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N. R. Pogson

Norman Robert Pogson, CIE was an English astronomer who worked in India at the Madras observatory. He made observations on comets, he introduced a mathematical scale of stellar magnitudes with the ratio of two successive magnitudes being the fifth root of one hundred and referred to as Pogson's ratio. Norman was born in Nottingham, the son of George Owen Pogson, a hosiery manufacturer, lace dealer and commission agent, "with enough income to support an extended family", his wife, Mary Ann, it was intended that he should follow his father into business, he was accordingly sent for "commercial education", but he was fascinated by science, his mother supported and encouraged this interest. His early education was informal, he left school at 16. At the age of eighteen, he calculated with the help of John Russell Hind of the Royal Astronomical Society, the orbits of two comets, he was introduced to astronomy through George Bishop's Observatory at South Villa Regent's Park from 1846. He took an interest in comets and studied Iris, a minor planet, discovered.

He was engaged as an assistant at the Radcliffe Observatory in 1852. After working as an assistant at the South Villa Observatory in 1851, he moved to the Radcliffe Observatory in Oxford in 1852, he received the Lalande medal upon his discovery of the minor planet Isis. His Oxford period was spent studying other routine research. In 1854 he helped. Pogson was appointed as director at the Hartwell Observatory belonging to John Lee in 1859, he published around fourteen papers from 1859 to 1860 in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society on variable stars and on minor planets. Sir Charles Wood appointed him as government astronomer for Madras in October 1860. Reaching India in 1861 and working at the Madras Observatory he worked tirelessly, discovering the asteroid 67 Asia. In the next seven years he found seven variable stars, he continued worked on Taylor's Madras Catalogue of 11,015 stars, published in 1835 based on work begun in 1831 by T. G. Taylor. Pogson continued work on this to add 51,101 observations and after his death in 1891 the catalogue was revised by Arthur Downing and published in 1901.

Despite Pogson's isolation he had at the time of his death discovered 134 stars, 106 variable stars, 21 possible variable stars and 7 possible supernovae. Pogson made special expeditions, observing a total solar eclipse on 18 August 1868 at Masulipatnam and making spectrometric studies, he observed and commented on the spectral line associated with Helium yet to be discovered. His most notable contribution was to note that in the stellar magnitude system introduced by the Greek astronomer Hipparchus, stars of the first magnitude were a hundred times as bright as stars of the sixth magnitude. Pogson's suggestion in 1856 was to make this a standard; this fifth root of 100 is known as Pogson's Ratio. The magnitude relation is given as follows: m1 - m2 = -2.5 log10 where m is the stellar magnitude and L is the luminosity, for stars 1 and 2. In 1868 and 1871, Pogson joined the Indian solar eclipse expeditions, he received a telegram from Ernst Friedrich Wilhelm Klinkerfues on November 30, 1872 which read Biela touched Earth on 27th.

Search near Theta Centauri, a message so esoteric that it caught the fancy of the newspapers of the time. The skies were cloudy in Madras and when it cleared up on December 2, 1872, he observed an object which he believed to be a return of Biela's Comet but was found to be a different object, called "Pogson's comet". One of Pogson's assistants was Chintamani Raghunatha Chary, he worked for many years with Pogson and his retirement in 1878 was a blow to Pogson. Pogson got into increasing difficulties with his collaborators in England as well as the bureaucracy in India. George Airy, who had admired Pogson once became unsupportive and downright dismissive of Pogson's applications for help from the government as well as to help him return to England. Pogson on his part had been stubborn in not supporting a southern-sky survey. Pogson served for 30 years at Madras, his health declined and he died in June 1891. He is buried at Chennai. Pogson was married in London in 1849 to Elizabeth Jane Ambrose, she died on 5 November 1869.

On 25 October 1883 he married Edith Louisa Stopford Sibley in Madras, daughter of Charles W. Sibley of the 64th regiment and a widow, aged 33, by whom he had a further three children: Frederick Vere, Edith Vera and Edith Gladys, born in 1889; the asteroid Vera, first discovered by Pogson on 6 February 1885, was named at the suggestion of his second wife, Edith Pogson.. Edith outlived him and retired to Wimbledon where she died on 31 December 1946. Pogson's daughter Elizabeth Isis Pogson served as his assistant at the Madras observatory from 1873 to 1881, she went on to become meteorological reporter for Madras. First proposed for a Fellowship of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1886, she was admitted to that honour in 1920. Pogson was created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire in January 1878; the following celestial features are named after him: Ast

