Ingjald illråde or Ingjaldr hinn illráði was a semi-legendary Swedish king of the House of Ynglings and successor of King Anund, the father and predecessor of King Olof Trätälja. Ingjald is mentioned in medieval historiographical sources including Ynglinga saga, Historia Norvegiæ, Hervarar saga, Upplendinga Konungum, Þorsteins saga Víkingssonar and Íslendingabók; the setting of Þorsteins saga Víkingssonar is the 7th century. Johannes Magnus in his 16th-century list of kings places Ingjald in AD 883. Snorri Sturluson gave an extensive account on the life of Ingjald in the Ynglinga saga, part of the Heimskringla; the Ynglinga saga, a part of the Heimskringla relates that the viceroy of Fjädrundaland was named Ingvar and he had two sons and Agnar, who were of the same age as Ingjald. Svipdag the Blind was the viceroy of Tiundaland, the province of Uppsala where the Tings and the Yule sacrifices were held. One midwinter, when Ingjald and Alf were six years old, many people had assembled at Uppsala for the sacrifices.
Alf and Ingjald played, but Ingjald found that he was the weaker boy and became so angry that he started to cry. His foster-brother Gautvid led him to his foster-father Svipdag the Blind and told Svipdag about Ingjald's lack of manliness and strength. Svipdag said that it was a shame and the next day he gave Ingjald a roasted wolf's heart to eat. From that day, Ingjald became a ferocious person and had a bad disposition and breath. Anund arranged a marriage for his son Ingjald with Gauthild, the daughter of the Geatish king Algaut, the son of Gautrek the Mild and the grandson of Gaut. Gautrek consented. Gauthild's maternal grandfather was Olof the king of Närke. Snorri Sturluson relates; the kings at Uppsala were the foremost among the kings of the various provinces since Odin ruled the country, they were the supreme chiefs of the other kingdoms since the death of Agne and Sweden was divided between Erik and Alrik. The descendants of these two kings had spread, cleared land and settled new territories, until there were several petty kings.
In honour of his own ascendance to the throne, Ingjald invited the kings, the jarls and other important men to a grand feast in a newly built hall, just as large and sumptuous as the one in Uppsala. It had seven high seats. Algaut the Geatish king of West Götaland, King Ingvar of Fjädrundaland with his two sons Agnar and Alf, King Sporsnjall of Nerike and King Sigvat of Attundaland came but not King Granmar of Södermanland; the kings filled all seven seats but one. All the prominent people of Sweden had seats, except for Ingjald's own court whom he had sent to his old hall in Uppsala. According to the custom of the time, for those who inherited kings and jarls, Ingjald rested at the footstool until the Bragebeaker was brought in, he was supposed to stand up, take the beaker and make solemn vows, after which he would ascend his father's high seat. However, when the beaker was brought in, he took a bull's horn and made the solemn vow that he would enlarge his own kingdom by half towards all the four-quarters, towards which he pointed his horn, or die.
When all the prominent guests were drunk, he ordered Svipdag's sons and Hylvid, to arm themselves and their men and to leave the building. Outside, they set fire to the building which burnt down and those who tried to escape were killed, thus Ingjald made himself the sole ruler of the domains of the murdered kings. Granmar won allies in his son-in-law the sea-king Hjörvard of the Ylfings and his father-in-law Högne the Geatish king of East Götaland, they withstood Ingjald's invasion where Ingjald realised that the men from the provinces he had conquered were not loyal to him. After a long standstill there was peace for as long. However, one night Ingjald and his men surrounded a farm where Granmar and Hjörvard were at a feast and burnt the house down, he disposed of five more kings, he thus earned the name Illråde as he fulfilled his promise. Snorri Sturluson tells that it was a common saying that Ingjald killed twelve kings by deceiving them that he only wished for peace, that he thus earned his cognomen Illråde.
