on the Official Charts Company's website. A rival chart show, The Vodafone Big Top 40, is based on iTunes downloads and commercial radio airplay across the Global Radio network only, is broadcast on Sunday afternoons from 16:00 to 19:00 on 145 local commercial radio stations across the United Kingdom; the Big Top 40 is not regarded by the industry or wider media. There is a show called "Official KISS Top 40", counting down 40 most played songs on Kiss FM every Sunday 17:00 to 19:00; the UK Singles Chart began to be compiled in 1952.
According to the Official Charts Company's statistics, as of 1 July 2012, 1,200 singles have topped the UK Singles Chart. The precise number of chart-toppers is debatable due to the profusion of competing charts from the 1950s to the 1980s, but the usual list used is that endorsed by the Guinness Book of British Hit Singles and subsequently adopted by the Official Charts Company; the company regards a selected period of the New Musical Express chart and the Record Retailer chart from 1960 to 1969 as predecessors for the period prior to 11 February 1969, where multiples of competing charts coexisted side by side. For example, the BBC compiled its own chart based on an average of the music papers of the time; the first number one on the UK Singles Chart was "Here in My Heart" by Al Martino for the week ending date 14 November 1952. As of the week ending date 18 April 2019, the UK Singles Chart has had 1352 different number-one hits; the current number-one single is "Someone You Loved" by Lewis Capaldi.
Before the compilation of sales of records, the music market measured a song's popularity by sales of sheet music. The idea of compiling a chart based on sales originated in the United States, where the music-trade paper Billboard compiled the first chart incorporating sales figures on 20 July 1940. Record charts in the UK began in 1952, when Percy Dickins of the New Musical Express gathered a pool of 52 stores willing to report sales figures. For the first British chart Dickins telephoned 20 shops, asking for a list of the 10 best-selling songs; these results were aggregated into a Top 12 chart published in NME on 14 November 1952, with Al Martino's "Here in My Heart" awarded the number-one position. The chart became a successful feature of the periodical. Record Mirror compiled its own Top 10 chart for 22 January 1955; the NME chart was based on a telephone poll. Both charts expanded in size, with Mirror's becoming a Top 20 in October 1955 and NME's becoming a Top 30 in April 1956. Another rival publication, Melody Maker, began compiling its own chart.
It was the first chart to include Northern Ireland in its sample. Record Mirror began running a Top 5 album chart in July 1956. In March 1960, Record Retailer had a Top 50 singles chart. Although NME had the largest circulation of charts in the 1960s and was followed, in March 1962 Record Mirror stopped compiling its own chart and published Record Retailer's instead. Retailer began independent auditing in January 1963, has been used by the UK Singles Chart as the source for number-ones since the week ending 12 March 1960; the choice of Record Retailer as the source has been criticised. With available lists of which record shops were sampled to compile the charts some shops were subjected to "hyping" but, with Record Retailer being less followed than some charts, it was subject to less hyping. Additionally, Retailer was set up by independent record shops and had no funding or affiliation with record companies. However, it had a smaller sample size than some ri
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
The twelve-inch single is a type of gramophone record that has wider groove spacing and shorter playing time compared to LPs. This allows for louder levels to be cut on the disc by the mastering engineer, which in turn gives a wider dynamic range, thus better sound quality; this record type is used in disco and dance music genres, where DJs use them to play in clubs. They are played at either 45 rpm. Twelve-inch singles have much shorter playing time than full-length LPs, thus require fewer grooves per inch; this extra space permits a broader dynamic range or louder recording level as the grooves' excursions can be much greater in amplitude in the bass frequencies important for dance music. Many record companies began producing 12-inch singles at 33 1⁄3 rpm, although 45 rpm gives better treble response and was used on many twelve-inch singles in the UK; the gramophone records cut for dance-floor DJs came into existence with the advent of recorded Jamaican mento music in the 1950s. By at least 1956 it was standard practice by Jamaican sound systems owners to give their "selecter" DJs acetate or flexi disc dubs of exclusive mento and Jamaican rhythm and blues recordings before they were issued commercially.
