Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives or stories that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are gods, demigods or supernatural humans. Stories of everyday human beings, although of leaders of some type, are contained in legends, as opposed to myths. Myths are endorsed by rulers and priests or priestesses, are linked to religion or spirituality. In fact, many societies group their myths and history together, considering myths and legends to be true accounts of their remote past. In particular, creation myths take place in a primordial age when the world had not achieved its form. Other myths explain how a society's customs and taboos were established and sanctified. There is a complex relationship between recital of myths and enactment of rituals; the study of myth began in ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists and revived by Renaissance mythographers.
Today, the study of myth continues in a wide variety of academic fields, including folklore studies, philology and anthropology. The term mythology may either refer to the study of myths in general, or a body of myths regarding a particular subject; the academic comparisons of bodies of myth is known as comparative mythology. Since the term myth is used to imply that a story is not objectively true, the identification of a narrative as a myth can be political: many adherents of religions view their religion's stories as true and therefore object to the stories being characterised as myths. Scholars now speak of Christian mythology, Jewish mythology, Islamic mythology, Hindu mythology, so forth. Traditionally, Western scholarship, with its Judaeo-Christian heritage, has viewed narratives in the Abrahamic religions as being the province of theology rather than mythology. Labelling all religious narratives as myths can be thought of as treating different traditions with parity. Definitions of myth to some extent vary by scholar.
Finnish folklorist Lauri Honko offers a cited definition: Myth, a story of the gods, a religious account of the beginning of the world, the creation, fundamental events, the exemplary deeds of the gods as a result of which the world and culture were created together with all parts thereof and given their order, which still obtains. A myth expresses and confirms society's religious values and norms, it provides a pattern of behavior to be imitated, testifies to the efficacy of ritual with its practical ends and establishes the sanctity of cult. Scholars in other fields use the term myth in varied ways. In a broad sense, the word can refer to any traditional story, popular misconception or imaginary entity. However, while myth and other folklore genres may overlap, myth is thought to differ from genres such as legend and folktale in that neither are considered to be sacred narratives; some kinds of folktales, such as fairy stories, are not considered true by anyone, may be seen as distinct from myths for this reason.
Main characters in myths are gods, demigods or supernatural humans, while legends feature humans as their main characters. However, many exceptions or combinations exist, as in the Iliad and Aeneid. Moreover, as stories spread between cultures or as faiths change, myths can come to be considered folktales, their divine characters recast as either as humans or demihumans such as giants and faeries. Conversely and literary material may acquire mythological qualities over time. For example, the Matter of Britain and the Matter of France, seem distantly to originate in historical events of the fifth and eighth-centuries and became mythologised over the following centuries. In colloquial use, the word myth can be used of a collectively held belief that has no basis in fact, or any false story; this usage, pejorative, arose from labeling the religious myths and beliefs of other cultures as incorrect, but it has spread to cover non-religious beliefs as well. However, as used by folklorists and academics in other relevant fields, such as anthropology, the term myth has no implication whether the narrative may be understood as true or otherwise.
In present use, mythology refers to the collected myths of a group of people, but may mean the study of such myths. For example, Greek mythology, Roman mythology and Hittite mythology all describe the body of myths retold among those cultures. Folklorist Alan Dundes defines myth as a sacred narrative that explains how the world and humanity evolved into their present form. Dundes classified a sacred narrative as "a story that serves to define the fundamental worldview of a culture by explaining aspects of the natural world and delineating the psychological and social practices and ideals of a society". Anthropologist Bruce Lincoln defines myth as "ideology in narrative form." The compilation or description of myths is sometimes known as mythography, a term which can be used of a scholarly anthology of myths. Key mythographers in the Classical tradition include Ovid, whose tellings of myths have been profoundingly influential.