Ingjald had a son Olof Trätälja and a daughter Åsa. His daughter had inherited her father's psychopathic disposition, she married King Guðröðr of Skåne. Before she murdered her husband she managed to make him kill his own brother Halfdan the Valiant, the father of the great Ivar Vidfamne. In order to avenge his father, Ivar Vidfamne gathered a vast host and departed for Sweden, where he found Ingjald at Ræning; when Ingjald and his daughter realized that it was futile to resist, they set the hall on fire and succumbed in the flames. The citation from Ynglingatal does not appear to describe Ingjald as an evil king, it calls his life a brave life frœknu fjörvi: The Historia Norwegiæ presents a Latin summary of Ynglingatal, older than Snorri's quotation: "The Burning at Upsal" in the Ynglinga saga at the Northvegr website. N. Kershaw's English translation of the Hervarar saga English translation at Northvegr "Of The Kings of the Uplands" A translation in English of Þorsteins saga Víkingssonar Nerman, B.
Det svenska rikets uppkomst. Stockholm, 1925
Riseberga Abbey, was a Cistercian nunnery in Sweden, in operation from circa 1180 until 1534. It was located near Fjugesta in Närke, it had the right to appoint the vicar of the Edsberg parish, under the jurisdiction of the abbey. The ruins of the buildings are preserved, the Amphitheatre of the abbey are presently used as a Sylvan theater. Riseberga Abbey was founded in the late 12th-century: it is confirmed from at least 1180, it was benefited by Birger Brosa and his second consort queen dowager Bridget Haraldsdotter, who made large donations to it: the latter joined the convent after having been widowed in 1202. The abbey became a large landowner through donations. In 1212, it was granted all confiscated property of convicted criminals for crimes committed in the area. Riseberga was placed under the administration of Alvastra monastery. Most of the members were females, but it had a minority of male members to assist the nuns: the males, lived outside of the walls of the convent. Riseberga was located isolated in the wilderness, both nuns and monks of the community are known to have lived as hermits in the area around the convent.
Th abbey had the right to appoint the vicars of the Edsberg parish. In the 1340s, Saint Bridget of Sweden placed her daughter Ingeborg as a novice in the abbey: another one of her daughters, Catherine of Vadstena, was educated here. By the Swedish Reformation of 1527 and in accordance with the Reduction of Gustav I of Sweden, Catholic convents were confiscated by the crown and banned from accepting new novices, while the existing members were allowed to leave to convents or remain supported by a royal allowance. In 1534, the remaining members of the abbey left after having applied to be received by a convent abroad; the buildings burn down in 1546, was thereafter long used as a quarry. The abbesses are only known. Ragnfrid Märta Ydsdotter Helena Gisladotter Margareta Greta Ragnhild Kunigunda Christina Pedersdotter Dorotea Riseberga is the place of the legend of Fair Elisif. Uppgifter från Riksantikvarieämbetets byggnadsregister Riksantikvarieämbetets arkeologiska undersökningar 2002 Riksantikvarieämbetets arkeologiska undersökningar 2004 Passagen: Nunnekloster av cisterciensorden i Edsbergs församling Susning: Riseberga Guidning vid Riseberga klosterområde Edsberg 30:1, Riksantikvarieämbetet.
Svenska Familj-Journalen http://sok.riksarkivet.se/? Sokord=riseberga+kloster+abbedissa&f=True&EndastDigitaliserat=false&Fritext=&Namn=&Ort=&DatumFran=&DatumTill=&AvanceradSok=False Agneta Conradi Mattsson: Riseberga kloster, förutsättningar och framväxt, Birger Brosa, donatorn, & Filipssönerna, sondottersönerna
Strängnäs is a locality and the seat of Strängnäs Municipality, Södermanland County, Sweden with 12,856 inhabitants in 2010. It is located by Lake Mälaren and is the episcopal see of the Diocese of Strängnäs, one of the thirteen dioceses of the Church of Sweden. Prominently located on a hilltop, Strängnäs Cathedral, built between 1291 and 1340, is an important landmark; the city's name is first encountered in reference to the Diocese. The name Strängnäs is derived from the fact that the city is located near a strait and on several hills on two major ones, the "Mill Hill" and the "Cathedral Hill". In Old Norse strengr indicates a "narrow channel of water" and nes refers to an "isthmus", "narrow peninsula", or " headland", a common toponymic in Scandinavia. A monastery was established around 1250, the cathedral inaugurated in 1291, with the town subsequently evolving around these two institutions; the oldest known city charter was granted in 1336 by King Magnus Eriksson. Strängnäs became a city of importance in the Södermanland province, as the location of the governing thing and of an annual market.
