Myoglobin is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates in general and in all mammals. It is distantly related to hemoglobin, the iron- and oxygen-binding protein in blood in the red blood cells. In humans, myoglobin is only found in the bloodstream after muscle injury, it is an abnormal finding, can be diagnostically relevant when found in blood. Myoglobin is the primary oxygen-carrying pigment of muscle tissues. High concentrations of myoglobin in muscle cells allow organisms to hold their breath for a longer period of time. Diving mammals such as whales and seals have muscles with high abundance of myoglobin. Myoglobin is found in Type I muscle, Type II A, Type II B, but most texts consider myoglobin not to be found in smooth muscle. Myoglobin was the first protein to have its three-dimensional structure revealed by X-ray crystallography; this achievement was reported in 1958 by associates. For this discovery, John Kendrew shared the 1962 Nobel Prize in chemistry with Max Perutz.
Despite being one of the most studied proteins in biology, its physiological function is not yet conclusively established: mice genetically engineered to lack myoglobin can be viable and fertile but show many cellular and physiological adaptations to overcome the loss. Through observing these changes in myoglobin-deplete mice, it is hypothesised that myoglobin function relates to increased oxygen transport to muscle, oxygen storage and as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species. In humans myoglobin is encoded by the MB gene. Myoglobin can take the forms oxymyoglobin and metmyoglobin, analogously to hemoglobin taking the forms oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin. Like hemoglobin, myoglobin is a cytoplasmic protein, it harbors only one heme group. Although its heme group is identical to those in Hb, Mb has a higher affinity for oxygen than does hemoglobin; this difference is related to its different role: whereas hemoglobin transports oxygen, myoglobin's function is to store oxygen. Myoglobin contains hemes, pigments responsible for the colour of red meat.
The colour that meat takes is determined by the degree of oxidation of the myoglobin. In fresh meat the iron atom is in the ferrous oxidation state bound to an oxygen molecule. Meat cooked well done is brown because the iron atom is now in the ferric oxidation state, having lost an electron. If meat has been exposed to nitrites, it will remain pink because the iron atom is bound to NO, nitric oxide. Grilled meats can take on a pink "smoke ring" that comes from the iron binding to a molecule of carbon monoxide. Raw meat packed in a carbon monoxide atmosphere shows this same pink "smoke ring" due to the same principles. Notably, the surface of this raw meat displays the pink color, associated in consumers' minds with fresh meat; this artificially induced pink color can persist up to one year. Hormel and Cargill are both reported to use this meat-packing process, meat treated this way has been in the consumer market since 2003. Myoglobin is released from damaged muscle tissue, which has high concentrations of myoglobin.
The released myoglobin is filtered by the kidneys but is toxic to the renal tubular epithelium and so may cause acute kidney injury. It is not the myoglobin itself, toxic but the ferrihemate portion, dissociated from myoglobin in acidic environments. Myoglobin is a sensitive marker for muscle injury, making it a potential marker for heart attack in patients with chest pain. However, elevated myoglobin has low specificity for acute myocardial infarction and thus CK-MB, cardiac Troponin, ECG, clinical signs should be taken into account to make the diagnosis. Myoglobin belongs to the globin superfamily of proteins, as with other globins, consists of eight alpha helices connected by loops. Myoglobin contains 154 amino acids. Myoglobin contains a porphyrin ring with an iron at its center. A proximal histidine group is attached directly to iron, a distal histidine group hovers near the opposite face; the distal imidazole is not bonded to the iron but is available to interact with the substrate O2. This interaction encourages the binding of O2, but not carbon monoxide, which still binds about 240× more than O2.
