Frederiksberg Kommune is a municipality on the island of Zealand in Denmark. Part of Copenhagen, it is surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality and its mayor is Jørgen Glenthøj from the Conservative Peoples Party. The city of Frederiksberg is the town in the municipality. Frederiksberg is located as an enclave within the municipality of Copenhagen, the municipality was originally situated west of Copenhagen, but after a number of smaller municipalities were merged with Copenhagen in 1901, it became completely surrounded by Copenhagen. Frederiksberg was one of the three last Danish municipalities not belonging to a County—the others being Copenhagen and Bornholm, on 1 January 2007, the municipality lost its county privileges and became part of Region Hovedstaden. Frederiksberg municipality was not merged with other municipalities as the result of nationwide Kommunalreformen
The krone is the official currency of Denmark and the Faroe Islands, introduced on 1 January 1875. Both the ISO code DKK and currency sign kr. are in use, the former precedes the value. The currency is referred to as the Danish crown in English. Historically, krone coins have been minted in Denmark since the 17th century, one krone is subdivided into 100 øre, the name øre possibly deriving from Latin aureus meaning gold coin. Altogether there are eleven denominations of the krone, with the smallest being the 50 øre coin, formerly there were more øre coins, but those were discontinued due to inflation. The krone is pegged to the euro via the ERM II, the oldest known Danish coin is a penny struck AD 825–840, but the earliest systematic minting produced the so-called korsmønter or cross coins minted by Harald Bluetooth in the late 10th century. Organised minting in Denmark was introduced on a larger scale by Canute the Great in the 1020s, for almost 1,000 years, Danish kings – with a few exceptions – have issued coins with their name, monogram and/or portrait.
Taxes were sometimes imposed via the coinage, e. g. by the substitution of coins handed in by new coins handed out with a lower silver content. Danish coinage was based on the Carolingian silver standard. Periodically, the value of the minted coins was reduced. This was mainly done to generate income for the monarch and/or the state, as a result of the debasement, the public started to lose trust in the respective coins. Danish currency was overhauled several times in attempts to restore public trust in the coins, in 1619 a new currency was introduced in Denmark, the krone. One krone had the value of 1 1/2 Danish Rigsdaler Species accounting for 96 Kroneskillinger, for 144 common Skillings, until the late 18th century, the krone was a denomination equal to 8 mark, a subunit of the Danish rigsdaler. A new krone was introduced as the currency of Denmark in January 1875 and it replaced the rigsdaler at a rate of 2 kroner =1 rigsdaler. This placed the krone on the standard at a rate of 2480 kroner =1 kilogram fine gold.
The latter part of the 18th century and much of the 19th century saw expanding economic activity, banknotes were increasingly used instead of coins. The introduction of the new krone was a result of the Scandinavian Monetary Union, the parties to the union were the three Scandinavian countries, where the name was krone in Denmark and Norway and krona in Sweden, a word which in all three languages literally means crown. The three currencies were on the standard, with the krone/krona defined as 1⁄2480 of a kilogram of pure gold
A Molotov cocktail, known as a petrol bomb, bottle bomb, poor mans grenade, fire bomb or just Molotov, is a generic name used for a variety of bottle-based improvised incendiary weapons. They are primarily intended to set targets ablaze rather than obliterate them, the name Molotov cocktail was coined by the Finns during the Winter War. The name was a reference to Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov. The Finns sarcastically dubbed the Soviet cluster bombs Molotov bread baskets in reference to Molotovs propaganda broadcasts, when the hand-held bottle firebomb was developed to attack Soviet tanks, the Finns called it the Molotov cocktail, as a drink to go with the food. The wick is soaked in alcohol or kerosene, rather than petrol. In action, the wick is lit and the bottle hurled at a target such as a vehicle or fortification. When the bottle smashes on impact, the cloud of petrol droplets and vapour ignites. Other flammable liquids such as fuel, turpentine, jet fuel. Improvised incendiary devices were used for the first time in the Spanish Civil War between July 1936 and April 1939, before they became known as Molotov cocktails, after that, both sides used simple petrol bombs or petrol-soaked blankets with some success.