King Gustav Vasa was elected king in Strängnäs in 1523, delivered his first speech from a position adjacent to the cathedral. In the 15th and 16th centuries Strängnäs had an important place in the history of Sweden through the Reformation era. Strängnäs was the native city of prominent reformer Laurentius Andreae and the home city of both Andreae and Olaus Petri, it became a regional centre of education and scholarship, in 1626 the Thomas Gymnasium was established by King Gustavus Adolphus, is today Sweden's second oldest operating gymnasium. The urban and economic development of Strängnäs seems to have slowed after the Reformation, only flourishing temporarily with the arrival of energetic bishops; the city was slow to engage with the 19th century industrial development and investment found in other areas. A significant fire in 1871 led to large-scale reconstruction of the city, from which time its current appearance stems. Many of the inhabitants of Strängnäs commute to Stockholm, Södertälje and Eskilstuna.
European route E20 passes the city, there is a mainline railway station operated by the Swedish national railway company, with direct services to and from the capital Stockholm. Tourism is a significant element of the city's economy, with the brick gothic cathedral attracting many visitors, as well as the attraction of natural features the lake. Extreme metal band Merciless was formed in Strängnäs. Konjic, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Herzegovina Ribe, Municipality of Esbjerg, Denmark Tokyo, Nihon-koku, Japan Nordisk familjebok. Strängnäs - Official site https://www.panoramio.com/photo/24440240
Gustav I of Sweden
Gustav I, born Gustav Eriksson of the Vasa noble family and known as Gustav Vasa, was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death in 1560 self-recognised Protector of the Realm from 1521, during the ongoing Swedish War of Liberation against King Christian II of Denmark and Sweden. Of low standing, Gustav rose to lead the rebel movement following the Stockholm Bloodbath, in which his father perished. Gustav's election as King on 6 June 1523 and his triumphant entry into Stockholm eleven days marked Sweden's final secession from the Kalmar Union; as king, Gustav proved an enigmatic administrator with a ruthless streak not inferior to his predecessor's, brutally suppressing subsequent uprisings. He worked to raise taxes and bring about a Reformation in Sweden, replacing the prerogatives of local landowners and clergy with centrally appointed governors and bishops, his 37-year rule, the longest of a mature Swedish king to that date saw a complete break with not only the Danish supremacy but the Roman Catholic Church, whose assets were nationalised, with the Lutheran Church of Sweden established under his personal control.
He became the first autocratic native Swedish sovereign and was a skilled bureaucrat and propagandist, with tales of his fictitious adventures during the liberation struggle still widespread to date. In 1544, he abolished Medieval Sweden's elective monarchy and replaced it with a hereditary monarchy under the House of Vasa and its successors, including the current House of Bernadotte. Due to a vibrant dynastic succession, three of his sons, Erik XIV, Johan III and Karl IX, all held the kingship at different points. Gustav I has subsequently been labelled the founder of modern Sweden, the "father of the nation". Gustav liked to compare himself to Moses, whom he believed to have liberated his people and established a sovereign state; as a person, Gustav was known for ruthless methods and a bad temper, but a fondness for music and had a certain sly wit and ability to outmaneuver and annihilate his opponents. He founded one of the now oldest orchestras of the Kungliga Hovkapellet. Royal housekeeping accounts from 1526 mention twelve musicians including wind players and a timpanist but no string players.