The Inverness Courier is a local, bi-weekly newspaper, published each Tuesday and Friday in Inverness, Scotland. It reports on the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, it is the longest, continually running local newspaper covering the area. The first issue of The Inverness Courier and General Advertiser for the Counties of Inverness, Moray, Cromarty and Caithness appeared on 4 Dec 1817; the first editors were Mr John and Mrs Johnstone until 1824. Mrs Christian Isobel Johnstone produced the acclaimed Meg Dod’s Cookery Book. Dr Robert Carruthers was editor from April 1828 till his death in 1878, when his son Walter Carruthers took over until his death in 1885, he was succeeded by James Barron. Walter Carruthers and James Barron were co-founders of Inverness Field Club in 1875. In Feb 1919 Dr Evan Macleod Barron became editor, the author of The Scottish War of Independence, his niece Eveline Barron became deputy editor in 1952, succeeding him as editor in April 1965. The current editor is David Bourn.
The Rev. Alexander Stewart Minister of Ballachulish & Corran of Ardgour Parish contributed for more than four decades, under the pen-name Nether Lochaber, a more or less fortnightly column to the Inverness Courier; this resulted in two publications: Nether Lochaber: The Natural History and Folk-lore of the West Highlands and ’Twixt Ben Nevis and Glencoe: The Natural History and Folk-lore of the West Highlands. In May 1933, The Inverness Courier published the first report of the Loch Ness monster. A Courier correspondent, Alexander Campbell, had told of the strange sighting to editor Evan Barron, said to have replied that it must be a monster; the Inverness Courier is published by Scottish Provincial Press, which publishes several weekly newspapers in the Highland council area of Scotland. In 2014, The Inverness Courier was named the Islands newspaper of the year. "Miscellanea Invernessiana: with a bibliography of Inverness newspapers and periodicals, by John Noble. Published Stirling, Eneas Mackay 1902".
Highlife Highland. Retrieved 7 June 2014."The Northern Highlands in the nineteenth century: newspaper index and annals, by James Barron. Published Inverness: R. Carruthees & Sons 1903". Highlife Highland. Retrieved 7 June 2014."A Highland newspaper: the first hundred and fifty years of the Inverness Courier, 1817-1967, by Robert Carruthers. Published Inverness: Robert Carruthers 1969". Highlife Highland. Retrieved 7 June 2014; the Hub of the Highlands: The Book of Inverness and District. The Centenary Volume of Inverness Field Club 1875–1975, Inverness Field Club 1975. Ross, Donald, ‘Nether Lochaber: Memories of a Well-known Highlander’, The Inverness Courier, no. 11943, p. 3 Official Website
Geula Kohen Moradov known as Geula Zylberman or Geula is a naturalized Venezuelan abstract impressionist artist that emigrated to Venezuela in 1940. She rose to national fame in 1969 as a part of the figurative movement that took root in Latin America, painting picturesque Venezuelan landscapes and renowned portraits of Simon Bolivar; the positive domestic critical acclaim catapulted her to international recognition between 1971 and 1989, earning international recognition for her paintings and murals with exhibitions in countries such as Israel, the United States, Belgium, France and Honduras. Most true to her ancestral roots, Geula has shifted into painting Judaica themes with a strong Zionist flare and national Israeli sentiment; as a result, Geula's artwork has been representative of either Venezuelan or Israeli identity. Her art has been exhibited in Venezuelan federal and government buildings, the Israeli Knesset, major museums, private collections worldwide. Geula began her studies of the arts in 1947, under the tutelage of Professors Carlos Otero, Gols Soler, Marcos Castillo, Rafael Monasterio, J.
J. Espinosa and R. M. Durban in Caracas, Venezuela. After completing her first endeavor studying with these professors in 1952, she dedicated most of her time to her personal family life. Between 1956 and 1959, she continued her studies by attending the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes in Caracas and traveling abroad to study - as an observer - the evolution of the plastic arts in Paris and Barcelona and the Betzalel School in Israel. Upon her return to Venezuela in 1959, she attended the Escuela de Artes Plásticas “Cristobal Rojas” under the tutelage of Professor Rafael Martin Durban, she studied “Escultura y Vaciado” under the tutelage of Professor Sergio Rodriguez and “Escultura y Modelado” under the tutelage of Professor Juan Jaen in Caracas, Venezuela until 1962. In 1965, she decided to shift her area of study focus, pursuing academic endeavors that would give her an opportunity to transition into becoming an art teacher herself, it was at this point that she enrolled in intensive courses on “Pedagogia Terapeutica” in AVEPANE, Venezuela, a course on “Pedagogia Didactica” co-sponsored by the University of Jerusalem in Caracas, Venezuela in 1968, a course on “Artes Plasticas Pre-Escolar” at the Education Ministry in Caracas, Venezuela.
