A letterman, in U. S. activities/sports, is a high school or college student who has met a specified level of participation or performance on a varsity team. In some instances, the sweater or jacket itself may be awarded, a common threshold in American football and basketball is participation in a set level, often half, of all quarters in a season. In individual sports such as tennis and golf, the threshold for lettering is generally participation in one half or sometimes two-thirds of all matches contested. Frequently, other members of the team who fail to meet requirements for a letter are awarded a certificate of participation or other award considered to be of value than a letter. Some schools continue to base the awarding of letters according to performance, in sports requiring a certain number of scores, baskets or tackles, according to position. In individual sports letters are often determined according to qualification for state meets or tournaments and this places much more emphasis on character and teamwork as well as, and often in place of, simply playing enough or meeting some other time or performance requirement.
Sometimes in high schools performance in classes can be an element. This philosophy gives more focus to developing and rewarding a well rounded and balanced player, an athlete who is awarded a letter is said to have lettered when they receive their letter. In recent years, some schools have expanded the concept of letterman to outside of sports, providing letters for performance in performing arts, letter jackets are known as varsity jackets and baseball jackets in reference to their American origins. The body is usually of boiled wool and the sleeves of leather with banded wrists, letter jackets are usually produced in the school colors with the body of the jacket in the schools primary color and sleeves in the secondary color. Although sometimes, the colors of the Jacket may be customized to an extent by the student. There could be cases where a student could change the color so much that it doesnt differentiate too much from school colors and they usually feature a banded collar for men or a hood for women.
The letter jacket derives its name from the varsity letter chenille patch on its left breast, the letter itself can be custom fitted to the particular sport or activity. The name of the owner usually appears either in chenille or is embroidered on the jacket itself, the owners graduation year typically appears in matching chenille. Placement of the name and year of graduation depends on school traditions, the year is most often sewn on the right sleeve or just above the right pocket. The school logo and symbols representing the activities may be ironed on to the jacket. Lettermen who play on a team often receive a large patch commemorating their championship that is worn on the back of the jacket. Lettermen who participate in a sport in which medals are awarded often sew the medals onto their jackets to display their accomplishments, varsity jackets trace their origins to letter sweaters, first introduced by the Harvard University baseball team in 1865
Tackle (football move)
Most forms of football have a move known as a tackle. The primary and important purposes of tackling are to dispossess an opponent of the ball, the word is used in some contact variations of football to describe the act of physically holding or wrestling a player to the ground. In others, it simply one or more methods of contesting for possession of the ball. It can therefore be used as both a defensive or attacking move, in Middle Dutch, the verb tacken meant to grab or to handle. By the 18th century, a use was applied to harnesses or equipment used with horses. Modern use in football comes from the sport of rugby. In any such case, the ball becomes dead, the down is over, a tackle is known as a quarterback sack when the quarterback is tackled behind the line of scrimmage while attempting to throw a pass. A tackle for loss indicates a tackle that causes a loss of yardage for the running back or wide receiver. When a player who does not have the ball is taken down it is referred to as a block.
Tackles can be made by grabbing the ball carriers jersey, as mentioned above, the referee can declare that a play is dead if the ball carriers forward progress has been stopped, even if he has not actually been taken to the ground. To protect players from potentially catastrophic injury, there are restrictions on tackles. At no time may a defensive player tackle a player by grabbing the facemask of their helmet, doing so incurs a 15-yard penalty. A similar penalty is assessed to any player attempting to contact with his helmet against another opponents helmet. Grabbing a ball carrier by the pads behind his neck and pulling him down is known as a horse collar, a method which has been made illegal at all levels of American football. However, in the NFL a player can continue forward for one step, place kickers and punters are afforded an even greater protection from being tackled. Once the play is ruled complete, no contact is permitted, a player who makes contact with an opponent after the play is charged with unnecessary roughness and his team is assessed a 15-yard penalty.
