Jæren Commuter Rail
The Jæren Commuter Rail is a commuter train service operated along the westernmost part of the Sørland Line in Jæren, Norway. It is operated by the Norwegian State Railways with nine Class 72 electric multiple units; the service acts as a commuter rail connecting Stavanger to its suburbs, including Sandnes, to towns further south, in Klepp, Time, Hå and Eigersund. Although passenger services have operated along the lines since 1878, the commuter train service was inaugurated in 1992 with a significant increase of service, using existing rolling stock; the system has an annual ridership of 2.5 million passengers to date. The service runs from Stavanger Station to a distance of 75 kilometers, it has four hourly services from Stavanger to Sandnes Station, of which two continue to Nærbø Station and one to Egersund. The section from Stavanger to Sandnes is double track; the infrastructure is owned by the Norwegian National Rail Administration and the line is used by intercity and freight trains. Several proposed upgrades to the system have been made, such as a branch along the Ålgård Line, a branch to Stavanger Airport and reestablishing double track from Sandnes to Egersund.
The commuter rail service runs along the full length of the Jæren Line, the old name of the section of the Sørland Line from Stavanger to Egersund. The line is standard gauge, electrified at 15 kV 16.7 Hz AC and owned by the Norwegian National Rail Administration. The line starts as double track at Stavanger Station, located in the central business district of Stavanger and is the terminal station of the Sørland Line; the station serves intercity trains and is 10 minutes from the city's ferry terminal. Paradis Station is 1.4 kilometers from Stavanger and serves the residential areas of Storhaug and Våland. Around the station there will be established new office real estate; the station is within walking distance of Stavanger University Hospital and Godalen Upper Secondary School, is adjacent to the offices of the County Governor. Mariero Station is 4.1 kilometers from Stavanger and serves a mixed residential and commercial area, including Hetland Upper Secondary School. Jåttåvågen Station serves a new neighborhood and is within a minutes walk of Viking Stadion, the home ground of Tippeligaen side Viking FK, Jåttå Upper Secondary School and the future offices of Aker Solutions.
Gausel Station is located from 9 kilometers from Stavanger and serves a mixed commercial and residential area. In addition to being next to the offices of NOKAS, the station is the main interchange with buses towards Forus, which contains the offices of companies such as Statoil, Telenor and BP, Stavanger Airport, Sola. Sandnes Sentrum Station is the first station located within Sandnes, is located on a viaduct above the city center. Located 14.8 kilometers from Stavanger, it is served by intercity trains and staffed. The station is the southern end of the double track. Sandnes Station is 15.4 kilometers from Stavanger and is located south of city center of Sandnes. Some of the commuter trains terminate at Sandnes. Ganddal Station is 18.5 kilometers from Stavanger and serves the mixed residential and industrial area of Ganddal. The Ålgård Line branches off at the station.Øksnevadporten Station is the first in Klepp and is located 22.4 kilometers from Stavanger. Klepp Station serves the municipal center of Klepp.
Bryne Station located at Bryne, 29.8 kilometers from Stavanger. The station is staffed and serves intercity trains. Nærbø Station is the first station in Hå and serves the municipal center of Nærbø; some commuter trains terminate at Nærbø. Varhaug Station is located 43.1 kilometers from Stavanger, while Vigrestad Station is located 40.2 kilometers from Stavanger. Brusand Station serves the residential area of Brusand and is located 54.2 kilometers from Stavanger. Ogna Station is located 58.4 kilometers from Stavanger. Sirevåg Station serves the fishing village of Sirevåg. Hellvik Station is located 66.8 kilometers from Stavanger. Egersund Station is the terminal station of the line, all remaining commuter trains stop there; the station is staffed and served by intercity trains, has correspondence with buses. The station located 74.7 kilometers from Stavanger is about 10 minutes north of the city center of Egersund. The operating deficits are covered through subsidies by the Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications.
