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A mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between a fungus and a plant. The term mycorrhiza refers to the role of the fungus in the plant's rhizosphere, its root system. Mycorrhizae play important roles in plant nutrition, soil biology and soil chemistry. In a mycorrhizal association, the fungus colonizes the host plant's root tissues, either intracellularly as in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, or extracellularly as in ectomycorrhizal fungi; the association is sometimes mutualistic. In particular species or in particular circumstances mycorrhizae may have a parasitic association with host plants. A mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between a green plant and a fungus; the plant makes organic molecules such as sugars by photosynthesis and supplies them to the fungus, the fungus supplies to the plant water and mineral nutrients, such as phosphorus, taken from the soil. Mycorrhizas are located in the roots of vascular plants, but mycorrhiza-like associations occur in bryophytes and there is fossil evidence that early land plants that lacked roots formed arbuscular mycorrhizal associations.

Most plant species form mycorrhizal associations, though some families like Brassicaceae and Chenopodiaceae cannot. Different forms for the association are detailed in the next section; the most common is the arbuscular type, present in 70% of plant species, including many crop plants such as wheat and rice. Mycorrhizas are divided into ectomycorrhizas and endomycorrhizas; the two types are differentiated by the fact that the hyphae of ectomycorrhizal fungi do not penetrate individual cells within the root, while the hyphae of endomycorrhizal fungi penetrate the cell wall and invaginate the cell membrane. Endomycorrhiza includes arbuscular and orchid mycorrhiza, while arbutoid mycorrhizas can be classified as ectoendomycorrhizas. Monotropoid mycorrhizas form a special category. Ectomycorrhizas, or EcM, are symbiotic associations between the roots of around 10% of plant families woody plants including the birch, eucalyptus, oak and rose families and fungi belonging to the Basidiomycota and Zygomycota.

Some EcM fungi, such as many Leccinum and Suillus, are symbiotic with only one particular genus of plant, while other fungi, such as the Amanita, are generalists that form mycorrhizas with many different plants. An individual tree may have 15 or more different fungal EcM partners at one time. Thousands of ectomycorrhizal fungal species exist, hosted in over 200 genera. A recent study has conservatively estimated global ectomycorrhizal fungal species richness at 7750 species, although, on the basis of estimates of knowns and unknowns in macromycete diversity, a final estimate of ECM species richness would be between 20,000 and 25,000. Ectomycorrhizas consist of a hyphal sheath, or mantle, covering the root tip and a Hartig net of hyphae surrounding the plant cells within the root cortex. In some cases the hyphae may penetrate the plant cells, in which case the mycorrhiza is called an ectendomycorrhiza. Outside the root, ectomycorrhizal extramatrical mycelium forms an extensive network within the soil and leaf litter.

Nutrients can be shown to move between different plants through the fungal network. Carbon has been shown to move from paper birch trees into Douglas-fir trees thereby promoting succession in ecosystems; the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor has been found to lure and kill springtails to obtain nitrogen, some of which may be transferred to the mycorrhizal host plant. In a study by Klironomos and Hart, Eastern White Pine inoculated with L. bicolor was able to derive up to 25% of its nitrogen from springtails. When compared to non-mycorrhizal fine roots, ectomycorrhizae may contain high concentrations of trace elements, including toxic metals or chlorine; the first genomic sequence for a representative of symbiotic fungi, the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete L. bicolor, was published in 2008. An expansion of several multigene families occurred in this fungus, suggesting that adaptation to symbiosis proceeded by gene duplication. Within lineage-specific genes those coding for symbiosis-regulated secreted proteins showed an up-regulated expression in ectomycorrhizal root tips suggesting a role in the partner communication.

L. bicolor is lacking enzymes involved in the degradation of plant cell wall components, preventing the symbiont from degrading host cells during the root colonisation. By contrast, L. bicolor possesses expanded multigene families associated with hydrolysis of bacterial and microfauna polysaccharides and proteins. This genome analysis revealed the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots; this type of mycorrhiza involves plants of the Ericaceae subfamily Arbutoideae. It is however different from ericoid mycorrhiza and resembles ectomycorrhiza, both functionally and in terms of the fungi involved; the difference to ectomycorrhiza is that some hyphae penetrate into the root cells, making this type of mycorrhiza an ectendomycorrhiza. Endomycorrhizas are variable and have been further classified as arbuscular, arbutoid and orchid mycorrhizas. Arbuscular mycorrhizas, or AM, are mycorrhizas whose hyphae penetrate plant cells, producing structures that are either balloon-like or dichotomously branching invaginations as a means of nutrient exchange.

