Mystery Science Theater 3000 is an American television comedy series created by Joel Hodgson and produced by Alternaversal Productions, LLC. The show premiered on KTMA-TV in Minneapolis, Minnesota, on November 24, 1988, it aired on The Comedy Channel/Comedy Central for seven seasons until its cancellation in 1996. Thereafter, it was picked up by The Sci-Fi Channel and aired for three seasons until another cancellation in August 1999. A 60-episode syndication package titled The Mystery Science Theater Hour was produced in 1993 and syndicated to stations in 1995. In 2015, Hodgson led a crowdfunded revival of the series with 14 episodes in its eleventh season, first released on Netflix on April 14, 2017, with another six-episode season following on November 22, 2018; as of 2019, 217 episodes and a feature film have been produced. The show starred Hodgson as Joel Robinson, a janitor trapped by two mad scientists on the Earth-orbiting Satellite of Love, forced to watch a series of B movies as a part of the scientists' plot to take over the world.
To keep his sanity, Joel crafts a number of robot companions—including Tom Servo, Crow T. Robot, Gypsy—to keep him company and help him humorously comment on each movie as it plays, a process known as riffing; each two-hour episode would feature a single movie in its entirety, sometimes with various shorts and educational films, with Joel and Crow watching in silhouette from a row of theater seats at the bottom of the screen. These "theater segments" were framed with interstitial sketches called "host segments"; the show's cast changed over its duration. Other cast members, most of whom were writers for the show, include Trace Beaulieu, Josh Weinstein, Jim Mallon, Kevin Murphy, Frank Conniff, Mary Jo Pehl, Bill Corbett, Paul Chaplin, Bridget Jones Nelson; the revival features a new cast, including Jonah Ray as the new human test subject, Jonah Heston, along with Felicia Day and Patton Oswalt as the mads and Baron Vaughn, Hampton Yount, Rebecca Hanson as the bots. MST3K's original run did not garner high viewership numbers, but the show's popularity spread through word-of-mouth over the Internet from its fans known as MSTies, frequent repeats and syndication, home media offerings produced by Rhino Entertainment and Shout!
Factory, who along with Hodgson now own the rights to the show and supported the revived series. MST3K was listed as one of Time magazine's "100 Best TV Shows of All-TIME" in 2007, TV Guide has noted MST3K as one of the top cult television shows; the show won a Peabody Award in 1993, was nominated for two Emmy Awards in 1994 and 1995, for the CableACE Award from 1992 to 1997. The show was considered influential, contributing towards the practice of social television, former cast members launched similar projects based on the riffing of films, including The Film Crew, RiffTrax, Cinematic Titanic. MST3K brought to light several older movies that had fallen into obscurity or had received little or no public attention when released. Many of these films were subsequently identified as among the worst movies made, most notably Manos: The Hands of Fate. While the cast of MST3K has changed throughout its history, the premise of the show remains unchanged: a human test subject—first Joel Robinson Mike Nelson, most Jonah Heston —has been imprisoned aboard the spacecraft Satellite of Love by mad scientists and their henchmen and is forced to watch a series of bad movies in order to find one that will drive the test subject insane.
To keep his sanity, Joel built himself a series of sentient robots from parts aboard the Satellite, who subsequently remained aboard with Joel's successors as test subject. The'bots include Tom Servo, Crow T. Robot and Cambot, the silent recorder of the experiments. Crow and Servo join the human as they watch the film in the Satellite's theater, to keep from going mad, the trio comment and wisecrack atop it, a process known as "riffing". At regular intervals throughout the movie, the hosts leave the theater and return to the bridge of the Satellite to perform sketches that satirize the film being watched; the general format of an MST3K episode has remained the same throughout the series' run. Episodes are 90 minutes in running time and begin with a short introductory segment in which the human host and the'bots interact with the Mads before being sent the movie. During Joel Hodgson and Jonah Ray's tenures as hosts, the hosts and the Mads engage in an "invention exchange" in which they each show off their latest inventions.
