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Mycenae

Mycenae is an archaeological site near Mykines in Argolis, north-eastern Peloponnese, Greece. It is located about 120 kilometres south-west of Athens; the site is 19 kilometres inland from the Saronic Gulf and built upon a hill rising 900 feet above sea level. In the second millennium BC, Mycenae was one of the major centres of Greek civilization, a military stronghold which dominated much of southern Greece, the Cyclades and parts of southwest Anatolia; the period of Greek history from about 1600 BC to about 1100 BC is called Mycenaean in reference to Mycenae. At its peak in 1350 BC, the citadel and lower town had a population of 30,000 and an area of 32 hectares; the first correct identification of Mycenae in modern literature was during a survey conducted by Francesco Grimani, commissioned by the Provveditore Generale of the Kingdom of the Morea in 1700, who used Pausanias's description of the Lion Gate to identify the ruins of Mycenae. The earliest written form of the name is Mykḗnē, found in Homer.

The reconstructed Mycenaean Greek name of the site is. The change of ā to ē in more recent versions of the name is the result of a well-known sound change in Attic-Ionic; the citadel was built by Greeks, the name Mykḗnai is thought to be Greek, The name "Mycenae" is derived from the Greek word mykēs. Thus, Pausanias ascribes the name to the legendary founder Perseus, said to have named it either after the cap of the sheath of his sword, or after a mushroom he had plucked on the site. Mycenae, an acropolis site, was built on a hill 900 feet above sea level, some 19 kilometres inland from the Gulf of Argolis. Situated in the north-east corner of the Argive plain, it overlooked the whole area and was ideally positioned to be a centre of power as it commanded all easy routes to the Isthmus of Corinth. Besides its strong defensive and strategic position, it had good farmland and an adequate water supply. There are only faint traces of Neolithic settlement on the site although it was continuously occupied from the Early Neolithic through the Early Helladic and Middle Helladic periods.

EN Rainbow Ware constitutes the earliest ceramic evidence discovered so far. The population had grown by the Middle Helladic; as elsewhere, a dominant Cretan influence prevailed from c. 1600 BC, the first evidence of this coming from the shaft graves discovered in 1876 by Heinrich Schliemann. Schliemann's shaft graves came to be known as Circle A to distinguish them from the Circle B graves which were found at a date, although Circle B are the earlier graves dated c. 1650 BC to c. 1550 BC and within MHIII. Circle A is dated to the sixteenth century BC including the transition from Middle to Late Helladic IA; the contents of Circle B are less wealthy than those of Circle A. Pottery material spanning the entire Early Helladic was discovered 1877–78 by Panagiotis Stamatakis at a low depth in the sixth shaft grave in Circle A. Further EH and MH material was found beneath the walls and floors of the palace, on the summit of the acropolis, outside the Lion Gate in the area of the ancient cemetery. An EH–MH settlement was discovered near a fresh-water well on top of the Kalkani hill south-west of the acropolis.

The first burials in pits or cist graves manifest in MHII on the west slope of the acropolis, at least enclosed by the earliest circuit wall. In the absence of documents and objects that can be dated, events at Mycenae can only be dated within the constraints of Helladic chronology which relies on categorisation of stratified material objects pottery, within an agreed historical framework. Mycenae developed into a major power during LHI and is believed to have become the main centre of Aegean civilisation through the fifteenth century to the extent that the two hundred years from c. 1400 BC to c. 1200 BC are known as the Mycenaean Age. The Minoan hegemony was ended c. 1450 and there is evidence that Knossos was occupied by Mycenaeans until it too was destroyed c. 1370 BC. From on, Mycenaean expansion throughout the Aegean was unhindered until the massive disruption of society in the first half of the twelfth century which ended Mycenaean civilisation and culminated in the destruction of Mycenae itself c. 1150 BC.