Geula married Gerszon Zylberman, a Polish citizen that enlisted in the British Army during World War II on September 24, 1950 in Rehovot, Israel. After a couple of years in Israel, they returned to Caracas where they established themselves, forming a family with three children: Yaeli Zylberman, Ygal Zylberman and Ilana Zylberman. Of her children, Geula was famously quoted when asked by the journalist Gotmar Nalber "Which is your best painting?" and she responded "My three children..." One of the highlights of Geula's professional career, was her experience leading the Taller Geula, referred to as L'atelier de Art Geula. In 1971, she inaugurated Taller Geula, teaching drawing, sculptures, complementary cultural classes and more. Amongst her renowned students, are the Colombian-Swedish artist Libardo Garzon Murillo; the Venezuelan artist Magally Erminy known as Magerim, whom she taught in 1972, the Israeli artist Nira Spitz who has exhibited her paintings in New York City, Brazil and Hong Kong and whose work enhances private collections throughout the world.
She taught at the Casa Municipal de la Juventud del Concejo Municipal del D. F. in Caracas, Venezuela in 1975 Geula's artwork has been exhibited in a series of museums, government buildings and private collections. In 1971, she was part of a select group of local and international artists, presenting her work in the Museo de Bellas Artes de Caracas along with Jesus Soto, Francisco Narvaez and Pablo Picasso. Between October 7 and October 17 of the same year, Geula presented 56 paintings in the Galeria de Arte Sans Souci, in Caracas, Venezuela Of this exhibition, some of the leading Venezuelan journalists, like Orlando Materan Alfonso, described her as "Geula Color and Emotion", admiring her "landscapes with deep feelings and colors of tropical earth" and Nella Carmona Paginas said Geula was "a great spokesperson of our land, they are the paintings of such renowned artist that have managed to captivate with her spatula the one thousand and one pathways of this land of grace"; the Daily Journal wrote that "Venezuelan folklore and landscape up the theme of the majority of Geula's paintings, which are executed in a particular style".
Geula represented Venezuela in the 1st "Sol del Caribe" Fair held at the InterContinental Hotel in Curaçao from November 19 to December 5, 1971. By the year 1972, some of Geula's paintings were being presented at the Headquarters of the United Nations representing Venezuela and at the Winston Gallery in New York City. Between 1960 and 1979, her art was exhibited abroad in Culture House, Israel, United Nations Plaza, New York City, USA, Intercultural Exchange Exposition in Bucharest, Conahotu Building, New York City, USA, the Primera Feria Internacional Sol del Caribe, Hotel Intercontinental, Curaçao. In Venezuela, she had multiple exhibitions in the Biblioteca Nacional, Venezuela, Israeli Union Convention House, Venezuela, Palacio de las Industrias – Sabana Grande, Venezuela, Sandu Gallery, Hilton Hotel, Venezuela, Galeria Chagall, Venezuela, Winston Gallery, New York City, USA, Salon de Pintura Juan Lovera, Venezuela, Museo de Pintura Emilio Boggio, Venezuela, El Museo Criollo Raul Santana, Venezuela, El Salon Teresa Carreño, Caraca
Jürgen Kretschmann is a German economist and university president. Born and raised in Gelsenkirchen, Kretschmann completed his secondary education at the Max Planck Gymnasium. After studying business administration in Aachen and Dortmund, he was awarded a doctoral degree in Economics in Göttingen in 1990, his habilitation followed at the RWTH Aachen University in 1998, specialising in georesources and materials science, after which he worked as a lecturer. In 2005, Jürgen Kretschmann was appointed Adjunct Professor at RWTH. From 1990 to 2001, Kretschmann held various management positions at Ruhrkohle AG, most as personal advisor to the Deputy Chairman of the Executive Board and Labour Director of the RAG. In 2001, he joined RAG BILDUNG GmbH as a member of the management board. Since 2006, he is chairperson of the management board of DMT-Gesellschaft für Lehre und Bildung GmbH and president of the Technische Hochschule Georg Agricola University in Bochum. Kretschmann is a member of numerous national and international professional bodies President of the Society of Mining Professors – Societät der Bergbaukunde.