Esperan├ža (non-profit)

Esperança, the Portuguese word for hope, is a registered 501 based in Phoenix, AZ. Founded in 1970 by Luke and Gerald Tupper, it operates programs in Mexico, Bolivia, Peru and Phoenix, Arizona. James Tupper, a recent graduate from the Medical College of Wisconsin, got his first look at medical deprivation and poverty in 1960 while traveling to Antarctica aboard a U. S. Navy ice-breaker; the ship docked in Brazil. It was here; when his military service was completed, he entered the Franciscan Order. He chose the name Luke to reflect his dedication to serving those in need with his medical expertise. Luke Tupper's Brother, Gerald Tupper, was a lawyer in Phoenix, AZ and formally incorporated Esperança into a non-profit in 1970. For the first 15 years Esperança operated out of a room in Gerald's law office. Esperança moved to its permanent central Phoenix, AZ location in 1985. Medical missions are one of the focuses of Esperança. Due to his training in the medical field, Luke Tupper focused on providing medical services to those in need.

In 1972 Esperança purchased the Point Loma Ferry. The ship was used for transporting passengers to and from Southern California’s Coronado Island. Esperanca relocated the vessel to Brazil and it became a floating hospital providing treatment to the underserved. Parts of the USS Bunker Hill, a decommissioned aircraft carrier, were donated in order to convert the ship into a floating hospital; the surgical program expanded into Bolivia in 1985 and terminated the program in 2014, once the native partner organization was self-sustaining. The surgical program operates in Nicaragua and Peru. Medical professionals volunteer their time to provide surgeries to communities in need. Volunteer surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses procure their own medical supplies, as well as accommodate their own airfare and volunteer their time to fly through the night and provide lifesaving surgery; each volunteer surgical team travels ten days, accomplishes between 25 and 45 surgeries, can evaluate hundreds to be referred for other medical treatments Esperança's Medical Supply Donation program delivers three cargo containers per year, carrying medical donations to under-resourced hospitals and community health centers in Jinotega, Nicaragua - one of the most impoverished areas in Central America.

Esperança's on-site assessment process ensures that every container delivered will meet specific needs of the recipient hospital or clinic, equipping the medical staff with life-saving tools to improve diagnosis and care. Supplies are used by their volunteer surgical teams on their mission trips; each year, nearly 600 individuals and corporations donate unused or used medical supplies and medical equipment that Esperança delivers to Nicaragua to support the resource- challenged communities to save lives, make diagnoses, provide lifesaving surgeries. These supplies and equipment are essential to ensure that Esperança’s partnering hospitals and clinics are equipped throughout the year with tools to transform lives; the Phoenix Program began in 1999 and provides health education on oral health, nutrition and chronic disease management to uninsured and under-insured children and families. Families are referred to low-cost health resources and services. Education for adults includes evidence based curriculum informing community members on how to prepare healthy culturally appropriate meals.

In addition, a similar curriculum is in development for elementary aged children. Esperança’s work in Phoenix provides Promotores opportunities to exchange information, share best practices and build skills. Salud con Sabor Latino works to connect a network of Promotores and expand leadership opportunities for community members. Recent water and sanitation projects have been developed with the assistance of the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering. Communities are built around access to clean water through community wells, water systems and latrines; each benefiting family participates in the construction of their water system, which in turn creates a personal ownership connection towards improving their health. In 1977 Esperança moved from a curative approach to a preventive model of treatment; the program originated in Brazil and focused on nutrition, including education for mothers as well as recording the weight of their preschool aged children. The program has since expanded to Nicaragua, Peru and Mozambique.

Esperança invests in education and food-related micro-business that directly provide adequate sources of nutrition while yielding profit from excess eggs, grain and crops. These profits are used to purchase additional food, replace the mud walls of homes, send children to school, gain access to clean water, or obtain needed medical care; the following 2016 outcomes are notable in improving food security: 1,763 agricultural producers received training to increase and expand crop yield 122,576 pounds of food were distributed to 4,280 individuals 845 heads of households attended training on nutrition and improving their diets. Esperança is working on the prevention and treatment of Chagas disease in Bolivia. Esperança has a four star rating by Charity Navigator; the organization is funded through a combination of grants from private foundations and individual contributions. The United States Agency for International Development has supported past projects


Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether considered subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information. It is a state of arousal; as William James wrote, " is the taking possession by the mind, in clear and vivid form, of one out of what seem several possible objects or trains of thought. Focalization, concentration, of consciousness are of its essence." Attention has been described as the allocation of limited cognitive processing resources. Attention remains a crucial area of investigation within education, neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, neuropsychology. Areas of active investigation involve determining the source of the sensory cues and signals that generate attention, the effects of these sensory cues and signals on the tuning properties of sensory neurons, the relationship between attention and other behavioral and cognitive processes, which may include working memory and psychological vigilance.