Today the Kungliga Hovkapellet is the orchestra of the Royal Swedish Opera. Gustav Eriksson, a son of Cecilia Månsdotter Eka and Erik Johansson Vasa, was born in 1496; the birth most took place in Rydboholm Castle, northeast of Stockholm, the manor house of the father, Erik. The newborn got his name, from Erik's grandfather Gustav Anundsson. Erik Johansson's parents were Johan Kristersson and Birgitta Gustafsdotter of the dynasties Vasa and Sture both dynasties of high nobility. Birgitta Gustafsdotter was regent of Sweden. Being a relative and ally of uncle Sten Sture, Erik inherited the regent's estates in Uppland and Södermanland when the latter died in 1503. Although a member of a family with considerable properties since childhood, Gustav Eriksson would be the holder of possessions of a much greater dimension. According to genealogical research, Birgitta Gustafsdotter and Sten Sture were descended from King Sverker II of Sweden, through King Sverker's granddaughter Benedikte Sunesdotter. One of King Gustav's great-grandmothers was a half-sister of King Charles VIII of Sweden.
Since the end of the 14th century, Sweden had been a part of the Kalmar Union with Denmark and Norway. The Danish dominance in this union led to uprisings in Sweden. During Gustav's childhood, parts of the Swedish nobility tried to make Sweden independent. Gustav and his father Erik supported the party of Sten Sture the Younger, regent of Sweden from 1512, its struggle against the Danish King Christian II. Following the battle of Brännkyrka in 1518, where Sten Sture's troops beat the Danish forces, it was decided that Sten Sture and King Christian would meet in Österhaninge for negotiations. To guarantee the safety of the king, the Swedish side sent six men as hostages to be kept by the Danes for as long as the negotiations lasted. However, Christian did not show up for the negotiations, violated the deal with the Swedish side and took the hostages aboard ships carrying them to Copenhagen; the six members of the kidnapped hostage were Hemming Gadh, Lars Siggesson, Jöran Siggesson, Olof Ryning, Bengt Nilsson – and Gustav Eriksson.
Gustav was held in Kalø Castle where he was treated well after promising he would not make attempts to escape. A reason for this gentle treatment was King Christian's hope to convince the six men to switch sides, turn against their leader Sten Sture; this strategy was successful regarding all men but Gustav. In 1519, Gustav Eriksson escaped from Kalø, he fled to the Hanseatic city of Lübeck. How he managed to escape is not certain, but according to a somewhat story, he disguised himself as a bullocky. For this, Gustav Eriksson got the nicknames "King Oxtail" and "Gustav Cow Butt", something he indeed disliked; when a swordsman drank to His Majesty "Gustav Cow Butt" in Kalmar in 1547, the swordsman was killed. While staying in Lübeck, Gustav could hear about developments in his native Sweden. While he was there, Christian II mobilised to attack Sweden in an effort to seize power from Sten Sture and his supporters. In 1
The ortolan or ortolan bunting, is a bird in the bunting family Emberizidae, a passerine family now separated by most modern scholars from the finches, Fringillidae. The genus name Emberiza is from a bunting; the specific hortulana is from the Italian name for ortolana. The English ortolan is derived from Middle French hortolan, "gardener"; the ortolan is served in French cuisine cooked and eaten whole. Traditionally diners cover their heads with their napkin; the bird is so used that its French populations dropped dangerously low, leading to laws restricting its use in 1999. In September 2007, the French government announced its intent to enforce long-ignored laws protecting the bird, it was famously eaten as the last New Year's Eve meal of former French President François Mitterrand before he died in early 1996. The ortolan weighs 20 -- 25 grams. In appearance and habits it much resembles its relative the yellowhammer, but lacks the bright colouring of that species; the song of the male ortolan resembles that of the yellowhammer.