He is a member of the National Academy of Mining Sciences of Kazakhstan and a member of the Section Mining-Metallurgy of the International Academy of Ecology and Nature Protection Science in Russia. Die Diffusion des Kritischen Rationalismus in der Betriebswirtschaftslehre. Stuttgart Poeschel 1990. Grundzüge der Organisationsentwicklung im Steinkohlenbergbau. Vom Beginn der Industrialisierung bis zum Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs. 1st ed. Aachen 1995. Führung von Bergbauunternehmen. 1st ed. Aachen: Mainz 2000. With Michael Farrenkopf: Das Wissensrevier. 150 Jahre Westfälische Berggewerkschaftskasse/DMT-Gesellschaft für Lehre und Bildung. Bochum: German Mining Museum 2014. Kretschmann, Jürgen. Transferring Excellence In Occupational Safety And Health Management From German To Southeast Asian Mining. 2. Aufl. Hanoi, Vietnam: Hong Duc Publishing House. Kretschmann, Jürgen. Anthology by the Research Institute of Post-Mining. TH Georg Agricola University. Bochum. with Stephan Düppe: 1816 – 2016. Die Geschichte der Technischen Hochschule Georg Agricola.
Bochum: German Mining Museum 2016. CV and publications list
The Portland Academy and Female Seminary was a private school in Portland, United States, operated by the Methodist Episcopal Church from 1851 until 1876. Abbreviated as the Portland Academy, the school was among the few secondary schools in Portland during the years of the Oregon Territory, it served as an alternative to Portland High School. The Portland Academy and Female Seminary was founded in 1851 on property donated by some of Portland's early residents. Although the area may not have been platted at the time, it corresponded to block 205 along Park Street on the Survey of Portland Map of 1852 and blocks 205 and 224 on East and West Park Avenue on maps; the school's location was so remote in 1851 that some parents feared their children would get lost on their way to and from school. The property deed given to James H. Wilbur, a leader in the Methodist Episcopal Oregon Mission, specified "a male and female seminary," but for unknown reasons the school was named the Portland Academy and Female Seminary.
C. S. Kingsley Superintendent of Portland Public Schools, was the first principal. By 1852, P. G. Buchanan had become principal and Kingsley had returned to his duties for the Willamette District of the Methodist Mission. From the beginning, the school referred to teaching staff by gender specific titles, where men were teachers and women were preceptresses. In 1854 the Oregon Territorial Legislature provided for funding of public schools, in 1858 Portland's Central School opened on Sixth Avenue between Morrison and Yamhill Streets. Enrollment at the Portland Academy began to decrease, when Portland High School was constructed in 1869, the Portland Academy soon became obsolete, it closed in 1876, the property was deeded to Willamette University. Unaffiliated institutions would use the name, Portland Academy. Education in Portland, Oregon History of Portland, Oregon MacColl, Money, & Power Scott, History of Portland Oregon Gaston, Oregon, It's History and Builders
"Good God, Y'All!" is the second episode of the fifth season of paranormal drama television series Supernatural and the 84th overall. The episode was directed by executive producer Phil Sgriccia, it was first broadcast on September 17, 2009 on The CW. In the episode and Dean watch the aftermath of Lucifer being freed from the Cage while the angels plan a new strategy to stop the Apocalypse. Bobby hasn't spoken in days. Castiel calls Sam's cell phone to find out where the boys are - the Enochian sigils he etched into their ribs hides them from all angels, including Castiel; when Bobby tells him to heal him Castiel tells Bobby he can't. He says in order to defeat Lucifer, he plans to find God, he says he needs Dean's amulet which burns hot in God's presence. Meanwhile, Rufus heads to a town he thinks is under attack from demons, based on omens of a polluted river and a falling star, he calls Bobby for help. When Sam and Dean arrive, they find the town deserted, they come across Ellen on the street who takes them to a church where she has gathered with her some of the surviving townsfolk.