Sirens and flashing lights signal the characters to enter the theater. In the theater, the human host and'bots' Tom and Crow sit in a row of theater seats, shown in silhouette along the bottom of the screen, an approach Hodgson called "Shadowramma"; the three riff on the film as it plays for both them and the audience. The silhouette format is used as a source of humor or as a means of creating unobtrusive censor bars for scenes containing nudity; the show transitions into and out of the theater via a "door sequence", a series of six doors that open or close as the camera passes through them. At regular intervals throughout the episode, the c
A virtual campus or e campus, refers to the online offerings of a college or university where college work is completed either or wholly online with the assistance of the teacher, professor, or teaching assistant. Many colleges and universities now offer such courses either or wholly online. There are an estimated 4,500 such institutions with total enrollments approaching 2 million; the majority of students using virtual campuses to obtain online degrees are adults students for three main reasons: Flexibility – Adults with full-time jobs and families would find it impossible to attend daily at a traditional school setting. Online classes allow students to work around their busy lives. Cost – The cost of an online degree is cheaper than at a traditional college setting. Obtaining your degree online eliminates costs such as classroom costs and facility upkeep costs that traditional students are required to pay because they are using the campus. However, the cheaper cost of an online degree does not diminish the value of the degree.
Broad Choices – Students can remain at home and have availability to degrees that may not be offered by universities or colleges nearby. Schools use a variety of tools for conducting classes – called learning management systems or course management systems. CMS may refer to CONTENT Management Systems; some of the aspects that go under virtual campus includes various types of learning activities such as lectures, discussions, assignments. Classes are self paced using online documents and databases that might be available to them. Tests and other assignments are available online in specific programs used for online classes. Other methods used in virtual campus are live sessions, videoconferencing and sharing various applications. Individuals are able to access the materials any time they want under the teacher's control and are able to access anywhere online where they're able to access internet usage. Email is a big part of the virtual campuses and is used before and after sessions; this aids individuals in exchanging information and or point them to the right direction that would be useful in increasing and understanding various methods available to them via documents and online sources.
Alexander et al. conducted a study and found that the use of technology did not in itself result in improvements in the quality of learning but that success depended on the design of the whole learning experience. There are two main models for the virtual campus emerging; the first of these is one in which an educational institution uses communication and information technologies to provide all conventional services. In the second model, services are unbundled, with some being sub-contracted to other organizations. Virtual campuses are learner centered, students can customize their virtual campus to fit their learning styles and preferences thanks to the Internet and telecommunication technologies. Teleconferencing, videoconferencing, computer-based interactive multimedia packages, various forms of computer mediated communication are technologies that facilitate synchronous delivery of content and real-time interaction between teacher and students as well as opportunities for problem-solving either individually or as a team.
Computer-assisted language learning Diploma mill While many distance education programs provide valuable instruction, others offer degrees with little requirements. Distance education Educational technology Online learning MLearning Virtual education Virtual university
The Church of the Dormition of the Holy Mother of God is a Bulgarian Orthodox church in the village of Uzundzhovo, Haskovo Municipality, Bulgaria. Built as a mosque during the Ottoman era, it was reconstructed in 1906 as a church. According to local legend, Ottoman conquerors destroyed the existing Bulgarian village and church. Under Sultan Bayezid II's order, a caravanserai for traveling merchants was built, around which a Turkish hamlet called Uzunca Ova arose; the well-known Ottoman traveler Evliya Çelebi visited Uzundzhovo at the end of the 17th century and wrote the following: Ibrahim Tatarlı's research on Ottoman religious buildings and inscriptions indicates that famous Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan designed the mosque. Austrian historian Hammer confirms this assertion, with documents that show Sinan had issued 30,000 qirsh in 1593 for the construction of a mosque, caravanserai and bathhouse in what became known as Uzundzhovo. Bulgarian scholars such as Ivan Bogdanov dispute Sinan's involvement, as Uzundzhovo had been well-established as a religious judge's seat by 1566.
