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N,N-Dimethyltryptamine

N,N-Dimethyltryptamine is a chemical substance that occurs in many plants and animals and, both a derivative and a structural analog of tryptamine. It can be consumed as a psychedelic drug and has been prepared by various cultures for ritual purposes as an entheogen. DMT is illegal in most countries. DMT has a rapid onset, intense effects and a short duration of action. For those reasons, DMT was known as the "business trip" during the 1960s in the United States, as a user could access the full depth of a psychedelic experience in less time than with other substances such as LSD or magic mushrooms. DMT can be inhaled, ingested, or injected and its effects depend on the dose; when inhaled or injected, the effects last a short period of time: about 5 to 15 minutes. Effects can last three hours or more when orally ingested along with an MAOI, such as the ayahuasca brew of many native Amazonian tribes. DMT can produce vivid "projections" of mystical experiences involving euphoria and dynamic hallucinations of geometric forms.

DMT is a functional analog and structural analog of other psychedelic tryptamines such as O-acetylpsilocin, 5-MeO-DMT, bufotenin and psilocin. The structure of DMT occurs within some important biomolecules like serotonin and melatonin, making them structural analogs of DMT. DMT is produced in many species of plants in conjunction with its close chemical relatives 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine and bufotenin. DMT-containing plants are used in indigenous Amazonian shamanic practices, it is one of the main active constituents of the drink ayahuasca. It occurs as the primary psychoactive alkaloid in several plants including Mimosa tenuiflora, Diplopterys cabrerana, Psychotria viridis. DMT is found as a minor alkaloid in snuff made from Virola bark resin in which 5-MeO-DMT is the main active alkaloid. DMT is found as a minor alkaloid in bark and beans of Anadenanthera peregrina and Anadenanthera colubrina used to make Yopo and Vilca snuff, in which bufotenin is the main active alkaloid. Psilocin and its precursor psilocybin, an active chemical in many psilocybin mushrooms, are structurally similar to DMT.

The psychotropic effects of DMT were first studied scientifically by the Hungarian chemist and psychologist Stephen Szára, who performed research with volunteers in the mid-1950s. Szára, who worked for the US National Institutes of Health, had turned his attention to DMT after his order for LSD from the Swiss company Sandoz Laboratories was rejected on the grounds that the powerful psychotropic could be dangerous in the hands of a communist country. DMT is not active orally unless it is combined with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor such as a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A, for example, harmaline. Without a MAOI, the body metabolizes orally administered DMT, it therefore has no hallucinogenic effect unless the dose exceeds monoamine oxidase's metabolic capacity. Other means of ingestion such as vaporizing, injecting, or insufflating the drug can produce powerful hallucinations for a short time, as the DMT reaches the brain before it can be metabolized by the body's natural monoamine oxidase.

Taking a MAOI prior to vaporizing or injecting DMT potentiates the effects. Several scientific experimental studies have tried to measure subjective experiences of altered states of consciousness induced by drugs under controlled and safe conditions. In the 1990s, Rick Strassman and his colleagues conducted a five-year-long DMT study at the University of New Mexico; the results provided insight about the quality of subjective psychedelic experiences. In this study participants received the DMT dosage intravenously via injection and the findings suggested that different psychedelic experiences can occur, depending on the level of dosage. Lower doses produced emotional responses, but not hallucinogenic experiences. In contrast, responses produced by higher doses researchers labeled as "hallucinogenic" that elicited "intensely colored moving display of visual images, abstract or both". Comparing to other sensory modalities the most affected was visual domain. Participants reported visual hallucinations, less auditory hallucinations and specific physical sensation progressing to a sense of bodily dissociation, as well as experiences of euphoria, calm and anxiety.