The trackage and other infrastructure is owned by the government agency Norwegian National Rail Administration, while the rolling stock is owned and operated by the Norwegian State Railways. The service between Stavanger and Sandnes operate with a fixed schedule every 15 minutes. Of the trains to Sandnes, half continue onwards to Nærbø. One train per hour operate all the way to Egersund. On weekends and late evenings, there is a reduced service. Travel time from Stavanger to Sandnes is 19 minutes, from Stavanger to Nærbø is 37 minutes, from Stavanger to Egersund is 1 hour and 7 minutes. Class 72 is a series of 36 four-car electric multiple units built by AnsaldoBreda; the units are permanently coupled together using Jacobs bogies. Each unit has a power output of 2,550 kilowatts, allowing a top speed of 160 kilometers per hour; the trains are 85.57 meters long and weigh 156 tonnes (154 long tons
Erik the Red
Erik Thorvaldsson, known as Erik the Red, was a Norse explorer, remembered in medieval and Icelandic saga sources as having founded the first settlement in Greenland. According to Icelandic sagas, he was born in the Jæren district of Rogaland, Norway, as the son of Thorvald Asvaldsson, he therefore appears, patronymically, as Erik Thorvaldsson. The appellation "the Red" most refers to his hair color and the color of his beard. Leif Erikson, the famous Icelandic explorer, was Erik's son. Erik the Red's father, Thorvald Asvaldsson, was banished from Norway because of some killings, he left with his son Erik to northwest Iceland, where he died before 980. According to the Greenland saga: "There was a man called Thorvald, the father of Eirik the Red, he and Eirik left their home in Jaederen, in Norway, because of some killings and went to Iceland, extensively settled by then. He settled in Hornstrandir in northwestern Iceland; the Icelanders sentenced Erik to exile for three years for killing Eyiolf the Foul around the year 982.
After marrying Thjodhild, Erik moved to Haukadalr. The initial confrontation occurred when his thralls started a landslide on the neighboring farm belonging to Valthjof. Valthjof's friend, Eyiolf the Foul, killed the thralls. In retaliation, Erik killed Holmgang-Hrafn. Eyiolf's kinsmen demanded his banishment from Haukadal. Erik moved to the island of Oxney, he asked Thorgest to keep his setstokkr – inherited ornamented beams of significant mystical value, which his father had brought from Norway. When he had finished his new house, he went back to get them, but they "could not be obtained". Erik went to Breidabolstad and took them; these are to have been Thorgest's setstokkr, although the sagas are unclear at this point. Thorgest gave chase, in the ensuing fight Erik slew both Thorgest's sons and "a few other men". After this, each of them retained a considerable body of men with him at his home. Styr gave Erik his support, as did Eyiolf of Sviney, Vifil's son, the sons of Thorbrand of Alptafirth.
The dispute was resolved at the Thing, which outlawed Erik for three years. Though popular history credits Erik as the first person to discover Greenland, the Icelandic sagas suggest that earlier Norsemen discovered and tried to settle it before him. Tradition credits Gunnbjorn Ulfsson with the first sighting of the land-mass. Nearly a century before Erik, strong winds had driven Gunnbjorn towards a land he called Gunnbjorn's skerries, but the accidental nature of Gunnbjorn's discovery has led to his neglect in the history of Greenland. After Gunnbjorn, Snaebjorn Galti had visited Greenland. According to records from the time, Galti headed the first Norse attempt to colonize Greenland, which ended in disaster. Erik the Red was the first permanent European settler. In this context, about 982, Erik sailed to a somewhat little-known land, he sailed up the western coast. He reached a part of the coast that, for the most part, seemed ice-free and had conditions—similar to those of Iceland—that promised growth and future prosperity.
According to the Saga of Erik the Red, he spent his three years of exile exploring this land. The first winter he spent on the second winter he passed in Eiriksholmar. In the final summer he explored as far north into Hrafnsfjord; when Erik returned to Iceland after his exile had expired, he is said to have brought with him stories of "Greenland". Erik deliberately gave the land a more appealing name than "Iceland" in order to lure potential settlers, he explained, "people would be attracted to go there if it had a favorable name". He knew that the success of any settlement in Greenland would need the support of as many people as possible, his salesmanship proved successful, as many people became convinced that Greenland held great opportunity. After spending the winter in Iceland, Erik returned to Greenland in 985 with a large number of colonists. Out of 25 ships that left for Greenland only 14 arrived, 11 were lost at sea; the Icelanders established two colonies on the southwest coast: the Eastern Settlement or Eystribyggð, in modern-day Qaqortoq, the Western Settlement, close to present-day Nuuk.