The binding of O2 causes substantial structural change at the Fe center, which shrinks in radius and moves into the center of N4 pocket. O2-binding induces "spin-pairing": the five-coordinate ferrous deoxy form is high spin and the six coordinate oxy form is low spin and diamagnetic. Many models of myoglobin have been synthesized as part of a broad interest in transition metal dioxygen complexes. A well known example is the picket fence porphyrin, which consists of a ferrous complex of a sterically bulky derivative of tetraphenylporphyrin. In the presence of an imidazole ligand, this ferrous complex reversibly binds O2; the O2 substrate adopts a bent geometry. A key property of this model is the slow formation of the μ-oxo dimer, an inactive diferric state. In nature, such deactivation pathways are suppressed by protein matrix that prevents close approach of the Fe-porphyrin assemblies. Cytoglobin Hemoglobin Hemoprotein Neuroglobin Phytoglobin Myoglobinuria - The presence of myoglobin in the urine Ischemia-reperfusion injury of the appendicular musculoskeletal system Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man 160000 human genetics The Myoglobin Protein RCSB PDB featured molecule Whi
Openclipart is a community and collection of vector clip art, free content. The project's slogan was, "Openclipart is the largest community of artists making the best free original clipart for you to use for any reason." All of Openclipart's content was public domain, either due to expired copyright, failing to reach the threshold of originality, or deeded into the public domain to the greatest legal extent possible by its owners. The website has been unavailable since April 2019. Access to the library via other means was still possible in late 2019; the partial copies of the library have been posted on several mirrors. As of writing you can upload and browse images, but there is no search function; the Openclipart library, sometimes abbreviated as OCAL, was started in early 2004 by Jon Phillips and Bryce Harrington, developers for vector graphics software Sodipodi, its fork, Inkscape. Openclipart grew out of a project started by Christian Schaller, who on October 26, 2003 issued a challenge on the Gnome Desktop website for users of Sodipodi to create a collection of flags in SVG format.
The flag project progressed well, resulting in a collection of over 90 flags made publicly available in SVG format, which led to a broadening of the project goals to include generic clipart. The project became known as Openclipart by April 2004, with the stated aim of all contributed images being dedicated to the public domain. In the early stages of the Openclipart project, a website was created that lacked thumbnails and was hard to browse. To help propagate the images in the library, downloadable Openclipart packages were released; these packages were available directly from the Openclipart website, or as an add-on for various Linux distributions including Fedora, or an NSIS installer for Windows. Each package included most of the clipart to date and were manually sorted into categories, a laborious process; the Openclipart package version 0.20 was released in 2010. The Openclipart packages received only a few more incremental updates during 2010 for seasonal clipart. An overhauled Openclipart 2.0 website went live as a beta in February 2010 with a full release in March 2010.
The site introduced a change from the old ccHost software to the new AGPL-based Aiki Framework, a content management system made for Openclipart 2.0. The new site allowed anyone to browse and add to the Openclipart collection and image thumbnails and improved search functions made the Openclipart library more accessible; these features contributed to increased use of the site, soon receiving over 5,000 unique visitors and 50,000 page views daily, soon made the old packages redundant. This release culminated the work of Jon Phillips, Andy Fitzsimon, Bassel Safadi, Ronaldo Barbachano, Brad Phillips who assisted in the launch of the new system; the 3.0 website release incorporated a "favoriting" feature, allowing members to make note of their favorite clip art, an image-editing option that makes the remixing of images easier. On April 15, 2013, Openclipart launched a new logo and updated website design using a "scissors" logo. On March 12, 2014, Openclipart announced that Inkpad, an open source drawing app for Apple iPad, released library integration so that the entire collection is available to artists.
On April 19, 2019 the site was taken offline by what was reported as a distributed denial-of-service attack. Jon Philips, one of the site's founders, appeared to be a victim of identity theft, making it unclear whether the earlier reports of a DDoS attack were true. Since the shutdown, all pages on OpenClipart.org have redirected to a page asking users to donate money "to support protection." The message was updated December 25 with a statement that the site was being "gifted to the community" and that new files could once again be uploaded to the library. When it became apparent that the site was not going to come back up some users discovered that the art files themselves were still available and used software to download them. Using this technique 156,000 images, constituting the vast majority of the library, were recovered and put up on FreeSVG.org. A second mirror was established at FreeSVGClipArt.com, taking advantage of the clips' lack of licensing restrictions. Inkpad for iPad, with Openclipart Integration.