Ortolan nests are placed near the ground. Seeds are the natural diet. A native of most European countries and western Asia, it reaches as far north as Scandinavia and beyond the Arctic Circle, frequenting cornfields and their neighbourhoods. It is an uncommon vagrant in spring, autumn, to the British Isles; the Ortolan Bunting's population as of 2018 is listed by the IUCN as Least Concern. It was spotted at Kenjar Coastal Karnataka, India in November 2018 and photographed by Birdwatchers; some birders commented. The birds are caught with nets set during their autumn migratory flight to Africa, they are kept in covered cages or boxes. The birds react to the dark cage by gorging themselves on grain millet seed, until they double their bulk. Roman Emperors stabbed out ortolans’ eyes in order to make the birds think it was night, making them eat more; the birds are thrown into a container of Armagnac, which both drowns and marinates the birds. The bird is roasted for eight minutes and plucked; the consumer places the bird feet first into their mouth while holding onto the bird's head.
The ortolan is eaten whole, with or without the head and the consumer spits out the larger bones. The traditional way French gourmands eat ortolans is to cover their heads and face with a large napkin or towel while consuming the bird; the purpose of the towel is debated. Some claim it is to retain the maximum aroma with the flavour as they consume the entire bird at once, others have stated "Tradition dictates that this is to shield – from God’s eyes – the shame of such a decadent and disgraceful act", others have suggested the towel hides the consumers spitting out bones; this use of the towel was begun by a friend of Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin. At one time, the island of Cyprus formed a chief depot for the export of ortolans, which were pickled in spices and vinegar and packed in casks containing from 300 to 400 each. In the early 20th century, between 400 and 500 casks were annually exported from Cyprus. In the 1944 novella Gigi and its adaptations, the title character is taught by her Aunt Alicia the proper way to eat ortolans.
In the 1946 film Two Smart People, the two main characters played by Lucille Ball and John Hodiak discuss the preparation of ortolans, stating that the birds are wrapped in grape leaves and placed on sauteed plums, but "...the plums are not to be eaten, they serve as a garnish for the ortolans." In 1975, food critic Craig Claiborne made a winning $300 bid in an auction for a dinner for two, courtesy of American Express, at any restaurant in the world that takes its credit card. Claiborne selected Chez Denis in Paris for a $4000 meal. In 1995, François Mitterrand's last New Year's Eve meal included this specially prepared bird. Anthony Bourdain describes the eating of ortolans in the opening to his 2010 book Medium Raw. On the show American Dad!, Roger has Francine Smith prepare him an ortolan to enjoy. On Season 3, Episode 6 of the Showtime show Billions entitled "The Third Ortolan", Robert "Bobby" Axelrod, Mike "Wags" Wagner and Wylie Dufresne ate ortolan. On Season 2, Episode 11 of Hannibal, Hannibal Lecter and Will Graham eat a meal of ortolans together in Dr. Lecter's home On Season 1, Episode 16 of Brooklyn Nine-Nine, when asked about what his last meal on earth would be, Charles Boyle states he'd go "Classic French.
Ortolan. Tiny songbird, eaten in a single bite and all in open defiance of God." On Season 1 of the show Succession and Tom eat ortolan when Tom takes Greg out for a fancy dinner. On Season 2, Episode 5 of the show Victoria, King Louis Philippe serves Ortolan at a dinner, he convinces the queen to try one as the servant covers her with a napkin to "hide one's face from God." Ortolan hunting was banned in France in 1999, but the law was poorly enforced and it is thought that up to 50,000 ortolans were killed each year during the autumn migration: birds from breeding grounds in Finland and the Baltic area. According to France's League for the Protection of Birds, France's ortolan population fell 30% between 1997 and 2007. In 2007, the French government vowed to enforce some existing rules about banning the practice, with the maximum fine set at €6,000. Killing and cooking ortolans is banned across the EU. In 2007, the pressure from France's L
A crossbow is a type of elastic ranged weapon in similar principle to a bow, consisting of a bow-like assembly called a prod, mounted horizontally on a main frame called a tiller, handheld in a similar fashion to the stock of a long gun. It shoots arrow-like projectiles called quarrels; the medieval European crossbow was called by many other names including crossbow itself, most of which were derived from the word ballista, an ancient Greek torsion siege engine similar in appearance. Although having the same launch principle, crossbows differ from bows in that a bow's draw must be maintained manually by the archer pulling the bowstring with fingers and back muscles and holding that same form in order to aim, while a crossbow uses a locking mechanism to maintain the draw, limiting the shooter's exertion to only pulling the string into lock and release the shot via depressing a lever/trigger; this not only enables a crossbowman to handle stronger draw weight, but hold for longer with significant less physical strain, thus capable of better precision.
