Radar is a detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, terrain. A radar system consists of a transmitter producing electromagnetic waves in the radio or microwaves domain, a transmitting antenna, a receiving antenna and a receiver and processor to determine properties of the object. Radio waves from the transmitter reflect off the object and return to the receiver, giving information about the object's location and speed. Radar was developed secretly for military use by several nations in the period before and during World War II. A key development was the cavity magnetron in the UK, which allowed the creation of small systems with sub-meter resolution; the term RADAR was coined in 1940 by the United States Navy as an acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging The term radar has since entered English and other languages as a common noun, losing all capitalization.
The modern uses of radar are diverse, including air and terrestrial traffic control, radar astronomy, air-defense systems, antimissile systems, marine radars to locate landmarks and other ships, aircraft anticollision systems, ocean surveillance systems, outer space surveillance and rendezvous systems, meteorological precipitation monitoring and flight control systems, guided missile target locating systems, ground-penetrating radar for geological observations, range-controlled radar for public health surveillance. High tech radar systems are associated with digital signal processing, machine learning and are capable of extracting useful information from high noise levels. Radar is a key technology that the self-driving systems are designed to use, along with sonar and other sensors. Other systems similar to radar make use of other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. One example is "lidar". With the emergence of driverless vehicles, Radar is expected to assist the automated platform to monitor its environment, thus preventing unwanted incidents.
As early as 1886, German physicist Heinrich Hertz showed that radio waves could be reflected from solid objects. In 1895, Alexander Popov, a physics instructor at the Imperial Russian Navy school in Kronstadt, developed an apparatus using a coherer tube for detecting distant lightning strikes; the next year, he added a spark-gap transmitter. In 1897, while testing this equipment for communicating between two ships in the Baltic Sea, he took note of an interference beat caused by the passage of a third vessel. In his report, Popov wrote that this phenomenon might be used for detecting objects, but he did nothing more with this observation; the German inventor Christian Hülsmeyer was the first to use radio waves to detect "the presence of distant metallic objects". In 1904, he demonstrated the feasibility of detecting a ship in dense fog, but not its distance from the transmitter, he obtained a patent for his detection device in April 1904 and a patent for a related amendment for estimating the distance to the ship.
He got a British patent on September 23, 1904 for a full radar system, that he called a telemobiloscope. It operated on a 50 cm wavelength and the pulsed radar signal was created via a spark-gap, his system used the classic antenna setup of horn antenna with parabolic reflector and was presented to German military officials in practical tests in Cologne and Rotterdam harbour but was rejected. In 1915, Robert Watson-Watt used radio technology to provide advance warning to airmen and during the 1920s went on to lead the U. K. research establishment to make many advances using radio techniques, including the probing of the ionosphere and the detection of lightning at long distances. Through his lightning experiments, Watson-Watt became an expert on the use of radio direction finding before turning his inquiry to shortwave transmission. Requiring a suitable receiver for such studies, he told the "new boy" Arnold Frederic Wilkins to conduct an extensive review of available shortwave units. Wilkins would select a General Post Office model after noting its manual's description of a "fading" effect when aircraft flew overhead.
Across the Atlantic in 1922, after placing a transmitter and receiver on opposite sides of the Potomac River, U. S. Navy researchers A. Hoyt Taylor and Leo C. Young discovered that ships passing through the beam path caused the received signal to fade in and out. Taylor submitted a report, suggesting that this phenomenon might be used to detect the presence of ships in low visibility, but the Navy did not continue the work. Eight years Lawrence A. Hyland at the Naval Research Laboratory observed similar fading effects from passing aircraft. Before the Second World War, researchers in the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, the Soviet Union, the United States, independently and in great secrecy, developed technologies that led to the modern version of radar. Australia, New Zealand, South Africa followed prewar Great Britain's radar development, Hungary generated its radar technology during the war. In France in 1934, following systematic studies on the split-anode magnetron, the research branch of the Compagnie Générale de Télégraphie Sans Fil headed by Maurice Ponte with Henri Gutton, Sylvain Berline and M. Hugon, began developing an obstacle-locatin
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries. The organization implements the North Atlantic Treaty, signed on 4 April 1949. NATO constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its independent member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's Headquarters are located in Haren, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons, Belgium. Since its founding, the admission of new member states has increased the alliance from the original 12 countries to 29; the most recent member state to be added to NATO is Montenegro on 5 June 2017. NATO recognizes Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Ukraine as aspiring members. An additional 21 countries participate in NATO's Partnership for Peace program, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programs; the combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total.