However, a player who plays on the line can block below the knees as long the block is five yards of the line. In the National Football League, tackles are tracked as a statistic by a scorekeeper hired by the home team
A quarterback that is pressured but avoids a sack can still be adversely affected by being forced to hurry. In the National Football League, it is possible to record a sack for zero yards, the QB must pass the statistical line of scrimmage to avoid the sack. A sack is credited when a defender causes the quarterback to fumble the ball at or behind the line of scrimmage, to be considered a sack the quarterback must intend to throw a forward pass. If the play is designed for the quarterback to rush the ball, if the quarterbacks intent is not obvious, statisticians use certain criteria, such as the offensive line blocking scheme, to decide. Unique situations where a loss reduces a quarterbacks rushing total are kneel downs, a player will receive credit for half of a sack when multiple players contribute to the sacking of a quarterback, even if more than two players contributed. In the NFL yards lost on the play are added as negative yardage to the teams passing totals, however, NCAA continues to subtract sack yardage from individual rushing totals.
The term sack was first popularized by Hall of Fame defensive end Deacon Jones in the 1960s, according to former NFL coach Marv Levy, it was Washington Redskins coach George Allen who actually coined the term when referring to Dallas Cowboys quarterback Craig Morton. Allen purportedly stated before a game, Before we play those Dallas Cowboys, we’re going to take that Morton salt, prior to sack, the term dump was often used, and the NFLs statistical office recorded all sacks under dumping the passer. The NFL only began to track of times passers lost yardage in 1961. Researcher John Turney of the Pro Football Researchers Association estimated that Jones recorded 173 1⁄2 sacks in his career, of all forms of defensive pressure against the oppositions passer, sacks provide the most immediate impact by ending the offensive play. However, quarterbacks sometimes avoid a sack by throwing a pass or risking an interception. According to Football Outsiders, a quarterback hurry is the most common form of pass pressure.
In the 2009 NFL season, there were 1,106 sacks and 3,268 hurries,30,2007 NFL Game More Sacks Taken than Yards Passing, Five sacks and four yards passing by Colin Kaepernick on Dec.4,2016. NFL Super Bowl Most sacks, single game, 3*** Reggie White – Green Bay vs, new England, XXXI Darnell Dockett – Arizona vs. Pittsburgh, XLIII Kony Ealy – Carolina vs. Denver,50 Grady Jarrett – Atlanta vs. New England, LI NFL Super Bowl Most sacks, career,4, however, as sacks were not officially recorded by the NFL at that point, Michael Strahan is attributed the single season record. **Al Bubba Baker had 23 sacks in his rookie 1978 season, however, as sacks were not officially recorded by the NFL at that point, Jevon Kearse is attributed the single season rookie record. Since 1982, when the NFL first began keeping track of sacks, only 31 players have managed to reach the 100 sack milestone
Touchdown Club of Columbus
The Touchdown Club of Columbus was founded in Columbus, Ohio, in 1956 by Sam B. Nicola at the request of state auditor James A. Rhodes, Nicola served as the clubs president until his death in 1993. More than a later, his son Sam Nicola Jr. took over the Touchdown Club. The Touchdown Club of Columbus gives several awards to outstanding athletes. The Sammy Baugh Trophy is awarded annually to the top collegiate passer. J. 1991 – Desmond Howard, Michigan 1992 – O. J, named for Ohio State great and Hall of Famer Jim Parker. J. Henderson, Maryland 2003 – Jonathan Vilma, Miami 2004 – Derrick Johnson and it is named in honor of the only two-time Heisman Trophy winner, Archie Griffin of Ohio State. J. Not to be confused with the Joe F. Carr Trophy which was the official National Football League MVP award from 1938-46, both trophies are named after Carr, a former NFL commissioner. A. J. Simpson, Buffalo Bills 1974 – Ken Stabler, Oakland Raiders 1975 – O. J, Rhodes Trophy is awarded annually to the Ohio High School player of the year.