Tom Wintringham, a veteran of the International Brigades, publicised his recommended method of using them, We made use of petrol bombs roughly as follows, take a heavy curtain, half a blanket, or some other heavy material. Wrap this over the mouth of the jar, tie it round the neck with string, when you want to use it have somebody standing by with a light. Put a corner of the material down in front of you, turn the bottle over so that petrol soaks out round the mouth of the bottle and drips on to this corner of the material. Turn the bottle right way up again, hold it in right hand, most of the blanket bunched beneath the bottle. When near enough, your pal lights the petrol soaked corner of the blanket, throw the bottle and blanket as soon as this corner is flaring. See that it drops in front of the tank, the blanket should catch in the tracks or in a cog-wheel, or wind itself round an axle. Do not play with these things, the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, a border conflict of 1939 ostensibly between Mongolia and Manchukuo, saw heavy fighting between Japanese and Soviet forces.
Short of anti-tank equipment, Japanese infantry attacked Soviet tanks with gasoline-filled bottles, Japanese infantrymen claimed that several hundred Soviet tanks had been destroyed this way, though Soviet loss records do not support this assessment. On 30 November 1939, the Soviet Union invaded Finland, starting what came to be known as the Winter War, the Finns perfected the design and tactical use of the petrol bomb
Assistens Cemetery (Copenhagen)
Assistens Cemetery in Copenhagen, Denmark, is the burial site of a large number of Danish notables as well as an important greenspace in the Nørrebro district. Among the latter are the Nobel Prize-winning physicist Niels Bohr and a number of American jazz musicians who settled in Copenhagen during the 1950s and 1960s, including Ben Webster and Kenny Drew. The cemetery is one of five run by Copenhagen Municipality, the cemeteries are Vestre Cemetery, Brønshøj Cemetery, Sundby Cemetery. In Medieval times intramural interment was the rule although outdoor graveyards gradually became more common, in 1666 the Naval Holmens Cemetery was moved from its original location at Church of Holmen to a site outside the Eastern City Gate as the first burial facility to be located outside the city. An outbreak of plague in 1711 which killed an estimated 23,000 citizens put the burial sites under so much pressure that up to five coffins were sometimes buried on top of each other. After some negotiations it was decided to place it outside the Northern City Gate, the new cemetery was inaugurated on 6 November 1760.
It was enclosed by a built by Philip de Lange. Originally the cemetery was intended as a ground for paupers. Simon, der dort Gräber ist, gesprochen habe and he was soon followed by other leading figures from the elite and the cemetery soon developed into the most mondain burial ground of the city. Around that time, excursions to the cemetery with picnic baskets and it is certainly one of the most beautiful graveyards in Europe. The excursions sometimes evolved into rowdy gatherings and legislation was passed to prevent this, a commission established in 1805 issued instructions which prohibited the consumption of food or drink as well as music or any other kind of cheerful behaviour in the cemetery. The gravediggers, who lived on the premises, were to enforce these restrictions, legislation from 1813 prohibited them to sell alcohol to visitors to the cemetery. Despite all these efforts, the peace and quiet was a long time in coming. For particularly grand funerals, crowds of spectators would gather, to reduce numbers of visitors, there was talk of introducing admission fees, but this was never carried out.
The oldest part is Section A and features the graves of Søren Kierkegaard, Section D is dedicated to religious minorities, containing Roman Catholic and Reformed graves as well as Russian graves. Section E is the section which served under Church of Our Lady. Apart from the permanent exhibition, the museum contains an exhibition space for special exhibitions, a picture workshop for children and young people
The street has a multiethnic character and is home to a number of African specialty stores, coffee shops and restaurants. Between Griffenfeldsgade and Stengade is a green space, Folkets Park. Griffenfeldsgade was until 1879 called Parcelvej, Griffenfeldsgade is named after the Holstein statesman Peter Schumacher Griffenfeld, who served as Danish Chancellor from 1673. A bridge, was until 1892 located at the far end of the street, connecting it to Ladegårdsvej on the other side and from 1872 to H. C. At the outbreak of World War II the Danish Communist Party had its office on the 3rd floor of Griffenfeldsgade 50, the party newspaper Arbejderbladet were housed in the ground and first floor. When the German Wehrmacht occupied Denmark on 9 April all the lists of party members and magazine sellers were burned, after Nazi Germanys attack on the Soviet Union in 1941, the Communist Party was banned in Denmark. Simultaneously, several members were arrested and the release of the Arbejderbladet was banned, the party continued as an illegal organization from November 1941 and published the illegal opposition magazine Land og folk.