After the liberation of Bulgaria in 1878, Uzundzhovo's Turkish population relocated. The caravanserai and other public buildings were demolished, sparing only the mosque and one of the caravanserai's entrances; the mosque was neglected until the village's Saint John the Baptist Church collapsed. Lacking the funds for a new building, Uzundzhovo's ecclesiastical board decided to convert the mosque into a church. For this purpose the 10th ordinary National Assembly of Bulgaria granted the parish the mosque for use as a church property. Uzundzhovo residents, resisted the idea and resolved instead to demolish the mosque and use its building materials for a new church. After a three-year debate, the idea prevailed that the mosque still had to be preserved for posterity and reconstructed. In 1906, it was consecrated as a church. After the church underwent remodeling over a century Metropolitan Nikolay of Plovdiv reconsecrated it on 9 September 2007
Philip III Arrhidaeus reigned as king of Macedonia from after 11 June 323 BC until his death. He was a son of King Philip II of Macedon by Philinna of Larissa, thus an elder half-brother of Alexander the Great. Named Arrhidaeus at birth, he assumed the name Philip; as Arrhidaeus grew older it became apparent. Plutarch was of the view that he became disabled by means of an attempt on his life by Philip II's wife, Queen Olympias, who wanted to eliminate a possible rival to her son, through the employment of pharmaka. Alexander was fond of Arrhidaeus and took him on his campaigns, both to protect his life and to prevent his use as a pawn in any prospective challenge for the throne. After Alexander's death in Babylon in 323 BC, the Macedonian army in Asia proclaimed Arrhidaeus as king. Though Arrhidaeus and Alexander were about the same age, Arrhidaeus appears never to have been a danger as an alternative choice for Alexander's succession to Philip II. Arrhidaeus' whereabouts during the reign of his brother Alexander are unclear from the extant sources.
He was in Babylon at the time of Alexander's death on 10 June 323 BC. A succession crisis ensued. Arrhidaeus was the most obvious candidate. A conflict arose between Perdiccas, leader of the cavalry, Meleager, who commanded the phalanx: the first wanted to wait to see if Roxana, Alexander's pregnant wife, would deliver a male baby, while the second objected that Arrhidaeus was the closest living relative and so should be chosen king. Meleager was killed, a compromise was engineered: Arrhidaeus would become king, with the name of Philip, he would be joined by Roxana's yet-unborn child as co-sovereign should that child prove a male; this eventuality did indeed arise and resulted in Roxana's son, becoming with his uncle Phillip III co-sovereign on the throne of Macedon. It was decided that Philip Arrhidaeus would reign, but not rule: this was to be the prerogative of the new regent, Perdiccas; when news arrived in Macedonia that Arrhidaeus had been chosen as king, Cynane, a daughter of Philip II, developed a plan to travel to Asia and offer the new king her daughter Eurydice for wife.
This move was an obvious affront to the regent, whom Cynane had bypassed, to prevent the marriage, Perdiccas sent his brother, Alcetas, to kill Cynane. The reaction among the troops generated by this murder was such that the regent had to give up his opposition to the proposed match and accept the marriage. From that moment on, Philip Arrhidaeus was to be under the sway of his bride, a proud and determined woman bent on substantiating her husband's power. Eurydice's chance to increase her husband's power came when the first war of the Diadochi sealed the fate of Perdiccas, making a new settlement necessary. An agreement was made at Triparadisus in Syria in 321 BC. Eurydice moved deftly enough to achieve the removal of the first two designated regents and Arrhidaeus, but was powerless to block the aspirations of Antipater, whose position proved too powerful, the latter was made the new regent; the regent died of natural causes the following year, nominating as his successor not his son Cassander, but his friend and lieutenant, Polyperchon.
Cassander's refusal to accept his father's decision sparked the Second War of the Diadochi, in which Eurydice saw once again a chance to free Philip from the control of the regent. An opportunity presented itself in 317 BC. Eurydice allied herself with Cassander and persuaded her husband to nominate him as the new regent. Cassander reciprocated by leaving her in full control of the country when he left to campaign in Greece, but individual circumstances and events at this time were subject to rapid change. That same year and Olympias allied with her cousin, king of Epirus, invaded Macedonia; the Macedonian troops refused to fight the mother of Alexander. Philip and Eurydice had no choice but to escape, only to be captured at Amphipolis and thrown into prison, it soon became clear that Philip was too dangerous to be left alive, as Olympias' many enemies saw him as a useful tool against her, so on 25 December 317 BC, she had him executed, while his wife was forced to commit suicide. In 1977, important excavations were made near Vergina leading to the discovery of a two-chambered royal tomb, with an perfectly preserved male skeleton.