This annual recognition goes to the top boxer. The Touchdown Club gives the annual TDC Lifetime Achievement Award to a selected athlete, bert Bell Award Maxwell Football Club Washington D. C
Texas A&M University
Texas A&M University is a coeducational public research university in College Station, United States. It is a university and is a member of the Texas A&M University System. The systems endowment ranks in the top 10 in the nation, Texas A&Ms student body is the largest in Texas and one of the largest in the United States. In 2001, Texas A&M was inducted as a member of the prestigious Association of American Universities, the schools students, alumni–over 450,000 strong–and sports teams are known as Aggies. The Texas A&M Aggies athletes currently compete in 18 varsity sports as a member of the Southeastern Conference, the college taught no classes in agriculture, instead concentrating on classical studies, languages and applied mathematics. After four years, students could attain degrees in agriculture and mechanical engineering. Under the leadership of President James Earl Rudder in the 1960s, A&M desegregated, became coeducational, to reflect the institutions expanded roles and academic offerings, the Texas Legislature renamed the school to Texas A&M University in 1963.
The letters A&M, originally short for Agricultural and Mechanical, are retained only as a link to the universitys past, the main campus is one of the largest in the United States, spanning 5,200 acres, and is home to the George Bush Presidential Library. About one-fifth of the student body lives on campus, Texas A&M has over 1,000 officially recognized student organizations. Many students observe the traditions, which daily life, as well as special occasions. Working with agencies such as the Texas AgriLife Research and Texas AgriLife Extension Service, the university offers degrees in over 150 courses of study through ten colleges and houses 18 research institutes. As a Senior Military College, Texas A&M is one of six American public universities with a full-time, the U. S. Congress laid the groundwork for the establishment of Texas A&M in 1862 with the adoption of the Morrill Act. To promote the liberal and practical education of the classes in the several pursuits. In 1871, the Texas Legislature used these funds to establish the states first public institution of higher education, Brazos County donated 2,416 acres near Bryan, for the schools campus.
Enrollment began on October 2,1876, six students enrolled on the first day, and classes officially began on October 4,1876, with six faculty members. During the first semester, enrollment increased to 48 students, admission was limited to white males, and all students were required to participate in the Corps of Cadets and receive military training. Although traditional Texas A&M University Corps of Cadets campusologies indicate 40 students began classes on October 4,1876, enrollment climbed to 258 students before declining to 108 students in 1883, the year the University of Texas opened in Austin, Texas. In the late 1880s, many Texas residents saw no need for two colleges in Texas and clamored for an end of Texas A. M. C
High school football
High school football is gridiron football played by high school teams in the United States and Canada. It ranks among the most popular sports in both countries. It is popular amongst American High school teams in Europe, High school football began in the late 19th century, concurrent with the start of many college football programs. In the late 19th and early 20th century, many college, other traditions of high school football such as pep rallies, marching bands and homecomings are mirrored from college football. No true minor league farm organizations exist in American football, high school football is generally considered to be the third tier of American football in the United States, behind professional and college competition. The National Federation of State High School Associations establishes the rules of high school football in the United States, two states and Massachusetts, use NCAA playing rules except as shown below. Kickoffs take place at the kicking teams 40-yard line, as opposed to the 35 in college, if an attempted field goal is missed it is treated as a punt, normally it would be a touchback and the opposing team will start at the 20-yard line.
However, if it not enter the end zone, it can be downed or returned as a normal punt. Any kick crossing the line is automatically a touchback, kicks cannot be returned out of the end zone. Pass interference by the results in a 15-yard penalty. Pass interference by the results in a 15-yard penalty, from the previous spot. The defense cannot return an extra-point attempt for a score, any defensive player that encroaches the neutral zone, regardless of whether the ball was snapped or not, commits a dead ball foul for encroachment. 5-yard penalty from the previous spot, prior to 2013, offensive pass interference resulted in a 15-yard penalty AND a loss of down. The loss of down provision has been deleted from the rules starting in 2013, in college and the NFL, offensive pass interference is only 10 yards. The use of overtime, and the type of overtime used, is up to the state association. The NFHS offers a suggested overtime procedure based on the Kansas Playoff, intentional grounding may be called even if the quarterback is outside the tackle box.