The Eastern and Western Settlements, both established on the southwest coast, proved the only two areas suitable for farming. During the summers, when the weather favored travel more, each settlement would send an army of men to hunt in Disko Bay above the Arctic Circle for food and other valuable commodities such as seals, ivory from walrus tusks, beached whales. In the Eastern Settlement, Erik built the estate of Brattahlid, near present-day Narsarsuaq, he held the title of paramount chieftain of Greenland and became both respected and wealthy. The settlement flourished, growing to 5,000 inhabitants spread over a considerable area along Eriksfjord and neighboring fjords. Groups of immigrants escaping overcrowding in Iceland joined the original party. However, one group of immigrants which arrived in 1002 brought with it an epidemic that ravaged the colony, killing many of its leading citizens, including Erik him
The Jæren Line 74.7-kilometer long railway line between Stavanger and Egersund in Jæren, Norway. The name is no longer in official use and the section is regarded as the westernmost part of the Sørlandet Line. Owned by the Norwegian National Rail Administration, the line has double track from Stavanger Station to Sandnes Station, single track from Sandnes to Egersund Station; the line is electrified at 15 kV 16.7 Hz AC and equipped with centralized traffic control and GSM-R. The line is served by the Jæren Commuter Rail and intercity trains along the Sørlandet Line, both operated by the Norwegian State Railways. CargoNet runs container freight trains on the line; the line opened as a 1,067 mm narrow gauge stand-alone line on 27 February 1878. The railway was extended from Egersund to Flekkefjord as the Flekkefjord Line in 1904; the Jæren Line's only branch, the Ålgård Line from Ganddal to Ålgård, opened in 1924. In 1944, the Sørlandet Line was extended to Sira on the Flekkefjord Line, the Jæren Line was integrated in the main railway network.
Because of this, the line was converted to standard gauge. The Jæren Line constitutes the section of the Sørlandet Line between Egersund. At the time of the line's opening, it was 76.3 kilometers long, but has since the 1950s been 73.1 kilometers long. The railway is double track on the 14.5-kilometer section from Stavanger Station to Sandnes Station, single track from there to Egersund Station. The line is electrified at 15 kV 16.7 Hz AC and equipped with centralized traffic control, automatic train stop, GSM-R. The railway line is owned and maintained by the Norwegian National Rail Administration, a government agency; the zero marker for the line is located at Stavanger Station, 598.70 kilometers from Oslo Central Station and located 5.3 meters above mean sea level. There was a branch just south of the station which ran through a 334-meter long tunnel before reaching the port. Southwards from Stavanger, the route runs along the waterfront, hugging Gandsfjorden; the first station after Stavanger is Paradis Station.
The line runs past the closed Hillevåg Station and a closed spur to an industrial area at Mariero before reaching Mariero Station. The line continues past the closed Lyngnes Station, a closed spur to Sørbø Trelast and the closed Vaulen Station. After passing the closed Hinna Station and the closed Jåttå Station, used to serve matches and concerts at Viking Stadion, the line afterwards reaches Jåttåvågen Station, which serves the stadium and the newly redeveloped area of Jåtten; the line continues past Gausel Station, which in addition to serving a redeveloped area serves as a major transfer hub for buses towards Forus and Sola. Next the line passes the closed Forus Station before running through the 117-meter long Lurahammer Tunnel and passing the closed Luravika Station and Lura Station. Through the town center of Sandnes, the line runs as an elevated railway, which also included a branch to the port in Sandnes. Sandnes Sentrum Station is the main station serving the town; the line continues past Sandnes Station, the end of the double track.
After passing the closed Brualand Station and the open Ganddal Station, the closed Ålgård Line branches off. Ganddal Freight Terminal is the only freight terminal in Jæren, it can handle 600-meter long trains. The next station on the mainline are the closed Skjæveland Station and Orstad Station, followed by the operating Øksnevadporten Station. South of there lays to spurs, to Øksnevad and Block Watne; the line continues. The line continues past the closed Leland Station and the closed Tumarki Station before having a closed spur to Varheia. After passing the closed Vardheia Station, the line reaches Bryne Station. Next the line passes a spur to Hetland and passes four closed stations, Hognestad, Gjerdo and Tårland. After reaching Nærbø Station, the line continues past the closed Kvia Station and the closed Dysjaland Station before reaching Varhaug Station. Located at 44.3 meters AMSL, it is the highest-elevated station on the line. After passing the closed Odland Station, the line runs past the closed Stavnheim Station and reaches Vigrestad Station.