Songs such as Theophilus Beckford's "Easy Snappin'" were played as exclusives by Sir Coxson's Downbeat sound system for years before they were released in 1959 – only to become major local hits pressed in the UK by Island Records and Blue Beat Records as early as 1960. As the 1960s creativity bloomed along, with the development of multitrack recording facilities, special mixes of rocksteady and early reggae tunes were given as exclusives to dancehall DJs and selecters. With the 1967 Jamaican invention of remix, called dub on the island, those "specials" became valuable items sold to allied sound system DJs, who could draw crowds with their exclusive hits; the popularity of remix sound engineer King Tubby, who singlehandedly invented and perfected dub remixes from as early as 1967, led to more exclusive dub plates being cut. By 10-inch records were used to cut those dubs. By 1971, most reggae singles issued in Jamaica included on their B-side a dub remix of the A-side, many of them first tested as exclusive "dub plates" on dances.
Those dubs included drum and bass-oriented remixes used by sound system selecters. The 10-inch acetate "specials" would remain popular until at least the 2000s in Jamaica. Several Jamaican DJs such as DJ Kool Herc exported much of the hip hop dance culture from Jamaica to the Bronx in the early 1970s, including the common Jamaican practice of DJs rapping over instrumental dub remixes of hit songs leading to the advent of rap culture in the United States. Most the widespread use of exclusive dub acetates in Jamaica led American DJs to do the same. In the United States, the twelve-inch single gramophone record came into popularity with the advent of disco music in the 1970s after earlier market experiments. In early 1970, Cycle/Ampex Records test-marketed a twelve-inch single by Buddy Fite, featuring "Glad Rag Doll" backed with "For Once in My Life"; the experiment aimed to energize the struggling singles market, offering a new option for consumers who had stopped buying traditional singles. The record was pressed at 33 rpm, with identical run times to the seven-inch 45 rpm pressing of the single.
Several hundred copies were made available for sale for 98 cents each at two Tower Records stores. Another early twelve-inch single was released in 1973 by soul/R&B musician/songwriter/producer Jerry Williams, Jr. a.k.a. Swamp Dogg. Twelve-inch promotional copies of "Straight From My Heart" were released on his own Swamp Dogg Presents label, with distribution by Jamie/Guyden Distribution Corporation, it was manufactured by Jamie Record Co. of Pennsylvania. The B-side of the record is blank; the first large-format single made for DJs was a ten-inch acetate used by a mix engineer in need of a Friday-night test copy for famed disco mixer Tom Moulton. The song was; as no 7-inch acetates could be found, a 10–inch blank was used. Upon completion, found that such a large disc with only a couple of inches worth of grooves on it made him feel silly wasting all that space, he asked Rodríguez to re-cut it so that the grooves looked more spread out and ran to the normal center of the disc. Rodriguez told him.
Because of the wider spacing of the grooves, not only was a louder sound possible but a wider overall dynamic range as well. This was noticed to give a more favorable sound for discothèque play. Moulton's position as the premiere mixer and "fix it man" for pop singles ensured that this fortunate accident would become industry practice; this would have been a natural evolution: as dance tracks became much longer than had been the average for a pop song, the DJ in the club wanted sufficient dynamic range, the format would have enlarged from the seven-inch single eventually. The broad visual spacing of the grooves on the twelve-inch made it easy for the DJ in locating the approximate area of the "breaks" on the disc's surface in dim club light. A quick study of any DJs favorite discs will reveal mild wear in
A CD single is a music single in the form of a compact disc. The standard in the Red Book for the term CD single is an 8cm CD, it now refers to any single recorded onto a CD of any size the CD5, or 5-inch CD single. The format was introduced in the mid-1980s but did not gain its place in the market until the early 1990s. With the rise in digital downloads in the early 2010s, sales of CD singles have decreased. Commercially released CD singles can vary in length from two songs up to six songs like an EP; some contain multiple mixes of one or more songs, in the tradition of 12" vinyl singles, in some cases, they may contain a music video for the single itself as well as a collectible poster. Depending on the nation, there may be limits on the number of songs and total length for sales to count in singles charts. Dire Straits' "Brothers in Arms" is reported to have been the world's first CD single, issued in the UK in two separate singles as a promotional item, one distinguished with a logo for the tour, Live in'85, a second to commemorate the Australian leg of the tour marked Live in'86.