Manolis Andronikos, the chief archaeologist at the site, along with a number of other archaeologists, decided it was the skeleton of Philip II, but others have disputed this attribution and instead proposed it to be the remains of Philip Arrhidaeus. He appears as one of the main characters in the novel Funeral Games by Mary Renault. In Renault's version, the villainous Cassander slows down his advance on Macedonia to give Olympias enoug
Be-Bop Deluxe were an English progressive rock band who achieved critical acclaim and moderate commercial success during the mid to late 1970s. The band's sound emerged as a mixture of glam rock, prog rock and straightforward roll. Science fiction imagery was common in the lyrics, along with the more traditional themes of love and the human condition. Be-Bop Deluxe was founded in Wakefield, West Yorkshire, England, by singer and principal songwriter Bill Nelson in 1972; the founding lineup consisted of Nelson, guitarist Ian Parkin and vocalist Robert Bryan, drummer Nicholas Chatterton-Dew, keyboardist Richard Brown. They started off playing the West Yorkshire pub scene, with one regular venue being the Staging Post in Whinmoor, Leeds, they never played bebop music, but instead came out of the blues-based British rock scene of the late 1960s. At first they were compared to the more successful David Bowie, but Nelson never tried to copy Bowie, appears to have disliked comparisons or being pigeon-holed.
This artistic restlessness led him to disband Be-Bop Deluxe altogether and pursue less commercial paths of expression. After signing to EMI'S Harvest Records subsidiary, the initial lineup of the band only lasted for one album, 1974's Axe Victim, a short tour. Shortly after this, Nelson dissolved the band and reformed with a new lineup with bassist Paul Jeffreys, keyboardist Milton Reame-James and drummer Simon Fox, the latter introduced by Reame-James to Nelson; however and Reame-James soon departed the band, New Zealand-born bassist-vocalist Charlie Tumahai joined in late 1974. This lineup recorded 1975's Futurama album and was supplemented by keyboardist Andrew Clark for the subsequent tour, after which Clark joined the band; this final lineup remained constant until the band's dissolution in 1978. Jeffreys died in the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland in 1988. Stylistically, the songs took elements from glam rock and hard guitar rock. "Ships in the Night", taken from the band's third album Sunburst Finish, was their most successful single in both the UK and the US.
The single features an alto saxophone solo by Ian Nelson. The album was notably the first to be produced by EMI employee John Leckie, who had hitherto worked for the company as a recording engineer, in which capacity he had served on Axe Victim, which he in effect produced, it was a happy relationship: Leckie would go on to produce all the subsequent Be-Bop Deluxe and Bill Nelson's Red Noise albums for Harvest, including the proposed Red Noise album Quit Dreaming And Get On The Beam that Harvest refused to release. Nelson shared producing credits with Leckie from Drastic Plastic onward; the first three Be-Bop Deluxe albums are all, in another, named after guitars. "Axe" is slang for a guitar, "Futurama" is a particular make of guitar while "Sunburst Finish" refers to a style of finishing for the instrument. The title track of the fourth album, Modern Music, was a ten-minute suite of songs inspired by the experience of the band's touring the US; this was followed by the live album, Live! In The Air Age, recorded on the subsequent UK tour promoting Modern Music although no songs from that studio album appeared on the live one apart from a tantalizing snippet of the audience singing along to Down On Terminal Street.