The line continues past the closed Hogstad Station and the closed Stokkaland Station before reaching Brusand Station. Afterwards it crosses Vauleelva and runs through the 199-meter long Varden Tunnel before passing the closed Varden Station and reaching Ogna Station. At Ogna there is a distinct change to the landscape. Between Bryne and Ogna, the line have a large curve radius, but between Ogna and Egersund this changes to much tighter curvature. After Ogna the line crosses Ognaelv and runs through the 222-meter long Sirevåg Tunnel before reaching Sirevåg Station; the line runs through two tunnels before passing the closed Vatnamot Station and reaching Hellvik Station. The line continues through six tunnels, the longest being 596 meters, before passing the closed Maurholen Station, it passes through four more tunnels and two bridges before reaching Egers
Battle of Hafrsfjord
The Battle of Hafrsfjord was a great naval battle fought in Hafrsfjord sometime between 872 and 900 that resulted in the unification of Norway known as the Kingdom of Norway. After the battle, the victorious Viking chief Harald Fairhair proclaimed himself the first king of the Norwegians, merging several petty kingdoms under a single monarch for the first time. Although most scholars tend to regard the unification as a process lasting centuries, rather than being the result of a single battle, the Battle of Hafrsfjord ranks high in the popular imagination of Norway, it was the conclusion of King Harald I of Norway's declaration to become the sole ruler of Norway. This battle may well have been the largest in Norway up to that time and for a substantial time afterward, it was believed that this battle was the decisive event in the unification of Norway. According to Snorri's saga, King Harald controlled large parts of Norway's southeast portion before the battle; the Battle of Hafrsfjord marks the final crushing of opposition from Norway's southwestern portion.
This made it possible for King Harald to subdue the country and collect taxes from a large part of it. Historiography regarded him as the first legitimate King of Norway. Many of the defeated who would not submit to Harald's rule emigrated to Iceland; the exact year of the battle is unknown, but is considered to have taken place between 870 and 900. This uncertainty is due to lack of sources, because the Christian calendar was not introduced at the time; the sagas follow the convention of counting the number of winters passed since an event. A traditional date of the event, the year 872, is a 19th-century estimate. In the 1830s, the historian Rudolf Keyser counted the number of years backwards from the Battle of Svolder as recorded in Snorri Sturluson's Heimskringla, dating the battle to 872. Keyser's chronology was popularized by the works of the historian P. A. Munch, by that time still unchallenged, this year was chosen for the millennial celebration of the unification of the Norwegian state in 1872.
In the 1920s, using similar methods as Keyser but critical to the reliability of the sagas, the historian Halvdan Koht dated the battle to about 900. For the next fifty years, this chronology was regarded by most scholars as being most likely. In the 1970s, the Icelandic historian Ólafia Einarsdóttir concluded that the battle took place somewhere between 870 and 875; however still disputed, most scholars will agree. The national monument of Haraldshaugen was raised in 1872 to commemorate the Battle of Hafrsfjord. In 1983, the monument and landmark The Swords in the Rock was designed by Fritz Røed and raised at Hafrsfjord in memory of the battle; the only contemporary source to this event is from Haraldskvæthi or Hrafnsmól, a ballad written by Þorbjörn Hornklofi, the court poet of King Harald Fairhair. The ballad is simple and illustrative; the most well-known source of the battle is Harald Fairhair's saga in Heimskringla written by Snorri Sturluson more than 300 years after the battle took place.
Snorri gives a vivid and detailed description of the battle, although some historians continue to debate the historical accuracy of Snorri's work: News came in from the south land that the people of Hordaland and Rogaland and Thelemark, were gathering, bring together ships and weapons, a great body of men. The leaders of this were Eirik king of Hordaland. Now when Harald got certain news of this, he assembled his forces, set his ships on the water, made himself ready with his men, set out southwards along the coast, gathering many people from every district. King Eirik heard of this; the whole met together north of Jadar, went into Hafersfjord, where King Harald was waiting with his forces. A great battle began, both hard and long. There King Eirik fell, King Sulke, with his brother Earl Sote. Thor Haklang, a great berserk, had laid his ship against King Harald's, there was above all measure a desperate attack, until Thor Haklang fell, his whole ship was cleared of men. King Kjotve fled to a little isle outside, on which there was a good place of strength.