Members have committed to reach or maintain defense spending of at least 2% of GDP by 2024. On 4 March 1947 the Treaty of Dunkirk was signed by France and the United Kingdom as a Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance in the event of a possible attack by Germany or the Soviet Union in the aftermath of World War II. In 1948, this alliance was expanded to include the Benelux countries, in the form of the Western Union referred to as the Brussels Treaty Organization, established by the Treaty of Brussels. Talks for a new military alliance which could include North America resulted in the signature of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949 by the member states of the Western Union plus the United States, Portugal, Norway and Iceland; the North Atlantic Treaty was dormant until the Korean War initiated the establishment of NATO to implement it, by means of an integrated military structure: This included the formation of Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe in 1951, which adopted the Western Union's military structures and plans.
In 1952 the post of Secretary General of NATO was established as the organization's chief civilian. That year saw the first major NATO maritime exercises, Exercise Mainbrace and the accession of Greece and Turkey to the organization. Following the London and Paris Conferences, West Germany was permitted to rearm militarily, as they joined NATO in May 1955, in turn a major factor in the creation of the Soviet-dominated Warsaw Pact, delineating the two opposing sides of the Cold War. Doubts over the strength of the relationship between the European states and the United States ebbed and flowed, along with doubts over the credibility of the NATO defense against a prospective Soviet invasion – doubts that led to the development of the independent French nuclear deterrent and the withdrawal of France from NATO's military structure in 1966. In 1982 the newly democratic Spain joined the alliance; the collapse of the Warsaw Pact in 1989–1991 removed the de facto main adversary of NATO and caused a strategic re-evaluation of NATO's purpose, nature and focus on the continent of Europe.
This shift started with the 1990 signing in Paris of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe between NATO and the Soviet Union, which mandated specific military reductions across the continent that continued after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991. At that time, European countries accounted for 34 percent of NATO's military spending. NATO began a gradual expansion to include newly autonomous Central and Eastern European nations, extended its activities into political and humanitarian situations that had not been NATO concerns. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in Germany in 1989, the organization conducted its first military interventions in Bosnia from 1992 to 1995 and Yugoslavia in 1999 during the breakup of Yugoslavia. Politically, the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, most of which joined the alliance in 1999 and 2004. Article 5 of the North Atlantic treaty, requiring member states to come to the aid of any member state subject to an armed attack, was invoked for the first and only time after the September 11 attacks, after which troops were deployed to Afghanistan under the NATO-led ISAF.
The organization has operated a range of additional roles since including sending trainers to Iraq, assisting in counter-piracy operations and in 2011 enforcing a no-fly zone over Libya in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 1973. The less potent Article 4, which invokes consultation among NATO members, has been invoked five times following incidents in the Iraq War, Syrian Civil War, annexation of Crimea; the first post-Cold War expansion of NATO came with German reunification on 3 October 1990, when the former East Germany became part of the Federal Republic of Germany and the alliance. As part of post-Cold War restructuring, NATO's military structure was cut back and reorganized, with new forces such as the Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps established; the changes brought about by the collapse of the Soviet Union on the military balance in Europe were recognized in the Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty, signed in 1999. The policies of French President Nicolas Sarkozy resulted in a major reform of France's military position, culminating with the return to full membership on 4 April 2009, which included France rejoining the NATO Military Command Structure, while maintaining an independent nuclear deterrent.
Between 1994 and 1997, wider forums for regional co
An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection and exploitation of information in support of law enforcement, national security and foreign policy objectives. Means of information gathering are both overt and covert and may include espionage, communication interception, cooperation with other institutions, evaluation of public sources; the assembly and propagation of this information is known as intelligence analysis or intelligence assessment. Intelligence agencies can provide the following services for their national governments. Give early warning of impending crises. There is a distinction between "security intelligence" and "foreign intelligence". Security intelligence pertains to domestic threats. Foreign intelligence involves information collection relating to the political, or economic activities of foreign states; some agencies have been involved in assassination, arms trafficking, coups d'état, the placement of misinformation as well as other covert operations, in order to support their own or their governments' interests.