The fungal hyphae do not in fact penetrate the protoplast, but invaginate the cell membrane. The struc

Harry Bruce (footballer, born 1905)

Henry Bruce was an English professional footballer who played in the Football League for Birmingham, Torquay United and Reading. He went on to manage Swedish club Halmstads BK. Bruce was born near Bishop Auckland in County Durham, he played for Durham City, though not in the Football League, for Bishop Auckland before joining Birmingham in January 1925. He made his debut in the First Division on 2 February 1925, deputising at right half for George Liddell in an away game at Burnley which Birmingham lost 3–2, he spent three-and-a-half years at the club, providing cover for all the defensive positions, before moving on to Gillingham on the Third Division South at the end of the 1927–28 season. He spent one season at Gillingham, playing 30 league games, followed by a season at Torquay United where he appeared 28 times in the league. From July 1930 for the next 18 months or so, Bruce spent brief spells with a variety of clubs: Colwyn Bay United, Bankhead Albion back in his native north-east, where he played twice in the Third Division North in the 1930–31 season, without appearing in the Football League, Bankhead Albion again, Reading, where he played seven games in the Third Division South in 1931.

In 1937, he became the first non-Swedish manager of Halmstads BK, a post which he held until 1939. He retired from the game in 1939 or 1940. Bruce died in Durham

John Cockett

John Ashley Cockett was an English sportsman, an Olympic bronze medal winning field hockey player for England and Great Britain. He played first-class and minor counties cricket. Cockett was born in Broadstairs, he won his Blues at both cricket and hockey. As a cricketer he was a middle-order batsman, he made seven first-class appearances for Cambridge University in 1951 and made a century against Sussex in Worthing to help set up a 137 run win. From 1949 to 1962, Cockett played in the Minor Counties Cricket Championship for Buckinghamshire. On leaving Cambridge Cockett became a master at Felsted School, where he taught mathematics and coached cricket and hockey. At the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, Cockett was a member of the Great Britain hockey team, which won the bronze medal by defeating Pakistan 2-1, he played his club hockey with Chelmsford Hockey Club. He narrowly missed out on another medal in the 1956 Melbourne Olympics when his side finished fourth after losing 3-1 to Germany. Cockett's only other first-class match was in 1953, when he played with the Minor Counties cricket team against the touring Australians which included Alan Davidson, Ray Lindwall, Bill Johnston and Richie Benaud.

Cockett scored no runs in either innings

Monowitz concentration camp

Monowitz concentration camp was a Nazi concentration camps and labor camp run by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland from 1942–1945, during World War II and the Holocaust. For most of its existence, Monowitz was a subcamp of the Auschwitz concentration camp. In November 1944 the Germans renamed it Monowitz concentration camp, after the village of Monowice where it was built, in the annexed portion of Poland. SS Hauptsturmführer Heinrich Schwarz was commandant from November 1943 to January 1945; the SS established the camp in October 1942 at the behest of IG Farben executives to provide slave labor for their Buna Werke industrial complex. The name Buna was derived from the butadiene-based synthetic rubber and the chemical symbol for sodium, a process of synthetic rubber production developed in Germany. Other German industrial enterprises built factories with their own subcamps, such as Siemens-Schuckert's Bobrek subcamp, close to Monowitz, to profit from the use of slave labor; the German armaments manufacturer Krupp, headed by SS member Alfried Krupp built their own manufacturing facilities near Monowitz.