Thereafter all his men fled, some to their ships. History of Norway Battle of Svolder Battle of Stiklestad Forte, Angelo with Richard Oram and Frederik Pedersen Viking Empires ISBN 978-0521829922 Lincoln, Bruce Between History and Myth: Stories of Harald Fairhair and the Founding of the State ISBN 978-0226140926 In Norwegian Holmsen, Andreas Norges historie fra de eldste tider inntil 1660 ISBN 978-8200032441 Einarsdottir, Olafia Vår norrøne fortid ISBN 9788291640341 Krag, Claus Norges historie fram til 1319 ISBN 978-8200129387 Swords in Rock
Rogaland is a county in Western Norway, bordering Hordaland, Aust-Agder, Vest-Agder counties. Rogaland is the center of the Norwegian petroleum industry. In 2016, Rogaland had an unemployment rate of one of the highest in Norway. In 2015, Rogaland had a fertility rate of 1.78 children per woman, the highest in the country. The Diocese of Stavanger for the Church of Norway includes all of Rogaland county. Rogaland is the region's Old Norse name, revived in modern times. During Denmark's rule of Norway until the year 1814, the county was named Stavanger amt, after the large city of Stavanger; the first element is the plural genitive case of rygir, referring to the name of an old Germanic tribe. The last element is land which means "land" or "region". In Old Norse times, the region was called Rygjafylki; the coat-of-arms is modern. The arms are blue with a silver pointed cross in the centre; the cross is based on the old stone cross in the oldest national monument in Norway. It was erected in memory of Erling Skjalgsson after his death in 1028.
This type of cross was common in medieval Norway. Rogaland is a coastal region with fjords and islands, the principal island being Karmøy; the vast Boknafjorden is the largest bay, with many fjords branching off from it. Stavanger/Sandnes, the third-largest urban area of Norway, is in central Rogaland and it includes the large city of Stavanger and the neighboring municipalities of Sandnes and Sola. Together, this conurbation is ranked above the city Trondheim in population rankings in Norway. There are many cities/towns in Rogaland other than Sandnes, they include Haugesund, Sauda, Kopervik, Åkrehamn, Skudeneshavn. Karmøy has large deposits of copper. Sokndal has large deposits of ilmenite. Rogaland is the most important region for oil and gas exploration in Norway, the Jæren district in Rogaland is one of the country's most important agricultural districts. There are remains in Rogaland from the earliest times, such as the excavations in a cave at Viste in Randaberg; these include. Various archeological finds stem from the Bronze Age and the Iron Age.
Many crosses in Irish style have been found. Rogaland was called Rygjafylke in the Viking Age. Before Harald Fairhair and the Battle of Hafrsfjord, it was a petty kingdom; the Rugians were a tribe connected with Rogaland. A series of festivals and congresses of international fame and profile are arranged, such as The Chamber Music Festival, The Maijazz Festival, The Gladmat Festival, The ONS event, held in Stavanger every second year since 1974; the ONS is a major international conference and exhibition with focus on oil and gas, other topics from the petroleum industry. The Concert Hall and Music Complex at Bjergsted and the Stavanger Symphony Orchestra provide important inspiration in the Norwegian musical environment. Another annual event in Stavanger is The World Tour Beach Volleyball. During this tournament, the downtown is converted into a beach volleyball arena. Rogaland is home to many natural wonders, like Prekestolen and Gloppedalsura. In Stavanger, there is an archeological museum with many artifacts from early history in Rogaland.