List of intelligence agencies List of defunct intelligence agencies List of intelligence gathering disciplines Security agency Secret police Secret service Books Encyclopedia of Espionage and Security, hrg. von K. Lee Lerner und Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, 3 Bände, Detroit: Gale, 2004 Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones and Dollar: A History of American Secret Intelligence, Yale University Press, 2002 Richard C. S. Trahair, Encyclopedia of Cold War Espionage and Secret Operations, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2004 Amy B. Zegart, Flawed by Design: The Evolution of the CIA, JCS, NSC, Calif.: Stanford Univ. Press, 1999 Цибулькін В. В. Рожен Л. М. Вєдєнєєв Д. В. та ін. Нариси з історії розвідки суб'єктів державотворення на теренах України / Заг. ред. П. Д. Морозов. — К.: «Преса України», 2011. — 536 с. іл. Journals The Journal of Intelligence HistoryReports Ruiz, Victor H. 2010. "A Knowledge Taxonomy for Army Intelligence Training: An Assessment of the Military Intelligence Basic Officer Leaders Course Using Lundvall's Knowledge Taxonomy".
Applied Research Projects. Texas State University Paper 331. Txstate.edu Outsourcing Intelligence Proposal for a Privacy Protection Guideline on Secret Personal Data Gathering and Transborder Flows of Such Data in the Fight against Terrorism and Serious Crime by Marcel Stuessi The Literature of Intelligence: A Bibliography of Materials, with Essays and Comments International Intelligence History Association
Afanasev Makarov AM-23
The Afanasev Makarov AM-23 is a Russian designed aircraft autocannon, used in a number of aircraft in the Soviet Air Force. Its GRAU index was 9-A-036, it was used in place of the earlier and slower-firing Nudelman-Rikhter NR-23. In 1953 the first strategic jet bomber, the Tu-16, was introduced into the Soviet Air Force. A new 23 mm cannon was needed for the defensive turrets of this bomber, supposed to be more compact and faster firing than the NR-23; the designers Nikolay M. Afanasev and Nikolay F. Makarov from the TsKB-14 design bureau scaled-up the A-12.7 12.7 mm machine gun to create a 23 mm aircraft cannon. The TKB-495 achieved a maximum rate of 1,350 rounds per minute during the tests and in May 1954 double that of the NR-23, it was renamed the AM-23 in honour of its designers. The Tu-16 bomber was armed with a total of seven AM-23 cannon. A single cannon was fixed in the nose of the aircraft, the others were mounted in pairs in the defensive turrets; the Tu-95 bomber was in most versions equipped with a total of six AM-23 cannon located in three defensive turrets.
The tail turret of the Tu-95 was replaced by an electronic countermeasures installation, which resulted in the Tu-95MS. Apart from the Tu-16 and Tu-95, the AM-23 cannon was installed on the Antonov An-8, An-12B, B-8, B-10, Il-54, Il-76, Myasishchev M-4, 3M and M-6 bombers and transporters; the DB-65U tail turret of the An-12 transporter was equipped with two AM-23 cannon. China bought a licence to produce a copy of the AM-23 cannon, which they designate Type 23-2; the AM-23 aircraft cannon is a gas-operated weapon with a vertically moving wedge breechblock. Two jointed chambering levers are pivoted from the actuating slide; the upper, longer lever is used to ram the cartridge from the belt link into the chamber. An extraction claw on its forward end is used to extract the fired cartridge case; the lower lever has a U-shaped recess on its lower end. As the actuating slide moves back and forth, a lug in the weapon housing is cammed into this recess to guide the chambering levers; the 12.7mm A-12.7 aircraft machine gun and the 23mm ZSU anti-aircraft gun are identical in design and operation.