She suspects. She tells them that Rufus called her and Jo for help and they got separated while fighting the demons. Dean and Sam go into town for supplies, while Sam is getting salt from a store, two teenagers with black eyes enter. Sam appears drawn to the blood; when Sam and Ellen go to find Jo and Rufus, they are attacked. Ellen escapes. While he is held captive, one of the townspeople reveals that he is War - one of the Four Horseman of the Apocalypse and has tricked the people into thinking everyone is possessed, leading them to attack each other. Returning, Ellen tells Dean that Jo thought she was possessed because she called her a "black-eyed bitch," and Dean starts to suspect all is not what it seems. Checking the Bible, he works out that the conflict herald the arrival of War. Shortly after, War, in the guise of a townsman and insists that they all need to attack the demons; as Dean and Ellen try to calm the panic, War turns the ring on his finger and the townspeople start seeing them as demons and attack.
Dean and Ellen flee. The townspeople form a force, they equip themselves with real bullets because they believe Dean had been a demon all along and lied about the effectiveness of salt. Dean and Ellen reach Jo and Rufus shortly before the townspeople arrive and manage to convince the two there are no demons and it's all the work of War. Dean frees Sam and they rush to catch up with War and cut off the ring, helping him deceive the townspeople. After the battle is over, Sam tells Dean that he can't trust himself, that he needs to take a break from hunting - and Dean. Dean agrees - he can't focus on the job because he is worrying about Sam, he offers Sam the Impala but Sam declines, hitches a ride out of town. The episode was watched by 2.80 million viewers with a 1.2/3 in the 18-49 demographics. This was an 18% decrease in viewership from the season premiere, watched by 3.40 million viewers with a 1.4/4 in the 18-49 demographics. This means that 1.2 percent of all households with televisions watched the episode, while 3 percent of all households watching television at that time watched it.
Supernatural ranked as the second most watched show on The CW in the day, behind The Vampire Diaries "Good God, Y'All!" received positive reviews. Diana Steenbergen of IGN gave the episode a "great" 8.9 out of 10 and wrote, "Even though the storyline of the demon-possessed town is connected to the larger storyline of the apocalypse, it still functions as a self-contained episode, writer Sera Gamble does a good job tying all the elements together. However, just like last week, there is a part of the story; this time it is when we learn that Dean's amulet, the one he has been wearing the entire series and that Sam gave to him when they were children, is a talisman that can help Castiel find God. For the second time in as many weeks, the show sets something up, too convenient to be believable, the first being Bobby's possession in the season premiere, it is true that the apocalypse storyline is immense, but they need to be more careful to make the details make sense, not feel as if they were thrown in to make the plot work."The A.
V. Club's Zack Handlen wrote, "It's not a flawless episode, though. There's something else I've been thinking about - are we going to start having fun again soon? Supernatural has always had its share of darkness, but that darkness is leavened by the writers obvious pleasure in playing with horror tropes, the banter between the heroes. When the show leaves on its serious face for too long, it gets hard to take seriously, it works best when we're getting to snicker with the characters enough that we don't feel the need to start snickering at them."Jon Lachonis of TV Overmind, wrote, "I pity any writer tasked with following up Eric Kripke on Supernatural, including the always awesome Sera Gamble. The fact is, in the shadow of the master anything is going to seem to register a little flat; such was the case for the second episode of Good God Y' all. A good episod