An Iron Age farm at Ullandhaug in Stavanger is reconstructed on the original farm site dating back to 350–500 AD. The Viking Farm is a museum at Karmøy; the county is conventionally divided into traditional districts. These are Haugalandet north of the Boknafjorden, Ryfylke in the mountainous east, Jæren to the southwest, Dalane in the far south, the Stavanger region. Rogaland has a total of 26 municipalities: Total population: Anders Andersen Bjelland, politician Bendix Ebbell, amateur Egyptologist, Rogaland county physician from 1917 to 1935. Official county website Region Stavanger Official tourism site for the Stavanger region
Western Norway is the region along the Atlantic coast of southern Norway. It consists of the counties Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Møre og Romsdal; the region has a population of 1.3 million people. The largest city is Bergen and the second-largest is Stavanger; the regions of Agder, Vest-Telemark, Hallingdal and northern parts of Gudbrandsdal have been included in Western Norway. Western Norway, as well as other parts of historical regions of Norway, shares a common history with Denmark, the Faroe Islands and Iceland and to a lesser extent the Netherlands and Britain. For example, the Icelandic horse is a close relative of the Fjord horse and both the Faroese and Icelandic languages are based on the Old West Norse. In early Norse times, people from Western Norway became settlers at the Western Isles in the Northern Atlantic, so that Orkney, the Faroe Islands and Iceland. During the Viking age settlements were made at the Hebrides and Ireland proper. In early modern time, Western Norway has had much emigration to the United States, to a lesser extent to the United Kingdom.
This applies to the US states of Minnesota and South Dakota, Wisconsin and the Canadian province of Manitoba. The Icelandic and Faroese people, many people in the British Isles, are descendants of Norsemen and Vikings who emigrated from Western Norway during the Viking Age. On the other hand, thousands of Western Norwegians are descendants of Dutch and German traders who arrived in the 16th and the 17th centuries in Bergen. Western Norway has the lowest unemployment rates, lowest crime rates, smallest public sector, fewest people on welfare and the most innovative economy in the country, it is regarded as Norway's most functional region. Vestlandet is the name chosen for a future administrative region consisting of two of the four counties, viz. Hordaland and Sogn og Fjordane; the two counties will be re-merged after having been split in 1763. Norway's history begins on the west coast in Rogaland. Excavations and rock art tells us that it was in Rogaland that the first humans settled in Norway, when the ice retreated after the last ice age ca. 10,000 years ago.
There are many artifacts from the Stone Age in Rogaland. The preliminary oldest traces of humans are found in a settlement on Galta, Rennesøy, near the ferry terminal Mortavika and Vista on Randaberg. In the beginning there has been sure short visits by people from the south who hunted along the coast, it is thought that people came from Doggerland, the North Sea land area between Denmark and England, which disappeared when the ice retreated and sea levels rose. The people who lived there must now find a new land; some retreated south again, while a few passed the Norwegian Trench in its hunt for deer and the new country. The region includes most of the scope of the old Gulating, founded around the year 900; the Gulating Act divided the country into the Western counties, which consisted of the former småkongedømmene that existed in the area before the unification of the 800's and was converted to jarle judge. These were Sunnmørafylke, Firda County, Sygna County, Hordafylke and Egdafylke. Before the millennium, iron was introduced and used in agriculture, there was a shortage of land to cultivate.
In the same period, the kings’ power increased, large tax claims caused many to seek freedom and fortune abroad. Many emigrated, looting became an alternative source of income. Effective boats and weapons made, but the images of Vikings as bloodthirsty plunderers are not always representative. The Vikings were involved in a wealthy merchant trade, not only in Europe but including the Byzantine Empire and the Baghdad Caliphate. Vikings are introduced with the Viking attack on Lindisfarne in 793, when they made their mark in European history; the era ends with the Battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066. Vikings' seaworthiness and wanderlust resulted in new areas being developed. Norwegian settlers moved into the North Sea westward to Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Shetland, Isle of Mann and the Hebrides. Settlements were established in the southeast corner of Ireland including in Dublin and Wexford. Norwegians settled along the northwest area of England, principally in the area of modern-day Cumbria; the Norwegian Vikings discovered Vinland, present-day America, long before Christopher Columbus.
Christianity became the dominant religion in Norway in the 11th century, but the religion was known among Norwegians in the 7th century. While Eastern Norway was introduced to Christianity by missionaries and monks from Germany and Friesland, Western Norway was introduced to the religion by English, Irish people and Vikings who had converted to Christianity. Norse paganism existed in some areas in Western Norway until they were replaced by Christianity in the 13th century; the coastal areas were the first to introduce the new faith, the inland areas. Churches were planted everywhere; the main source of information about the settlement period in Iceland is the Book of Settlements, written in the 12th century, which gives a detailed account of the first settlers. According to this book, Western Norwegian sailors accidentally discovered the country. A few voyages of exploration were made soon after that and the settlement started. Ingólfur Arnarson was said to be the first settler, he was