The AM-23 differs from the ZSU anti-aircraft cannon in having a gas buffer where the ZSU has a disk spring buffer. The propellant gas conducted into the buffer is used to soften the impact of the actuating slide when it reaches the back plate; the compressed gas inside the buffer is used to impart a considerable forward velocity to the actuating slide to start counter-recoil. Ammunition may be fed from the right side. Fired cartridge cases are ejected through a port on the underside of the receiver and empty belt links drop out of the feed mechanism at the opposite side from which the belt was fed. A pneumatic charging mechanism is used to clear misfires. For the AM-23 aircraft cannon a new series of improved caliber 23x115 mm ammunition was developed; this used a new propellant with much higher performance, allowing increased muzzle velocity from a shorter barrel. Although NS-23 and AM-23 ammunition is dimensionally the same, it is not permitted to fire NS-23 and NR-23 ammunition in the AM-23 or GSh-23.
However, AM-23 ammunition can be fired safely in the NS-23 and NR-23. To distinguish AM-23 cartridges from the NS-23 ammunition, the AM-23 projectiles have a 4mm wide white coloured band on the side. Projectile types include high explosive incendiary, high explosive incendiary tracer, armour piercing high explosive, armour piercing incendiary, armour piercing incendiary tracer, chaff expelling, flare expelling and target practice types. List of Russian weaponry Koll, Christian. Soviet Cannon - A Comprehensive Study of Soviet Arms and Ammunition in Calibres 12.7mm to 57mm. Austria: Koll. p. 153. ISBN 978-3-200-01445-9. Система Афанасьева
The Tupolev Tu-4 was a piston-engined Soviet strategic bomber that served the Soviet Air Force from the late 1940s to mid-1960s. It was reverse-engineered from the American Boeing B-29 Superfortress. Toward the end of World War II, the Soviet Union saw the need for a strategic bombing capability similar to that of the United States Army Air Forces; the Soviet VVS air arm had the locally designed Petlyakov Pe-8 four-engined "heavy" in service at the start of the war, but only 93 had been built by the end of the war and the type had become obsolete. The U. S. conducted bombing raids on Japan, from distant Pacific forward bases using B-29 Superfortresses. Joseph Stalin ordered the development of a comparable bomber; the U. S. twice refused to supply the Soviet Union with B-29s under Lend Lease. However, on four occasions during 1944, individual B-29s made emergency landings in Soviet territory and one crashed after the crew bailed out. In accordance with the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact, the Soviets were neutral in the Pacific War and the bombers were therefore interned and kept by the Soviets.
Despite Soviet neutrality, America demanded the return of the bombers. Three repairable B-29s were flown to Moscow and delivered to the Tupolev OKB. One B-29 was dismantled, the second was used for flight tests and training, the third one was left as a standard for cross-reference; the aircraft included one Boeing-Wichita −5-BW, two Boeing-Wichita −15-BWs and the wreckage of one Boeing-Renton −1-BN – three different models from two different production lines. Only one of the four had de-icing boots as used on the Tu-4; the fourth B-29 was returned to the US along with its crew with the end of the Russo-Japanese entente following the Soviet declaration of war against Japan two days after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, in accordance with the Yalta agreement. Stalin told Tupolev to clone the Superfortress in as short a time as possible instead of continuing with his own comparable ANT-64/Tu-10; the reverse-engineering effort involved 900 factories and research institutes, who finished the design work during the first year.
By the end of the second year, the Soviet industry was to produce 20 copies of the aircraft, ready for State acceptance trials. The Soviet Union used the metric system, so sheet aluminium in thicknesses matching the B-29's imperial measurements were unavailable; the corresponding metric-gauge metal was of different thicknesses. Alloys and other materials new to the Soviet Union had to be brought into production. Extensive re-engineering had to take place to compensate for the differences, Soviet official strength margins had to be decreased to avoid further redesign, yet despite these challenges, the prototype Tu-4 weighed only about 340 kg more than the B-29, a difference of less than 1%; the engineers and suppliers of components were under pressure from Tupolev and the government to create an exact clone of the original B-29 to facilitate production and Tupolev had to overcome substantial resistance in favor of using equipment, not only in production but in some cases better than the American version.