Crossbows played a significant role in the warfare of East Asia and Medieval Europe. The earliest crossbows in the world were invented in ancient China and caused a major shift in the role of projectile weaponry; the traditional bow and arrow had long been a specialized weapon that required considerable training, physical strength and expertise to operate with any degree of practical efficiency. In many cultures, archers were considered a separate and superior warrior caste, despite being drawn from the common class, as their archery skill-set was trained and strengthened from birth and was impossible to reproduce outside a pre-established cultural tradition, which many nations lacked. In contrast, the crossbow was the first ranged weapon to be simple and physically undemanding enough to be operated by large numbers of untrained conscript soldiers, thus enabling any nation to field a potent force of crossbowmen with little expense beyond the cost of the weapons themselves. In modern times, like bows, have been supplanted by the more powerful and accurate firearms in most weapon roles, but are still used for competitive shooting sports and scenarios when shooting with relative silence is important.
A crossbowman or crossbow-maker is sometimes called an arbalest. Arrow and quarrel are all suitable terms for crossbow projectiles; the lath called the prod, is the bow of the crossbow. According to W. F. Peterson, the prod came into usage in the 19th century as a result of mistranslating rodd in a 16th century list of crossbow effects; the stock is the wooden body on which the bow is mounted, although the medieval tiller is used. The lock refers to the release mechanism, including the string, trigger lever, housing. A crossbow is a bow mounted on an elongated frame with a built-in mechanism that holds the drawn bow string, as well as a trigger mechanism that allows the string to be released; the Chinese trigger mechanism was a vertical lever composed of four bronze pieces secured together by two bronze rods. The nu is so called, its stock is like the arm of a man, therefore. That which hooks the bowstring is called ya, for indeed it is like teeth; the part round about the teeth is called the'outer wall'.
Within there is the ` hanging knife' so called. The whole assembly is called ji; the earliest European designs featured a transverse slot in the top surface of the frame, down into which the string was placed. To shoot this design, a vertical rod is thrust up through a hole in the bottom of the notch, forcing the string out; this rod is attached perpendicular to a rear-facing lever called a tickler. A design implemented a rolling cylindrical pawl called a nut to retain the string; this nut has a perpendicular centre slot for the bolt, an intersecting axial slot for the string, along with a lower face or slot against which the internal trigger sits. They also have some form of strengthening internal sear or trigger face of metal; these roller nuts were either free-floating in their close-fitting hole across the stock, tied in with a binding of sinew or other strong cording. Removable or integral plates of wood, ivory, or metal on the sides of the stock kept the nut in place laterally. Nuts were made of bone, or metal.
Bows could be kept taut and ready to shoot for some time with little physical straining, allowing crossbowmen to aim better without fatiguing. Chinese crossbow bows were made of composite material from the start. European crossbows from the 10th to 12th centuries used wood for the bow called the prod or lath, which tended to be ash or yew. Composite bows started appearing in Europe during the 13th century and could be made from layers of different material wood and sinew glued together and bound with animal tendon; these composite bows made of several layers are much stronger and more efficient in releasing energy than simple wooden bows. As steel became more available in Europe around the 14th century, steel prods came into use. Traditionally, the prod was lashed to the stock with rope, whipcord, or other strong cording; this cording is called the bridle. The Chinese used winches for large mounted crossbows. Winches may have been used for hand held crossbows during the