The home team must wear dark-colored jerseys, and the team must wear white jerseys. In the NFL, the team has choice of jersey color, and in the NCAA
It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. No minor league farm organizations exist in American football and it is in college football where a players performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after 3 to 4 years of collegiate competition. Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as a free agent. Even after the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained extremely popular throughout the U. S, in many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests. This allows them to more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries, colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as football, by the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football. The game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges, the first documented gridiron football match was a game played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9,1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock, a football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College, a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland, modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional mob football played in England.
The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football, Princeton University students played a game called ballown as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as Bloody Monday began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes, in 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go. The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a figure called Football Fightum. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called Old division football, the rules of which were first published in 1871, all of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities
Arlington is a principal city in the U. S. state of Texas, located in Tarrant County. It is part of the Mid-Cities region of the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, according to the U. S. Census Bureaus estimate, the city had a population of almost 379,577 at the end of 2013, making it the third-largest municipality in the metropolitan area. Arlington is the fiftieth-most populous city in the United States, the seventh-most populous city in the state of Texas, Arlington borders Kennedale, Grand Prairie and Fort Worth, and surrounds the smaller communities of Dalworthington Gardens and Pantego. European settlement in the Arlington area dates back at least to the 1840s, the rich soil of the area attracted farmers, and several agriculture-related businesses were well established by the late nineteenth century. Arlington was founded in 1876 along the Texas and Pacific Railway, the city was named after General Robert E. Lees Arlington House in Arlington County, Virginia. Arlington grew as a cotton-ginning and farming center, and incorporated in 1884, the city could boast of water, natural gas, and telephone services by 1910, along with a public school system.
By 1925 the population was estimated at 3,031, large-scale industrialization began in 1954 with the arrival of a General Motors assembly plant. Automotive and aerospace development gave the city one of the nations greatest population growth rates between 1950 and 1990, Arlington became one of the boomburbs, the extremely fast-growing suburbs of the post-World War II era. U. S. Census Bureau population figures for the city tell the story,7,692,90,229,261,721,365,438, Tom Vandergriff served as mayor from 1951 to 1977 during this period of explosive development. Six Flags Over Texas opened in Arlington in 1961, according to the United States Census Bureau, Arlington has a total area of 99.0 square miles,95.8 square miles of it was land, and 3.2 square miles of it is water. Johnson Creek, a tributary of the Trinity River, and the Trinity River itself, Arlington falls in the Cfa region of the Köppen climate classification system which is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters.
The highest recorded temperature was 113 °F in 1980, the lowest recorded temperature was −8 °F in 1899. The maximum average precipitation occurs in May, severe weather generally occurs April and May months. The population density was 3,811 people per square mile, there were 144,805 housing units at an average density of 1,510 per square mile. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 27. 4% of the population, 25% of all households were made up of individuals and 5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.7 and the family size was 3.3. In the city, the 2010 population was out with 31% under the age of 20, 8% from 20 to 24, 30% from 25 to 44, 23% from 45 to 64. The median age was 32 years, for every 100 females there were 104 males
The shot put is a track and field event involving throwing/putting a heavy spherical object —the shot—as far as possible. The shot put competition for men has been a part of the modern Olympics since their revival in 1896, homer mentions competitions of rock throwing by soldiers during the Siege of Troy but there is no record of any dead weights being thrown in Greek competitions. The first evidence for stone- or weight-throwing events were in the Scottish Highlands, in the 16th century King Henry VIII was noted for his prowess in court competitions of weight and hammer throwing. The first events resembling the modern shot put likely occurred in the Middle Ages when soldiers held competitions in which they hurled cannonballs, shot put competitions were first recorded in early 19th century Scotland, and were a part of the British Amateur Championships beginning in 1866. Competitors take their throw from inside a marked circle 2.135 metres in diameter, the following rules are adhered to for a legal throw, Upon calling the athletes name, the athlete may enter from any part of the throwing circle.