Containing four tracks, it had a limited print run. The first commercially released CD Single was Angeline by John Martyn released on 1 February 1986. CD singles were first made eligible for the UK Singles Chart in 1987, the first number 1 available on the format in that country was "I Wanna Dance with Somebody" by Whitney Houston in May 1987; the Mini CD single CD3 format was created for use for singles in the late 1980s, but met with limited success in the US. The smaller CDs were more successful in Japan and had a resurgence in Europe early this century, marketed as "Pock it" CDs, being small enough to fit in a shirt pocket. By 1989, the CD3 was in decline in the US, it was common in the 1990s for US record companies to release both a two-track CD and a multi-track maxi CD. In the UK, record companies would release two CDs but these consisted of three tracks or more each. During the 1990s, CD single releases became less common in certain countries and were released in smaller editions, as the major record labels feared they were cannibalizing the sales of higher-profit-margin CD albums.
Pressure from record labels made singles charts in some countries become song charts, allowing album cuts to chart based only on airplay, without a single being released. In the US, the Billboard Hot 100 made this change in December 1998, after which few songs were released in the CD single format in the US, but they remained popular in the UK and other countries, where charts were still based on single sales and not radio airplay. At the end of the 1990s, the CD was the biggest-selling single format in the UK, but in the US, the dominant single format was airplay. With the advent of digital music sales, the CD single has been replaced as a distribution format in most countries, most charts now include digital download counts as well as physical single sales. In Australia, the Herald Sun reported the CD single is "set to become extinct". In early July 2009, leading music store JB Hi-Fi ceased stocking CD singles because of declining sales, with copies of the week's No. 1 single selling as few as only 350 copies across all their stores nationwide.
While CD singles no longer maintain their own section of the store, copies are still distributed but placed with the artist's albums. That is predominantly the case for popular Australian artists such as Jessica Mauboy, Kylie Minogue and, most Delta Goodrem, whose then-recent singles were released on CD in limited quantities; the ARIA Singles Chart is now "predominantly compiled from legal downloads", ARIA stopped compiling their physical singles sales chart. "On a Mission" by Gabriella Cilmi was the last CD single to be stocked in Kmart and Big W, who concluded stocking newly released singles. Sanity Entertainment, having resisted the decline for longer than the other major outlets, has ceased selling CD singles. In China and South Korea, CD single releases have been rare since the format was introduced, due of the amount of infringement and illegal file sharing over the internet, most of the time singles have been album cuts chart based only on airplay, but with the advent of digital music the charts have occasionally included digital download counts.
In Greece and Cyprus, the term "CD single" is used to describe an extended play in which there may be anywhere from three to six different tracks. These releases charted on the Greek Singles Chart with songs released as singles; the original CD single is a music single released on a mini Compact Disc that measures 8 cm in diameter, rather than the standard 12 cm. They are manufactured using the same methods as standard full-size CDs, can be played in most standard audio CD players and CD-ROM disc drives; the format was first released in the United States, United Kingdom, France, West Germany, Hong Kong in 1987 as the replacement for the 7-inch single. While mini CDs have fallen out of popularity among most major record labels, they remain a popular, low cost way for independent musicians and groups to release music. Capable of holding up to 20 minutes of music, most mini CD singles contain at least two tracks, ofte