Outside the partial circuit wall, Grave Circle B, named for its enclosing wall, contained ten cist graves in Middle Helladic style and several shaft graves, sunk more with interments resting in cists. Richer grave goods mark the burials as regal. Mounds over the top contained broken drinking vessels and bones from a repast, testifying to a more than ordinary farewell. Stelae surmounted the mounds. A walled enclosure, Grave Circle A, included six more shaft graves, with nine female, eight male, two juvenile interments. Grave goods were more costly than in Circle B; the presence of engraved and inlaid swords and daggers, with spear points and arrowheads, leave little doubt that warrior chieftains and their families were buried here. Some art objects obtained from the graves are the Silver Siege Rhyton, the Mask of Agamemnon, the Cup of Nestor, weapons both votive and practical. Alan Wace divided the nine tholos tombs of Mycenae into three groups of three, each based on architecture, his earliest – the Cyclopean Tomb, Epano Phournos, the Tomb of Aegisthus – are dated to LHIIA.

Burial in thol

Ginn-Lesniak Kestrel

The Ginn-Lesniak Kestrel is a one-off homebuilt two seat sailplane, designed in the United Kingdom in the 1950s and flown in 1969. Though the sole Kestrel did not fly until 1969, its design and construction began in 1956. Vic Ginn and Lesniak, both members of the London Gliding Club designed it and Ginn built the wings and front fuselage at his Luton home; the rear fuselage was built at the LGC at Dunstable Downs where, after some years delay, the aircraft was assembled by Jeff Butt and Ron Dodd. It was built of wood and fabric; the most unusual feature of the Kestrel is that its straight tapered, cantilever wings have a forward sweep of about 8°. The wings carry the latter at about one third span and chord. There are no flaps; the straight tapered tailplane and elevators, mounted on the upper fuselage, are set forward of the rudder hinge. The fin and rudder are straight edged and of about equal area, the latter extending to the bottom of the fuselage; the fuselage has an oval cross section, increasing in depth forwards to behind the cockpit where the wing is mounted.

Both seats, placed in tandem, are forward of the wing root under a canopy. A skid from nose to a monowheel below the wing root leading edge forms the undercarriage, assisted by a small tail bumper; the Kestrel first flew at the LGC on Dunstable Downs on 19 July 1969. By 1998 the Kestrel, was with the Lakes Gliding Club. By 2010 it had moved to storage with the Anglia Gliding Club at RAF Wattisham. Data from EllisonGeneral characteristics Capacity: 2 Length: 24 ft 9 in Wingspan: 59 ft 1 in Wing area: 243 sq ft Aspect ratio: 14.3 Airfoil: Gōttingen 549 at roo, M 12 at tip Empty weight: 678 lb Gross weight: 1,100 lb Performance Maximum speed: 138 mph Stall speed: 37 mph Rate of sink: 132 ft/min minimum at 50 mph Lift-to-drag: Maximum 28

Mette Newth

Mette Cecilie Newth is a Norwegian illustrator, author of children's literature, organizer. She received the Norwegian Critics Prize for Best children's book. Mette Newth was born in Oslo as the daughter of journalist, crime writer and revue writer Fridtjof Knutsen and his wife Alfhild Gundersen, she married writer Philip Newth in 1963. The couple settled at Rykkinn in Bærum, had the son Eirik Newth, an author. Mette Newth is educated as a ceramicist from the Norwegian National Academy of Craft and Art Industry and has studied sculpture at the Norwegian National Academy of Fine Arts, she made her literary debut in 1969 with the picture book Den lille vikingen. Her breakthrough as illustrator came with Lille Skrekk about a lizard child, her book Skomakerdokka from 1977 was inspired by Alf Prøysen's stories. She has illustrated books for deaf children, her book Nora og ordene from 1979, about a deaf girl, uses both sign language. In cooperation with her husband Philip she made the picture book Ballsprett for mentally deficient children.

She received the Norwegian Critics Prize for Best children's book in 1985 for the children's book Soldreperen, together with her husband and co-writer Philip Newth. Her youth's novel Bortførelsen from 1987 received international recognition and was translated into 14 different languages; the novel treats the colonialization of Greenland in the 17th century, includes elements from Inuit myths and legends. Her book Erobringen from 1988 is about the Inuit. Among the picture books she has made in cooperation with the writer Paal-Helge Haugen are Vårfuglen from 1989, Gjennom steinen from 1990, Eldsalamanderen from 1994. In 1995 she received the critics' prize for the second time, for the children's book Det mørke lyset; this novel treats the situation of the lepers in Norway in the early 19th century. She chaired the organization Norwegian Writers for Children for two periods, from 1977 to 1979 and from 1981 to 1982, she was the rector of the Oslo National Academy of the Arts from 1999 to 2002