A new body of research, which expands upon earlier research within psychopathology, is investigating the diagnostic symptoms associated with traumatic brain injury and its effects on attention. Attention varies across cultures; the relationships between attention and consciousness are complex enough that they have warranted perennial philosophical exploration. Such exploration is both ancient and continually relevant, as it can have effects in fields ranging from mental health and the study of disorders of consciousness to artificial intelligence and its domains of research. Prior to the founding of psychology as a scientific discipline, attention was studied in the field of philosophy. Thus, many of the discoveries in the field of attention were made by philosophers. Psychologist John B. Watson calls Juan Luis Vives the father of modern psychology because, in his book De Anima et Vita, he was the first to recognize the importance of empirical investigation. In his work on memory, Vives found that the more one attends to stimuli, the better they will be retained.

By the 1990s, psychologists began using positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging to image the brain while monitoring tasks involving attention. Considering this expensive equipment was only available in hospitals, psychologists sought cooperation with neurologists. Psychologist Michael Posner and neurologist Marcus Raichle pioneered brain imaging studies of selective attention, their results soon sparked interest from the neuroscience community, which until had been focused on monkey brains. With the development of these technological innovations, neuroscientists became interested in this type of research that combines sophisticated experimental paradigms from cognitive psychology with these new brain imaging techniques. Although the older technique of electroencephalography had long been used to study the brain activity underlying selective attention by cognitive psychophysiologists, the ability of the newer techniques to measure localized activity inside the brain generated renewed interest by a wider community of researchers.

Neuroscientific evidence has identified a frontoparietal brain network which appears to be responsible for many attentional processes. In cognitive psychology there are at least two models; these models may be considered metaphors which are used to describe internal processes and to generate hypotheses that are falsifiable. Speaking, visual attention is thought to operate as a two-stage process. In the first stage, attention is distributed uniformly over the external visual scene and processing of information is performed in parallel. In the second stage, attention is concentrated to a specific area of the visual scene, processing is performed in a serial fashion; the first of these models to appear in the literature is the spotlight model. The term "spotlight" was inspired by the work of William James, who described attention as having a focus, a margin, a fringe; the focus is an area that extracts information from the visual scene with a high-resolution, the geometric center of which being where visual attention is directed.

Surrounding the focus is the fringe of attention, which extracts information in a much more crude fashion. This fringe extends out to a specified area, the cut-off is called the margin; the second model is called the zoom-lens model and was first introduced in 1986. This model inherits all properties of the spotlight model, but it has the added property of changing in size; this size-change mechanism was inspired by the zoom lens one might find on a camera, any change in size can be described by a trade-off in the efficiency of processing. The zoom-lens of attention can be described in terms of an inverse trade-off between the size of focus and the efficiency of processing: because attention resources are assumed to be fixed it follows that the larger the focus is, the slower processing will be of that region of the visual scene, since this fixed resource will be distributed over a larger area, it is thought that the focus of attention can subtend a minimum of 1° of visual angle, however the maximum size has not yet been determined.

A significant debate emerged in the last decade of the 20th century in which Treisman's 1993 Feature Integration Theory was compared to Duncan and Humphrey's 1989 attentional engagement theory. FIT posits that "objects are retrieved from scenes by means of selective spatial attention that picks out ob

Beans (Looney Tunes)

Beans the Cat is an animated cartoon character in the Warner Bros. Looney Tunes series of cartoons from 1935–1936. Beans was the third Looney Tunes cartoon character star after Buddy, he is voiced by Billy Bletcher and by Tommy Bond. He was created by directors Friz Freleng, Jack King, Tex Avery; when the cartoon animators/directors Hugh Harman and Rudy Ising left producer Leon Schlesinger in 1933, they took their studio, Harman-Ising Productions main creation, with them to Metro-Goldwyn Mayer. Desperate to maintain his contract with Warner Bros. Schlesinger founded an animation studio of his own, Leon Schlesinger Productions, to produce new Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies cartoons in-house and collected employees from Disney, Ub Iwerks, other animation studios. Schlesinger set up his new studio on Sunset Boulevard. Among the staff Schlesinger had accrued was Tom Palmer, a former Disney animator, appointed director of Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies. Schlesinger intended to compete with Disney and Fleischer Studios, he needed a continuing, star character to compete with Mickey Mouse and Betty Boop.