The vector graphics editor Inkscape can import vector graphics online from Openclipart to one's current workspace. Microsoft Office app Google Docs Add-on LibreOffice extension iOS Clipart, iOS PosterMaker Clipart Search, Openclipart for Android Clipart plugin for WordPress Clipart plugin for Moodle Linux distributionsSome Linux distributions, including Mandriva and Ubuntu, include many of the Openclipart collection releases, packaged as SVG, PNG or OpenDocument format files; these distributions are based on the 2005 pre-ccHost release, since regular releases stopped after the switch to ccHost software. Openclipart 0.19, the first version released after switch, was released in March 2009. With the recent release of version 2.0 and updated packages, distributions have bugs filed in their respective bug trackers to begin packaging Openclipart once more. Openclipart was included on the cover discs in Linux Format issues 123 and 132 as a package of browseable SVG files from the Openclipart collection.
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Lisa Raines Foster is an English retired actress, visual effects artist, animation producer, video game developer. She was the star of Fanny Hill, she was raised in London, England. Her father was a school teacher, she has Kim. When in her teens, she was trained by HB Studio in New York City, she worked as an actress. Lisa began her professional career at the age of thirteen in Edmonton as a young performer. A few years still in her teens, she moved to New York and studied acting at HB Studio with Rochelle Oliver and Elizabeth Dillon and took jazz dance with Buck Heller. A couple of years she returned to Toronto to model and act, she was a photographic model in Toronto and Montreal and graced fashion magazines like Clin D'Oeil as well as ads for L'Oréal. She got a three-picture deal through producer Harry Alan Towers while in Toronto and was Mila in the mid-1980s film The Blade Master, mocked as an episode of the television series Mystery Science Theater 3000, she played the lead of Fanny Hill in the movie of the same name 1983 movie Fanny Hill which starred Shelley Winters and Oliver Reed.
On in her life she has directed most of her attention to behind the scenes work where she was proficient as camera operator, stage manager and as technical director on the award-winning political panel show, Week in Review. She began her visual effects career at Cinesite in Los Angeles as part of the complex restoration team assigned to the major task of digitally reconstructing the Disney animated film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Following the success of these new digital techniques, she went on to work as a technical artist on such films as Coneheads and the Academy Award-nominated film Super Mario Bros.. As staff animator at Sony Pictures Imageworks, Foster lent her skills to such films as Die Hard with a Vengeance, The Cable Guy, Virtuosity and James and the Giant Peach; some of the films that include her visual effects work are Die Hard with a Vengeance and the Giant Peach and Virtuosity. She was last known to be directing the 3D animated series Thesaurus Rex aimed at encouraging and challenging visual and vocabulary concepts in preschoolers.
From there she moved into the game arena, first as a CG supervisor for Square's mega-hit game Parasite Eve, in which she directed two key cinematic sequences, as a CG supervisor and Technical Director for the games Evil Dead: Hail to the King and THQ's Scooby-Doo. After a stint as Executive Producer for the broadcast design arm of Duck Soup in Los Angeles, Lisa took the Senior Producer position at Phantagram Entertainment. Games included: The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers based on the Peter Jackson film for Electronic Arts and Kingdom Under Fire: The Crusaders. In 2009 she became the Core Systems and User Generated Content Producer for LEGO's multimillion-dollar MMO, LEGO Universe. Country Gold as Mrs. Vogel Ator 2: The Blade Master as Mila Spring Fever as Lena Fanny Hill as Fanny Hill Marie as Sherry Lomax The Hitchhiker as Patty The Jitters as Jennifer The Twilight Zone as Nurse Carla Come Spy with Me as Charlie Separated by Murder as Donna Dupree A Letter from Death Row as Charlene Fitzpatrick For the Cause as Systems operator Cliffhanger Super Mario Bros.
Coneheads Brainscan Wolf Hideaway - Technical director Die Hard with a Vengeance Virtuosity - Technical director James and the Giant Peach The Cable Guy Moomins and the Winter Wonderland - Animator Parasite Eve - CGI supervisor Evil Dead: Hail to the King - CGI supervisor The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers - Producer Kingdom Under Fire: The Crusaders - Senior producer Lego Universe - Systems producer Lisa Foster on IMDb Lisa Foster's autobiographical page a.k.a writer has an interview with Lisa Foster