Monowitz held around 12,000 prisoners, the great majority of whom were Jews, in addition to non-Jewish criminals and political prisoners. The SS charged IG Farben three Reichsmarks per day for unskilled workers, four per hour for skilled workers, one and one-half for children; the camp contained an "Arbeitsausbildungslager" for non-Jewish prisoners viewed as not up to par with German work standards. The life expectancy of Jewish workers at Buna Werke was three to four months; those deemed unfit for work were gassed at Auschwitz II-Birkenau. Primo Levi, author of If This Is a Man, survived Monowitz, as did Elie Wiesel, author of the Pulitzer Prize–winning book Night, a teenage inmate there along with his father; the creation of the camp was a result of an initiative by the German chemical company IG Farben to build the third largest synthetic rubber and liquid fuels plant. The camp was supposed to be located in Silesia, out of range of Allied bombers. Among the sites proposed between December 1940 and January 1942 the chosen location was the flat land between the eastern part of Oświęcim and the villages of Dwory and Monowice, justified by good geological conditions, access to transport routes, water supply, the availability of raw materials such as: coal from mines in Libiąż, Jaworzno, limestone from Krzeszowice, salt from Wieliczka.

However, the primary reason for building the industrial complex in that location was the immediate access to the slave work-force from the nearby Auschwitz camps. IG Farben made the preparations and reached an agreement with the Nazis between February and April 1941; the company bought the land from the treasury for a low price, after it had been seized from Polish owners without compensation and their houses were vacated and demolished. Meanwhile, German authorities removed Jews from their homes in Oświęcim and placed them in Sosnowiec or Chrzanów and sold their homes to IG Farben as housing for company employees brought from Germany; this happened to some local Polish residents. The IG Farben officials came to an agreement with the concentration camp commandant to hire prisoners at a rate of 3 to 4 marks per day for labor of auxiliary and skilled labor workers. Trucks began bringing in the first KL prisoners to work at the plant's construction site in mid-April 1941. Starting in May the workers had to walk 6 to 7 km from the camp to the factory site.

At the end of July, with the laborers numbering over a thousand, they began taking the train to Dwory station. Their work included leveling the ground, digging drainage ditches, laying cables, building roads; the prisoners returned to the construction site in May 1942 and worked there until 21 July, when an outbreak of typhus in the main camp and Birkenau stopped their trips to work. Worried over losing the laborers, factory management decided to turn the barracks camp being built in Monowice for civilians over to the SS, to house prisoners; because of delays in the supply of barbed wire there were several postponements in opening the camp. The first prisoners arrived on 26 October and by early November there were two thousand prisoners. For most of its existence, Monowitz was a subcamp of the Auschwitz concentration camp. After an administrative restructuring by the SS in November 1943, it became the third of the three main camps in the Auschwitz complex: KL Auschwitz I-Stammlager. In November 1944, there was another reorganization: Auschwitz II became part of the main camp, Auschwitz III was renamed Monowitz concentration camp.

The new Buna Werke or Monowitz Buna-Werke factory was located on the outskirts of Oświęcim. The plant construction was commissioned by the Italian State interested in importing nitrile rubber from IG Farben after the collapse of its own synthetic oil production; the 29 page-long contract signed by the Confederazione Fascista degli Industriali and printed on 2 March 1942 secured the arrival of 8,636 workers from Italy tasked with erecting the installations with the investment of 700 million Reichsmarks by IG Farben. The synthetic rubber was to be made for free in occupied Poland using slave la

Sunderland Empire Theatre

The Sunderland Empire Theatre is a large theatre venue located in High Street West in Sunderland, North East England. The theatre, which opened in 1907, is owned by City of Sunderland Council and operated by Ambassador Theatre Group Ltd, on behalf of Sunderland Empire Theatre Trust; the theatre is one of the largest venues in the North East, with 1,860 seats and the capacity to accommodate 2,200 when all standing positions are occupied. The auditorium is one of the few remaining in the UK to have four tiers, namely the Orchestra Stalls, the Dress Circle, the Upper Circle and the Gallery. There are four private boxes on the Dress Circle level, as well as two proscenium boxes on the Upper Circle balcony; the Empire Palace, as it was called, was established independently by Richard Thornton after his partnership with theatre magnate Edward Moss was dissolved. It was opened on 1 July 1907 by variety and vaudeville star Vesta Tilley, who had laid the foundation stone on 29 September 1906; the dome on the 90 ft tower featured a revolving sphere bearing the statue of Terpsichore, the Greek Muse of dance and choral song.