Palmer introduced Buddy to be that character. Like Bosko and Mickey, Buddy had a pet dog as supporting characters; the Buddy character, was not a success and Palmer was fired after completing two short films for Schlesinger. Following the departure of Palmer's replacement, Earl Duvall, Schlesinger ran short of directors and began to search for new directors to keep the Schlesinger studio afloat. According to animation historian Michael Barrier, all the animated short films produced by the Schlesinger studio under its early directors lacked in cuteness and charm of any kind and were incoherent; the shorts of this period had much smaller production budgets than Disney. By 1934, Schlesinger had assigned directorial duties over the Merrie Melodies series to former Harman-Ising animator Friz Freleng, over the Looney Tunes series to Jack King. Schlesinger tasked the two with creating new characters to replace the sterile Buddy, the two created a group of anthropomorphic animals to show to Schlesinger, which included Beans, a mischievous cat, Little Kitty, a female cat and Beans' love interest, twin puppies named Ham and Ex, Oliver Owl, a stubborn, spectacled owl, Porky, a stuttering pig.

Beans and his friends made their first appearances on I Haven't Got a Hat, a Merrie Melodies animated short directed by Freleng. The Merrie Melodies series lacked continuing characters by this point, but the film served as a showcase for the new characters, that were being groomed to replace Buddy as the stars of the Looney Tunes series. Schlesinger hoped that some of them would catch on with audiences and become bankable stars, when the characters became popular with audiences, Buddy was discontinued and Beans became the star of Looney Tunes. Beans' first "crack at stardom" was A Cartoonist's Nightmare; the film was directed by Jack King, who would go on to direct a total of eight animated shorts featuring Beans before returning to Disney in 1936. Michael Barrier describes Beans under King's direction as resembling the Mickey Mouse version of the early 1930s, their designs were similar, with both characters having a white face and black body. But in characterization Beans was a pint-sized hero, resembling the plucky and heroic Mickey featured in The Klondike Kid and The Mail Pilot.

Beans was voiced by Tommy Bond. In 1935, the studio gained a third full-time director, working in addition to Freleng and King, he was Tex Avery, a former inker for the short-lived Winkler Studio and the Universal Studio Cartoons. Avery had started working as an inker in 1928 and was promoted to an animator by 1930. While at Universal, he used to work under director Bill Nolan. Nolan used to delegate work to Avery, Avery was the uncredited de facto director for a couple of films credited to Nolan. Avery had lost his job in Universal in April 1935, was hired by Schlesinger a few months later. According to a interview with Avery, Avery had falsely claimed that he was an experienced director when applying for the job: "'Hey, I'm a director.' Hell! I was no more a director than nothing, but with my loud mouth, I talked him into it." Avery's production unit received its own building within the studio lot. Avery got exclusive use of four animators for his unit: Bob Clampett, Chuck Jones, Sid Sutherland, Virgil Ross.

The first animated short film produced by this unit was Gold Diggers of'49, the third Looney Tunes film starring Beans. Beans was featured in the film's title card, signifying that he was the intended protagonist; the film cast Beans as a gold miner. Featured in the film was a redesigned Porky Pig, making his second appearance. Beans began appearing with characters from the cast of I Haven't Got a Hat, most Porky Pig. However, after a number of Porky and Beans outings, it became clear that the character audiences were talking about was Beans' stuttering sidekick, Porky Pig, after Westward Whoa, Beans was phased out and Porky replaced him as the star of Looney Tunes. According to Barrier, Beans made one last appearance in Shanghaied Shipmates, a short film directed by Jack King, it was to be the last animated short featuring either Beans or the rest of the cast of I Haven't Got a Hat, with the exception of Porky Pig. Barrier suggests that Leon Schlesinger may have been giving Avery a vote of confidence, when deciding to keep only Porky as a continuing character and to drop