They have sixty seconds to commence the throwing motion otherwise they are banned from the game, the athlete may not wear gloves, IAAF rules permit the taping of individual fingers. The athlete must rest the shot close to the neck, the shot must be released above the height of the shoulder, using only one hand. The athlete may touch the surface of the circle or toe board. Limbs may however extend over the lines of the circle in the air, the shot must land in the legal sector of the throwing area. The athlete must leave the circle from the back. The athlete may enter the circle at the location of their choice. Foul throws occur when an athlete, Does not pause within the circle before beginning the throwing motion, does not complete the throwing movement within sixty seconds of having their name called. Allows the shot to drop below his shoulder or outside the plane of his shoulder during the put. At any time if the shot loses contact with the neck it is technically an illegal throw, during the throwing motion, touches with any part of the body, the top or ends of the toe board the top of the iron ring anywhere outside the circle.
Throws a shot which either falls outside the sector or touches a sector line on the initial impact. Leaves the circle before the shot has landed, does not leave from the rear half of the circle. The following are either obsolete or non-existent, but commonly believed rules within professional competition, the athlete entering the circle, exiting and re-entering it prior to starting the throw results in a foul. Each competition has a set number of rounds of throws, typically there are three preliminary rounds to determine qualification for the final, and three more rounds in the final
College Football All-America Team
The College Football All-America Team is an honor given annually to the best American college football players at their respective positions. Camp took over the responsibility for picking the All-America team and was recognized as the selector in the early years of the 20th century. com. As of 2009, the National Collegiate Athletic Association recognizes the All-America teams selected by the AP, AFCA, FWAA, Sporting News, if three of these organizations select a player to their first team, he automatically receives the consensus honor. If a player is named an All-American by all five organizations, depending upon the distribution of first team honors at any given position, it is possible to be consensus with fewer than three first-team selections. The University of Notre Dame has produced the most unanimous All Americans of any program, there have been 2,868 players from 156 colleges and universities since 1889 who were selected to at least one All-American first team. It has selected an All-America team since 1925, the American Football Coaches Association has selected an All-America team every year since 1945.
It is often referred to as the Coaches All-America Team, the Coaches’ All-America Team has been sponsored by various entities throughout the years but it is now under its own banner, the AFCA. These are the sponsors/publishers of the team throughout the years and it is sometimes referred to as the Writers All-America Team. The FWAA has selected an All-America team with the help of its members, the All-America team is selected by a committee of writers representing all conferences and regions of the NCAA. The Writers Team has been highlighted in various media forums, from 1946-70, Look published the FWAA team and brought players and selected writers to New York City for a celebration. During that 25-year period, the FWAA team was introduced on television shows by Bob Hope, Steve Allen, Perry Como. After Look folded, the FWAA started an association with NCAA Films. The team was part of ABC Televisions 1981 College Football Series, from 1983-90, the team was either on ABC or ESPN, and since 1991 has returned to the national spotlight on ABC.