These were removed during World War II for safety reasons, after a bomb which had fallen nearby rocked the building. The original statue is now located at the top of the main staircase, with a replica on the dome itself; the dome and tower have been refitted with a state-of-the-art LED and floodlight system that illuminates the main entrance in the evening. Until the mid-twenties, the Empire enjoyed much extended success from its variety performances. With the decline of touring theatre, a projection box was added in 1930 and for the first time, the theatre played host to motion pictures. On 5 November 1956 Tommy Steele made his stage debut heading the bill in a variety show. Steele, Britain's first rock'n' roll singer, went on to become one of the world's leading song and dance men appearing at the Empire many times. Although audience figures were high during the 1940s and early 1950s, the theatre closed in May 1959 due to the growing popularity of television and cinema, it reopened in 1960, after Sunderland Council bought the theatre.

The Beatles performed there during their first UK national tour. The actor Sid James suffered a heart attack during a performance of The Mating Season on 26 April 1976 and died on the way to hospital, it was rumoured that his ghost was in the dressing room he occupied on the night of his death. Whilst the ghost of James is said to haunt backstage, the spirits of Vesta Tilley and Molly Moselle are said to haunt the front-of-house areas. Molly Moselle was a stage manager for Ivor Novello's The Dancing Years in 1949. Leaving the theatre to post a letter, she was never seen again; the Empire was known as a'comic graveyard' - rather given the above points - because of the partisan reception of the audiences of the time. Nowadays, the theatre plays host to large-scale musicals, ballet, dance showcases, amateur productions and one-night shows. Oscar-winning actress Helen Mirren made her stage debut at the Sunderland Empire; the theatre was the regular venue for the University of Sunderland's graduation ceremonies until the theatre's refurbishment in 2004.

Since this time, the graduation ceremonies have been held at Sunderland AFC's Stadium of Light. Birmingham Royal Ballet visits the Sunderland Empire, BRB considers the theatre as its base in the North East of England. Following a nine-month closure for a £4.5m redevelopment project to enable it to stage West End shows, the theatre reopened on 9 December 2004 with a performance of Starlight Express. This refurbishment involved expanding the height of the fly tower; the refurbishment allowed a new production of Miss Saigon to be staged at Sunderland in early 2005. On 9 December 2005, the Sunderland Empire staged a preview performance of the first touring production of Chitty Chitty Bang Bang, starring Tim Flavin and Robin Askwith; the official European premiere of this production took place there on the following Tuesday, 13 December. On 2 May 2006, a new touring production of My Fair Lady began its run, starring Christopher Cazenove and Amy Nuttall. Scrooge: The Musical played at the Sunderland Empire over the 2006 Christmas period, starring comedian and television personality Michael Barrymore in the title role.

2007 saw the Sunderland Empire celebrate its centenary and a massive line-up of big shows including Starlight Express, The Producers, South Pacific and the first pantomime since its refurbishment - Cinderella which starred Hollywood legend Mickey Rooney. The theatre now is a receiving house for large-scale touring productions such as Wicked, Matilda the Musical, War Horse and Miss Saigon. Most of these tours play the Empire over the Newcastle Theatre Royal due to their staging being too large to fit onto the stage of the latter venue. Stagestruck kids' premiere passions - Sunderland Echo's story on West Side Story OFFICIAL WEBSITE Tyne and Wear Partnership Sunderland Empire reopens with Starlight Express City of Sunderland Fact Sheet in PDF BBC Wear - 360° Interactive panorama image showing the stage set up for Starlight Express BBC Wear - In Pictures - A tour behind the scenes of the Empire BBC Songs of Praise comes to the Sunderland Empire Sunderland Empire

Shadow of Chinatown

Shadow of Chinatown is both a 1936 film serial and a feature film edited from the serial made by Sam Katzman's Victory Pictures. A consortium of American businesses are disturbed by the loss of profits due to Chinese businesses located in Chinatowns in the United States, they hire their criminal organization to eliminate their competition. Bela Lugosi... Victor Poten Herman Brix... Martin Andrews Joan Barclay... Joan Whiting Luana Walters... Sonya Rokoff, a.k.a. the Dragon Lady Charles King... Grogan Forrest Taylor... Police Captain Walters The serial was known as just Chinatown and was written with Lugosi in mind. A feature version of this serial was released with the serial itself, it was called "Shadow of Chinatown" and contained no new footage. Shadow of Chinatown on IMDb