Each alteration was subject to a lengthy bureaucratic process. Kerber, Tupolev's deputy at the time, recalled in his memoirs that engineers needed authorization from a high-ranking general to use Soviet-made parachutes. Differences were limited to the engines, the defensive weapons, the radio and the identification friend or foe system – the American IFF being unsuitable; the Soviet Shvetsov ASh-73 engine was a development of the Wright R-1820 but was not otherwise related to the B-29's Wright R-3350 The ASh-73 powered some of Aeroflot's remaining obsolescent Petlyakov Pe-8 airframes, a much earlier Soviet four-engined heavy bomber whose production was curtailed by higher priority programs. The B-29's remote-controlled gun turrets were redesigned to accommodate the Soviet Nudelman NS-23, a harder hitting and longer ranged 23 mm cannon. Additional changes were made as a result of problems encountered during testing, related to engine and propeller failures and equipment changes were made throughout the aircraft's service life.
The Tu-4 first flew on 19 May 1947, piloted by test pilot Nikolai Rybko. Serial production started and the type entered large-scale service in 1949. Entry into service of the Tu-4 threw the USAF into a panic, since the Tu-4 possessed sufficient range to attack Chicago or Los Angeles on a one-way mission, this may have informed the maneuvers and air combat practice conducted by US and British air forces in 1948 involving fleets of B-29s; the tests were conducted by the RAF Central Fighter Establishment and co-operative US B-29 groups, involved demonstration of recommended methods of attack against B-29/Tu 4-type bombers using RAF Gloster Meteor and de Havilland Vampire jet fighters. The Russians developed four different midair refueling systems to extend the bomber's range, but these were fitted to only a few aircraft and only a small number of the final design was installed on operational aircraft before the Tu-4 was superseded by the Tu-16; the aircraft was first displayed during a flyover at the Aviation Day parade on 3 August 1947 at the Tushino Airport in Moscow.
Three aircraft flew overhead. It was assumed that these were the three B-29 bombers that were known to have been diverted to the USSR during World War II. Minutes a fourth aircraft appeared. Western analysts realized that the Soviets must have reverse-engineered the B-29; the appearance of an Superfortress-derived Tu-70 transport over
V. M. Myasishchev Experimental Design Bureau or OKB-23, founded in 1951 by Vladimir Myasishchev) was one of the chief Soviet aerospace design bureaus until its dissolution in 1960. Vladimir Myasishchev went on to head TsAGI. In 1967, Myasishchev recreated his bureau, which still exists to this day; the bureau prefix was "M." As of 2003, its workforce is estimated at approximately one thousand. Myasishchev and NPO Molniya intend to use the V-MT or M-55 as launch vehicle for sub-orbital spaceflight. In July 2014, the merger of Myasishchev and Ilyushin to create a single modern production complex was announced by the Board of Directors of OAO Il. Myasishchev M-90 Air Ferry - heavy multi-purpose transport project, not built. M-101 Gzhel/Duet and Duet business aircraft M-112 and M-150 cargo-passenger aircraft M-500 agricultural aircraft Space Adventures C-21 Space Adventures M-55X M-4 "Bison" a strategic bomber. VM-T'Atlant', modified to carry the space shuttle Buran M-17 "Mystic-A" high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft M-18 supersonic bomber design M-44 aerospace vehicle project M-48 spaceplane project M-50 "Bounder" supersonic bomber M-55 "Mystic-B" high-altitude research and reconnaissance aircraft M-57 nuclear powered bomber project M-60 nuclear powered bomber project M-103 experimental heavy bomber M-200 Master military trainer project, not built.
Buran program, cockpit Myasishchev Project 46 spaceplane project Myasishchev Project 48 spaceplane project Cosmopolis XXI suborbital craft VKA-23 spaceplane project RSS-40 Buran, nuclear cruise missile project Official site, in English and Russian. Globalsecurity.org Encyclopædia Astronautix Myasishchev history
The Vickers-Armstrongs Valiant is a British quadjet high-altitude bomber, was part of the Royal Air Force's V bomber nuclear force in the 1950s and 1960s. It was developed by Vickers in response to Specification B.35/46 issued by the Air Ministry for a nuclear-armed jet-powered bomber. The Valiant was the first of the V bombers to become operational, was followed by the Handley Page Victor and the Avro Vulcan, which were more advanced; the Valiant has the distinction of being the only V bomber to have dropped live nuclear weapons. The Valiant was intended as a high-altitude strategic bomber. During the late 1950s, in response to rapid advances in surface-to-air missile technology, the Valiant fleet switched to flying a low-level mission profile to perform the strike mission. Beyond the nuclear deterrence role, the Valiant was used by the RAF for other purposes, as a number were converted to perform support roles such as aerial refuelling tankers and aerial reconnaissance aircraft. Valiants were used for conventional bombing missions over Egypt for Operation Musketeer during the Suez Crisis of 1956.