The Mad Monster

The Mad Monster is a 1942 American black and white horror film and distributed by "Poverty Row" studio Producers Releasing Corporation. The melodrama was produced by Sigmund Neufeld, directed by Sam Newfield, written by Fred Myton, stars George Zucco, Glenn Strange, Johnny Downs, Anne Nagel; the film's storyline concerns a mad scientist, discredited by his peers. He attempts to kill them one-by-one using a secret formula that transforms his simpleminded gardener into a murderous wolfman. On a fog-bound moonlight night, a wolf howls in a swamp. In his nearby laboratory, Dr. Lorenzo Cameron draws blood from a caged wolf. Secured to a table is Dr. Cameron's simpleminded but strong gardener, to be the subject of the doctor's experiment. Cameron injects a serum made from a wolf's blood into the cooperative Petro, who loses consciousness, grows fur and fangs, awakens after he has transformed into a wolfman. Cameron turns to an empty table, visualizing his former colleagues sitting there: The four professors dismissed his theory that wolf blood transfusions could be used to give a human being wolf-like traits.

He recalls how the scientific community, the press, the public joined in a resounding chorus of ridicule that cost him his position at the university. Addressing the four spectral professors, Cameron declares, "Right now, we're at war, at war with an enemy that produces a horde that strikes with a ferocious fanaticism". Cameron proposes giving wolfman traits to our soldiers; when the professors scoff, Cameron says to them that his proposal doesn't matter. For the time being, however, he administers an antidote; the following night, Cameron sends him into the swamp. As a wolfman, he kills a little girl. Hearing about the child's death, Cameron knows his formulation works. Now he can proceed to eliminate his former colleagues, he begins by setting up elaborate encounters, in which Petro, left alone with each scientist, makes his wolfman transformation. The more times this happens, the more unpredictable he becomes while killing them. Cameron's daughter Lenora is romantically involved with Tom Gregory, a newspaper reporter investigating the death of the little girl.

As the professors are killed, Gregory begins to suspect. The principals arrive at the Cameron home. A bolt of lightning strikes, setting Cameron's laboratory on fire. Lenora and Tom are able escape from the spreading fire after first encountering an agitated Petro, now in his wolfman form; the transformed Petro turns on Cameron and kills him, as the raging fire brings down the house on both of them. George Zucco as Dr. Lorenzo Cameron Glenn Strange as Petro/the wolfman Anne Nagel as Lenora Cameron Johnny Downs as Tom GregoryWith: Gordon De Main as Prof. Fitzgerald Reginald Barlow as Prof. Warwick Robert Strange as Prof. Blaine John Elliott as Prof. Hatfield Sarah Padden as Grandmother Ed Cassidy as Father Mae Busch as Susan Henry Hall as Community Doctor Slim Whitaker as Officer Dugan Gil Patric as Detective Lieutenant Filming began March 19, 1942 and took five days to complete; the film was re-released by PRC in 1945 as a double feature with The Devil Bat. According to British film historian Phil Hardy, the film "shocked the British censor enough to ban it until 1952, then to insist that it should be accompanied by a disclaimer on the matter of blood transfusions".

Author Tom Weaver described the basic story as "a combination of The Wolf Man and PRC's own The Devil Bat with Zucco subbing for Lugosi as the wacky doctor... one of those uniquely bad films, difficult to dislike". List of films in the public domain in the United States The Mad Monster DVD Rovin, Jeff; the Encyclopedia of Monsters. New York: Facts on File. ISBN 0816018243 Skal, David J.. The Monster Show: A Cultural History of Horror. New York: Faber and Faber, revised edition. ISBN 0571199968 The Mad Monster on IMDb The Mad Monster at AllMovie The Mad Monster Review "Mystery Science Theater 3000" The Mad Monster on IMDb Episode guide: 103- The Mad Monster

Manuel (album)

Manuel is a studio album of songs by Dalida recorded and released in 1974. Manuel Seule avec moi Justine Ta femme Anima mia Nous sommes tous morts à 20 ans Ma vie je la chante La consultation Comme tu dois avoir froid Des gens qu'on aimerait connaître Gigi l'amoroso 1974 Gigi l'amoroso / Il venait d'avoir 18 ans 1974 Ta femme 1974 Manuel List of Dalida songs Dalida albums discography Dalida singles discography L’argus Dalida: Discographie mondiale et cotations, by Daniel Lesueur, Éditions Alternatives, 2004. ISBN 2-86227-428-3 and ISBN 978-2-86227-428-7. Dalida Official Website Dalida Official Website "Discography" section