A small printing house in Griffenfeldsgade, usually printing occasional songs, during the occupation Griffenfeldsgade was scene of several firefights between the Danish resistance and representatives of the occupying power. Many apartments and shops were exposed to either raids or sabotage, the Danish communist youth organization still resides in Griffenfeldsgade. The former he former St. Josephs Hospital is from 1875 and it was founded by St. Joseph Sisters in 1975. The building was designed by Christian Hansen in the Gothic Revival style, the hospital was nursing home but closed in 2005
Police of Denmark
The police of Denmark is the interior part of the Danish legitimate force providers. The police are empowered to enforce the law and to public and social order. The common police of Denmark consists of 12 districts each managed by a director, the district of Copenhagen is somewhat differently organized due to its size and tasks. Usually a tie is worn, rank-insignia is worn on the shoulders. The pants are blue with reflective patches. Black shoes are included in the standard uniform, special tactical suits are made of flame-resistant materials and are worn in situations requiring such equipment. The tactical suit includes a protected helmet, for the daily duties, the patrol-vehicles are white and dog-patrols are mostly dark blue. They have a blue strobe-light or flashing light and the word POLITI painted on the side in a reflective, the most commonly used patrol vehicles are Ford Mondeo, Volkswagen Passat and Opel Vectra, with 2.0 to 2.2 litre engines. In 2009, the 3.6 litre Škoda Superb was added to the fleet, unmarked cars are usually fitted with engines with a size of around 1.6 to 2.2 litre.
In addition a number of small unmarked cars are used like Peugeot 307, Opel Astra, Ford Focus. The Peugeot 607 is used as a security attachment for cabinet members, Toyota Landcruiser and VW Touareg are used for special tasks. Small detachments typically use VW Transporters, while VW LTs and Ford Transit mini-buses are used in larger operations, in extreme events, a variation of the MB Vario is used. It is generally known as the Dutchmans vehicle and this name derives from the fact that these vehicles are fitted in the Netherlands as light APCs with reinforced windows and metal parts and fire-resistant coating. They are used both as light APCs in event of demonstrations or public disturbances, and as transportation of large numbers of arrestees. Other vehicles in use are the Mercedes-Benz Vito and Nissan Patrols used by the police squads with a horse carrier attached. The traffic police use unmarked vans for automatic traffic control and these are primarily VW Transporters, Mercedes Benz Vitos, Toyota Hiaces but others are used as well.
Some rural police officers use civilian vehicles with a dismountable magnet roof flash, for traffic regulation and VIP and ambulance escorts motorcycles are used, primarily Yamaha FJR1300A, Honda ST1300a, BMW K1200RS and BMW K1200GT. The standard service handgun is the H&K USP Compact 9mm pistol, for special tasks the H&K MP5 sub-machine gun is used
Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen (/ˈhɑːnz ˈkrɪstʃən ˈændərsən/, often referred to in Scandinavia as H. C. Although a prolific writer of plays, travelogues and poems, Andersens popularity is not limited to children, his stories, called eventyr in Danish, express themes that transcend age and nationality. Some of his most famous fairy tales include The Emperors New Clothes, The Little Mermaid, The Nightingale, The Snow Queen, The Ugly Duckling and his stories have inspired ballets and live-action films and plays. Hans Christian Andersen was born in the town of Odense, Andersens father, considered himself related to nobility. His paternal grandmother had told his father that their family had in the past belonged to a social class. A persistent theory suggests that Andersen was a son of King Christian VIII. Andersens father, who had received an education, introduced Andersen to literature. Andersens mother, Anne Marie Andersdatter, was uneducated and worked as a washerwoman following his fathers death in 1816, she remarried in 1818.
Andersen was sent to a school for poor children where he received a basic education and was forced to support himself, working as an apprentice for a weaver and, later. At 14, he moved to Copenhagen to seek employment as an actor, having an excellent soprano voice, he was accepted into the Royal Danish Theatre, but his voice soon changed. A colleague at the theatre told him that he considered Andersen a poet, taking the suggestion seriously, Andersen began to focus on writing. Jonas Collin, director of the Royal Danish Theatre, felt a great affection for Andersen and sent him to a school in Slagelse. Andersen had already published his first story, The Ghost at Palnatokes Grave, though not a keen pupil, he attended school at Elsinore until 1827. He said his years in school were the darkest and most bitter of his life, at one school, he lived at his schoolmasters home. There he was abused and was told that it was to improve his character and he said the faculty had discouraged him from writing in general, causing him to enter a state of depression.