That recording – now featuring the song in its entirety – and a number of other live Modern Music tracks surfaced on 2011's 5-CD set Futurist Manifesto. 1978's Drastic Plastic, recorded at Juan-Les-Pins in the South of France under the influence of punk, new wave and David Bowie's Berlin albums, was a substantial stylistic change from the progressive/guitar rock of the early Be-Bop Deluxe. Eager to embrace the changing musical landscape, Nelson dissolved Be-Bop Deluxe; the band appeared three times on BBC's The Old Grey Whistle Test performing a total of six songs and once on Top of the Pops with their 1976 "Ships In The Night." For the band's Sight & Sound concert in 1978 the setlist was made up of tracks from the Drastic Plastic album. Thereafter, Nelson formed a new band, Bill Nelson's Red Noise, retaining Andy Clark on keyboards, adding his brother Ian on saxophone, in which capacity the latter had contributed to Ships in the Night. An album followed. Nelson has subsequently released numerous albums and singles under his own name playing all instruments himself.
Nelson planned a four-guitarist, two-drummer band in the nineties with Ian, but it never materialised. In 1995, former Be-Bop Deluxe members Ian Parkin and Charlie Tumahai died. In 2004, Sound on Sound magazine, whose website hosts Nelson's online shop and is named after Red Noise's Sound-on-Sound album put up the money for Nelson to take his seven-piece band Bill Nelson and the Lost Satellites formed to play the 2002 Nelsonica convention, on tour around the UK as The Be Bop Deluxe And Beyond Tour; the drummer for the tour was Nick Dew who, under the name Nicholas Chatterton-Dew, had played with Be-Bop Deluxe in the early days. The sax player was Ian Nelson, who died two years in 2006. Nelson subsequently put together the seven-piece Bill Nelson and the Gentlemen Rocketeers, which included Dave Sturt and Theo Travis and, once again, Nick Dew on drums, to play songs with vocals from the extensive Be-Bop Deluxe/Bill Nelson back catalogue at his annual Nelsonica event in Yorkshire. In M
Odor-able Kitty is a 1945 Looney Tunes cartoon directed by Chuck Jones. It is notable as the first appearance of Pepé Le Pew; the scriptwriter was Tedd Pierce. Chuck Jones, a co-creator for the character credited Michael Maltese with contributing to the character concept. After so much abuse, an orange cat decides. Thinking that it would make things easier, the cat disguises himself as a skunk using paint and smelly substances. Although he is successful in keeping his tormentors at bay, he accidentally attracts the unwanted attention of a real skunk, "Henri." The cat runs from him and hides in a tree, where the skunk appears out of nowhere. The cat runs into town, grabs a skunk fur runs to a silo, from which he threatens to jump if the skunk gets any closer; the cat throws the skunk fur from the top of the silo. But as the cat sneaks down the steps, Henri realizes that the fur is just a fur and resumes pursuing the cat. Continuing to run, the cat accidentally brings a dog into the mix tries a Bugs Bunny costume to fool Henri.
But the disguise does not work. Once the cat is tired and worn out, Henri cuddles with him until someone interrupts. Standing in disbelief, Henri claims he was only "wiping a cinder from a lady's eye," but to no use as she doesn't believe him and is more concerned that he is cheating on her with someone else, he is beat on the head with his wife's umbrella as the cat crawls away to escape and removes all of the paint and smell. He realizes; the film is not part of the typical formula for the Pepé Le Pew series of cartoons, since the character is "unknowingly" attracted to a male cat. Most of the films in the series are "Picaresque stories of seduction and sexual conquest or its failure". Part of the film's twist ending is that Pepé is revealed as an American skunk who fakes his French accent. Given the theme of a married man/skunk attempting the seduction of another male, Ken Jennings suggests the film could be of interest to queer studies. Jennings sees the cat as a cross-dresser. Laserdisc - The Golden Age of Looney Tunes, Vol. 1, Side 2: Firsts VHS - The Golden Age of Looney Tunes, Vol. 2: Firsts DVD - Looney Tunes Golden Collection: Volume 3, Disc Four DVD - Looney Tunes Super Stars' Pepe Le Pew: Zee Best of Zee Best Jennings, Ken Jennings's Trivia Almanac: 7,777 Questions in 365 Days, Random House, ISBN 978-0345504722 Thompson, Kirsten Moana, "Notes", in Sandler, Kevin S.