By late 1964 it was found that all variants of the Valiant showed premature fatigue and inter-crystalline corrosion in wing spar attachment forgings, traced to the use of a poorly understood aluminium alloy, DTD683. Rather than proceeding with an expensive rebuilding program, the Ministry of Defence retired the Valiant in 1965, its duties were continued by the other V-bombers. In November 1944, the Joint Technical Warfare Committee, along with a separate committee chaired by Sir Henry Tizard, examined the future potential of "weapons of war" and the accompanying Tizard Report published on 3 July 1945 made specific policy directions for the Royal Air Force Bomber Command. After the Second World War, the policy of using heavy four-engined bombers for massed raids continued into the immediate postwar period. In 1946, the Air Staff issued Operational Requirements OR229 and OR230 for the development of turbojet-powered heavy bombers capable of carrying nuclear weapons at high altitude and speed, without defensive armament, to act as a deterrent to hostile powers and, if deterrence failed, to perform a nuclear strike.
In conjunction with this ambition, Britain set about developing its own atomic weapons. In January 1947, the British Air Ministry issued Specification B.35/46 for an advanced jet bomber intended to carry nuclear weapons and to fly near the speed of sound at altitudes of 50,000 ft. Three firms: A. V. Roe, Handley-Page and Vickers-Armstrongs submitted advanced designs intended to meet the stringent requirements. While Short Brothers submitted a design, by Geoffrey T. R. Hill, judged too ambitious, the Air Staff accepted another submission from the company for a separate requirement, B.14/46, as "insurance" in case the advanced B.35/46 effort ran into trouble. Aviation authors Bill Gunston and Peter Gilchrist described Specification B.14/46 as "calling for little more than a traditional aircraft fitted with jet engines" Short submitted a conservative design to meet B.14/46, which became the S. A.4 Sperrin. Two prototypes were completed, the first conducting its maiden flight in 1951, but the Sperrin was relegated to research and development purposes only.
Vickers had emerged from the Second World War as one of the world's pre-eminent companies in the field of aeronautical manufacturing and development. Furthermore, the company operated its own secretive Skunk Works-like development organisation based at Weybridge, involved in several secret wartime development projects, it was this secretive division in which the early stages of the development of the Valiant took place, including the assembly of the initial two prototypes. Vickers produced a six-engine jet bomber design proposal to meet Specification B.35/46. The proposed design submitted by Vickers was straightforward, being less aerodynamically advanced in comparison to competing bids made by rival firms. Both Handley-Page and Avro had produced advanced designs for the bomber competition; these would be produced as the Vulcan respectively. The submissions became known as the V bombers, or V-class, with the aircraft all being given names that started with the letter "V". Vickers' submission had been rejected as not being as advanced as the Victor and the Vulcan, but Vickers' chief designer George Edwards lobbied the Air Ministry on the basis that it would be available much sooner than the competition, going so far as to promise that a flight-capable prototype would be flown by the end of 1951, that subsequent production aircraft would be flown prior to the end of 1953, that serial deliveries would commence during early 1955.
Gunston and Gilchrist observe that measures offered by Edwards were a "gigantic risk", that gaining the bomber contract has been deemed of crucial importance to the future of aircraft manufacturing at Vickers. Although developing and operating three overlapping large aircraft in response to a single Operational Requirement was wasteful and costly, events such as the Berlin Blockade had led to officials placing a sense of urgency in the necessity to provide an effective deterrent to the Soviet Union from acts of aggression in Europe. In April 1948, the Air Staff issued a specification with the designation B.9/48 written around the Vickers design, given the company designation of Type 6