The corporate sponsor for the Writers team is AT&T, after years of Cingular being the sponsor. Walter Camp, The Father of American Football, first selected an All-America team in 1889, the WCF claims an 80% participation rate in the voting for its All-America team. Sporting News, formerly known as The Sporting News and known colloquially as TSN, have teams college football editors and staff select teams, from that year through the 1962 season TSNs All-America team was picked by a poll of sportswriters. Beginning in 1964 the team was selected by professional scouts and observers, the Sporting News cited the advent of two-platoon football as the need to go to that system. United Press International is a organization that selected players in a national poll of sportswriters
In college athletics in the United States, recruiting is a term used to describe for the process in which college coaches add prospective student athletes to their roster each off-season. This process typically culminates in a coach extending an athletic scholarship offer to a player who is about to graduate high school or a junior college. During this recruiting process, schools must comply with rules that uphold the National Collegiate Athletic Association’s underlying principles of fairness and these rules or bylaws define who may be involved in the recruiting process, when recruiting may occur and the conditions under which recruiting may be conducted. Recruiting rules seek, as much as possible, to control intrusions into the lives of prospective student-athletes, to be considered a “recruited prospective student-athlete”, athletes must be approached by a college coach or representative about participating in that college’s athletic program. NCAA guidelines specify how and when they can be contacted, telephone calls, and in-person conversations are limited to certain frequency and dates during and after the students junior year.
The NCAA determines when the athletes can be contacted by dividing the year into four recruiting and non-recruiting periods,1, during a contact period, recruiters may make in-person, on- or off-campus contacts and evaluations. Coaches can write and/or phone athletes during this period, during an evaluation period, they can only assess academic qualifications and playing abilities. Letters and phone calls are permitted, no in-person, off-campus recruiting contacts arent, during a quiet period, they may make in-person recruiting contacts only on the college campus. Off-campus, recruiters are limited to phone calls and letter-writing, during a dead period, they cannot make in-person recruiting contacts or evaluations on- or off-campus or permit official/unofficial visits. However, phone calls and letters are permitted, during the recruiting process, the prospective student-athlete goes on an official visit to the school that theyre being recruited by. An official visit is a prospective student-athlete’s visit to a college campus paid for by the college, NCAA recruiting bylaws limit the number of official visits a recruit may take to five.
The NCAA has imposed stringent rules limiting the manner in which competing university-firms may bid for the newest crop of prospective student-athletes. Such rules limit the number of visits, which a student-athlete may make to a campus, the amount of his expenses that may be covered by the university-firm. During recruitment, a coach may ask a prospective player to sign a National Letter of Intent or NLI for short. The NLI is a program with regard to both institutions and student-athletes. No prospective student-athlete or parent is required to sign the NLI, by signing a NLI, a prospective student-athlete agrees to attend the designated college or university for one academic year. Student-athletes are assured of a scholarship for a minimum of one full academic year. By emphasizing a commitment to an institution, not particular coaches or teams
Martin High School (Arlington, Texas)
James Martin High School is a secondary school serving grades 9 through 12 in Arlington, and is part of the Arlington Independent School District. The mascot of the school is the Warrior, and the colors are black, red. As a result, the old Bowie High School closed in 1983, cathy Brown of The Dallas Morning News said that Sam Houston High School and Lamar High School were relatively unaffected by the opening of Martin, located in southwest Arlington. Brown explained that the zone of Arlington High School lost many newly constructed houses for affluent people. After Martins opening and by 1998, the school won the all-sports award. The school is named after former Superintendent James W. Martin, the name of the school was deemed controversial by some because it broke the trend of naming new AISD high schools after Texas heroes. The cafeteria was expanded and a courtyard was made. It is rated by Texas Education Agency as a campus, since the 1997-1998 school year. During the 2002-2003 school year, Martin gained a rating from the preliminary testing of the TAKS test.
Martin has strong traditions in volleyball, baseball and cheerleading. The Warriors compete in the sports, The Department of Fine Arts at Martin High School includes Band, Orchestra, Speech. Nathan Karns, baseball pitcher who played for Texas Tech University and is playing for the Seattle Mariners. Kirstin Maldonado, mezzo-soprano of a group, Pentatonix Randi Miller,2008 Olympic bronze medalist in womens wrestling and 2008 Womens Wrestler of the Year. Also played in the NFL for the Atlanta Falcons and the Seattle Seahawks, lane Taylor, NFL offensive lineman for the Green Bay Packers