A very early fairy tale by Andersen, called The Tallow Candle, was discovered in a Danish archive in October 2012, the story, written in the 1820s, was about a candle who did not feel appreciated. It was written while Andersen was still in school and dedicated to a benefactor, in 1829, Andersen enjoyed considerable success with the short story A Journey on Foot from Holmens Canal to the East Point of Amager. Its protagonist meets characters ranging from Saint Peter to a talking cat, Andersen followed this success with a theatrical piece, Love on St. Nicholas Church Tower, and a short volume of poems
Kongens Enghave, known as Sydhavnen, is a district in southern Copenhagen. Since the turn of the millennium, this picture is starting to change, a significant cluster of IT and telecommunications companies have emerged in the area. Kongens Enghave covers an area of 4.46 km², has a population of 15,414 and it used to be one of 15 administrative districts of Copenhagen, but since an administrative reform in 2006-08, it has been part of the official district of Vesterbro/Kongens Enghave. Kongens Enghave is bounded by the Carlsberg area to the north, Vesterbro to the north-east and Valby to the west, while Copenhagen Harbour to the east, Kongens Enghave is first mentioned in 1632. The area was used for harvesting of hay for the stables at Copenhagen Castle. In 1776, a plague hospital was built on Kalvebod Beach. The name Frederiksholm is first seen in 1667–68 when large areas on the coast were reclaimed and drained, the land was divided into 22 estates at the same event. Frederiksholm, the only of houses that still exist today, was built by king Frederick VI.
The estate covered about 50 hectares, about half of which was gardens, in 1834, it kept about 40 cows and 10 horses. From the 1870s, it served as residence for the manager of Frederiksholm Brickyard, copenhagens city walls were decommissioned in 1857, leading to new development in the area. Vestre Cemetery was established in 1870, in 1871, two brothers, Køhler, purchased the Frederiksholm estate and established a brickyard in the grounds. The storm surge in November 1872 led to widespread floodings in the area, the brick yard produced many of the bricks used in the construction of Vesterbro prior to its closure in 1918. Karens Minde, an institution, was opened by Johan Keller in 1876. In the beginning of the 20th century, Port of Copenhagen was expanded with extensive docklands with many enterprises in the area. Otto Mønsted opened a factory in 1911. It was joined by Lemvig Møller & Munch amd Sømderværftet, a subsidiary of Københavns Flydeværft & Skibsdok, burmeister & Wain established in the a foundry in the area in 1920 and took over Sønderværftet in 1926.
In 1924 Ford Motor Company moved its assembly plant from Nørrebro to the Southern Docklands, the factory was designed by Albert Kahn and opened on 15 November 1924. The Kongens Enghave district developed around the industry of the Southern Docklands
Niels Henrik David Bohr was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. Bohr was a philosopher and a promoter of scientific research, although the Bohr model has been supplanted by other models, its underlying principles remain valid. He conceived the principle of complementarity, that items could be analysed in terms of contradictory properties. The notion of complementarity dominated Bohrs thinking in science and philosophy. Bohr founded the Institute of Theoretical Physics at the University of Copenhagen, now known as the Niels Bohr Institute, Bohr mentored and collaborated with physicists including Hans Kramers, Oskar Klein, George de Hevesy, and Werner Heisenberg. He predicted the existence of a new element, which was named hafnium, after the Latin name for Copenhagen. Later, the element bohrium was named after him, during the 1930s, Bohr helped refugees from Nazism.
After Denmark was occupied by the Germans, he had a meeting with Heisenberg. In September 1943, word reached Bohr that he was about to be arrested by the Germans, from there, he was flown to Britain, where he joined the British Tube Alloys nuclear weapons project, and was part of the British mission to the Manhattan Project. After the war, Bohr called for cooperation on nuclear energy. He had a sister, and a younger brother Harald. Jenny became a teacher, while Harald became a mathematician and Olympic footballer who played for the Danish national team at the 1908 Summer Olympics in London. Bohr was a footballer as well, and the two brothers played several matches for the Copenhagen-based Akademisk Boldklub, with Bohr as goalkeeper. Bohr was educated at Gammelholm Latin School, starting when he was seven, in 1903, Bohr enrolled as an undergraduate at Copenhagen University. His major was physics, which he studied under Professor Christian Christiansen and he studied astronomy and mathematics under Professor Thorvald Thiele, and philosophy under Professor Harald Høffding, a friend of his father.
This involved measuring the frequency of oscillation of the radius of a water jet, Bohr conducted a series of experiments using his fathers laboratory in the university, the university itself had no physics laboratory. To complete his experiments, he had to make his own glassware and his essay, which he submitted at the last minute, won the prize. He submitted a version of the paper to the Royal Society in London for publication in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society