Strassman stressed the importance of the context where the drug has been taken. He claimed that DMT has no beneficial effects of itself, rather the context when and where people take it plays an important role, it appears. It can induce a state or feeling to a person that he or she is able to "communicate with other intelligent-life forms". High doses of DMT produce a hallucinatory state that involves a sense of "another intelligence" that people sometimes describe as "super-intelligent", but "emotionally detached". In 1995 Adolf Dittrich and Daniel Lamparter did a study where they found that DMT-induced altered state of consciousness is influenced by habitual, rather than situative factors. In the study researchers used three dimensions of the APZ questionnaire to describe ASC. First, oceanic boundlessness refers to dissolution of ego boundaries associated with positive emotions. Second, anxious ego-dissolution includes disorder of thoughts, loss of autonomy and self-control and third, visionary restru

Luca Fiordiani

Luca Fiordiani is an Italian footballer who plays for Bastia. Born in Foligno, in the Province of Perugia, Umbria region, Fiordiani started his career at Perugia Giovane, he joined Perugia Calcio. He was the member of the under-17 team in 2008–09 season; the club folded in 2010. However Fiordiani joined the new company, admitted in 2010–11 Serie D. Fiordiani left for Deruta in 2011–12 Serie D, he was signed by Lega Pro 2nd Division club Foligno in mid-2012. Fiordiani was signed by Parma on 31 January 2013 in co-ownership deal for €75,000, he returned to Foligno. On 20 June 2013 Parma acquired Fiordiani outright for undisclosed fee. On 14 August 2013 he was signed by Gavorrano along with Matteo Bellucci, Simon Gentili, Federico Meacci and Tiziano Scarfagna. AIC profile Luca Fiordiani at Footballdatabase

Rudolf Kinau

Rudolf Kinau known as Rudi Kinau was a Low German writer. He was born in Finkenwerder, a district of the town Hamburg in northern Germany, to Heinrich Wilhelm Kinau and Metta, his brothers were Johann Kinau, a writer known as Gorch Fock. He began writing his first book in 1916, with the death of his brother Gorch Fock, killed in the Battle of Jutland during World War I, he became well known on radio with the series Hör mal'n beten to for the media company Norddeutscher Rundfunk. These speeches appeared among other Kamerad und Kameradin. In all he has written more than 33 books, he has published radio and theatre plays. In addition, he discussed records, for the national series Wort und Stimme and Niederdeutsche Stimmen in Lower German voices. In addition to a number of literary awards, such as the Fritz Reuter Prize in 1962, he was awarded the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany There are several streets named after him, e.g. in his home town of Finkenwerder, the Rudolf-Kinau avenue, in Stromaerer Ahrensburg and the Lower Saxon communities Ostrhauderfehn and Westoverledingen and in Kellinghausen in the Rudolf-Kinau street and Schleswig-Holstein Wedel, in Uetersen the Rudolf Kinau path.

In Strande there is Rudolf Kinau path next to the Gorch-Fock-Straße. His birthplace in Finkenwerder, the Gorch Fock house is now a literature museum, dedicated to the poet and his two brothers, he died on 19 November 1975, aged 88, Sünn in de Seils, Quickborn-Verlag, 1933, ISBN der 8. Auflage von 2004: 3-87651-002-3 Sünnschien un goden Wind - Fofftig mol wat to'n Frein, Quickborn-Verlag, 1950, ISBN der 8. Auflage von 1981: 3-87651-029-5 Scheune Bries, Quickborn Verlag, 1954 Bi uns an'n Diek, Quickborn-Verlag, 1957 Föör jeden wat, Quickborn-Verlag, 1958, ISBN der Auflage von 1972: 3-87651-008-2 Mien Wihnachtsbook, Quickborn-Verlag, 1959, ISBN der 25. Auflage von 1983: 3-87651-009-0 Mattgoot - De besten Fisch van'n letzten Fang, Quickborn-Verlag, 1967 Rund un bunt, Quickborn-Verlag, 1972 Bi Hus un ünnerwegens, Quickborn-Verlag, 1975, ISBN der Auflage 1981: 3-87651-047-3 Seuk di wat ut, Quickborn-Verlag, 1973, ISBN 3-87651-041-4 Up Finkwarder tohus - Gedichten, Riemels un wat mehr, postum erschienen, Quickborn-Verlag, 1976, ISBN 3-87651-053-8