Dracaena reflexa is a tree native to Mozambique, Madagascar and other nearby islands of the Indian Ocean. It is grown as an ornamental plant and houseplant, valued for its richly coloured, evergreen leaves, thick, irregular stems. While it may reach a height of 4–5 m 6 m in ideal, protected locations, D. reflexa is much smaller when grown as a houseplant. It is upright in habit, tending to an oval shape with an open crown; the lanceolate leaves are simple, spirally arranged, 5–20 cm long and 1.5–5 cm broad at the base, with a parallel venation and entire margin. The flowers are small, clustered white and fragrant, appearing in mid winter. Neither the flowers nor the fruit are showy. D. reflexa var. angustifolia differs in having a magenta tint to its flowers, a shrubby habit, olive green leaves. Dracaena reflexa was first described by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck in 1786, it has been placed in several other related genera, including Pleomele. As of November 2017, the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families accepts the following varieties, most described from Madagascar: Dracaena reflexa var. angustifolia Baker – western Indian Ocean islands Dracaena reflexa var. bakeri H.
Perrier – south-east Madagascar Dracaena reflexa var. brevituba H. Perrier – central Madagascar Dracaena reflexa var. condensata H. Perrier – south-east Madagascar Dracaena reflexa var. lanceolata H. Perrier – Madagascar Dracaena reflexa var. linearifolia Ayres ex Baker – Mascarenes, Madagascar Dracaena reflexa var. nervosa H. Perrier – Madagascar Dracaena reflexa var. occidentalis H. Perrier – west and south-west Madagascar Dracaena reflexa var. parvifolia Thouars ex H. Perrier – east Madagascar Dracaena reflexa var. reflexa – north-east Mozambique, western Indian Ocean islands Dracaena reflexa var. salicifolia Baker – Madagascar Dracaena reflexa var. subcapitata H. Perrier – east Madagascar Dracaena reflexa var. subelliptica H. Perrier – east Madagascar Dracaena reflexa is a popular ornamental plant, both in the landscape and the home, it can be pruned to create a border. Several cultivars have been selected variegated clones with cream and yellow-green margins, it performs well as a houseplant.
It prefers bright, filtered light, without direct sun exposure, restricted outdoors to zones 10–11. It has average water needs and should be fertilized bi-weekly when growing. Although it can survive in low light levels, the plant may grow spindly if given insufficient light; when grown indoors, temperatures of 18 °C to 25 °C should be maintained. It can be propagated via herbaceous stem cuttings; the cultivar Dracaena reflexa ‘Variegata’ has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit. Traditional medicine practitioners of Madagascar have long believed Dracaena reflexa to cure malarial symptoms, dysentery, dysmenorrhea, to be useful as an antipyretic and hemostatic agent; the leaves and bark are mixed with parts of a number of other native plants and mixed into herbal teas. Its effectiveness in any such treatment remains unproven; the fruit of D. reflexa is important to the diet of the Malagasy black-and-white ruffed lemur. The Frégate beetle, an endangered species endemic to Frégate Island, is known to associate with this plant.
Dracaena reflexa var. angustifolia is known as D. marginata, a name found in horticulture. This is a durable popular tropical house plant from Madagascar; the thin leaves are a deep, glossy green color with red edges. It is a popular houseplant that needs little attention, with several cultivars available with the leaves variegated with red or pale yellow, it requires a minimum temperature of 15 °C, is more tolerant than most plants of dry soil and irregular watering, though liable to root decay in permanently wet soil. Because it requires minimal care it is popular in offices where the constant heat and light suits its growing requirements, they can grow between 2.5–4 meters in height and will spread between 1.5-2.5 meters. There are many used names to describe this variety that arise due to the various growth patterns and different cultivars; some of the most popular are red edge dracaena, Madagascar dragon tree dracaena, dragon blood tree, tree dracaena. With the variety of forms and cultivars, there are some hybrid crosses that can arise as well.
Due to the versatility of D. reflexa var. angustifolia, some confuse this plant as a palm tree. This misconception can be explained by the fact that the plant can be grown in any pattern, with the most popular being bush, straight cane, staggered cane, tree form, custom character forms; the variety has a handful of different cultivars from selective breeding. These include'Tarzan','Magenta','Tricolor', and'Colorama'. D. reflexa var. angustifolia has the ability to grow in a mixture of both shade and sun, both inside and outside the home. If planted outside, it needs to be located in U. S. Department of Agriculture hardiness zones 10b and above because of the fact that most tropical plants cannot survive frost or winter. Additionally, it would prefer to have some shelter during the hot afternoon sun if planted outside in direct sunlight. Tolerant of different soil types, it thrives in organic fertile soil, well drained. Once a mature plant is established, it is qu
Epipremnum aureum is a species of flowering plant in the family of Araceae, native in Mo'orea. The species is a popular houseplant in temperate regions, but has become naturalised in tropical and sub-tropical forests worldwide, including northern Australia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Pacific Islands and the West Indies, where it has caused severe ecological damage in some cases; the plant has a multitude of common names including golden pothos, Ceylon creeper, hunter's robe, ivy arum, money plant, silver vine, Solomon Islands ivy and taro vine. It is called devil's vine or devil's ivy because it is impossible to kill and it stays green when kept in the dark, it is sometimes mistakenly labeled as a Philodendron in plant stores. It is known as money plant in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, it flowers without artificial hormone supplements. It has had a long history with nomenclature, being categorized as a few different species in the past. In 1880 when it was first categorized, it was labelled as a Pothos aureus, in part why it's commonly referred to as a Pothos.
After a flower was observed in 1962, it was given the new name of Raphidophora aurea. However, after closer examination of the flower, researchers noticed its heightened similarity to Epipremnum pinnatum and classified it as such. Only after further observations of all parts of the plant, including the leaves and growing patterns, was it separated from the E. pinnatum species and given its own classification of E. aureum. E. aureum is an evergreen vine growing to 20 m tall, with stems up to 4 cm in diameter, climbing by means of aerial roots which adhere to surfaces. The leaves are alternate, heart-shaped, entire on juvenile plants, but irregularly pinnatifid on mature plants, up to 100 cm long and 45 cm broad; the flowers are produced in a spathe up to 23 cm long. This plant produces trailing stems when it climbs up trees and these take root when they reach the ground and grow along it; the leaves on these trailing stems grow up to 10 cm long and are the ones seen on this plant when it is cultivated as a potted plant.
It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. It was endemic to the island of Mo'orea from the Society Islands. However, it is now wild in many tropical countries; the following ranges are indicated: Bangladesh, Myanmar, Vietnam, People's Republic of China, Japan, Singapore, Philippines, Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Marshall Islands, Fiji, Cook Islands and Western Samoa. In temperate regions it is a popular houseplant with numerous cultivars selected for leaves with white, yellow, or light green variegation, it is used in decorative displays in shopping centers and other public locations because it requires little care and is attractively leafy. In tropical countries, it tends to go wild there; as an indoor plant it can reach more than 2 m in height if it is given the adequate support, but hardly develops adult-sized leaves. The best results are achieved by providing indirect light, it lives well with a temperature between 17 and 30°C. The plant will only need watering when the soil feels dry to the touch.
A liquid fertilizer can be added in the spring and it must be replanted every two years. However, it is a robust plant that supports bad growing conditions; the plant grows in hydroponic culture. It can be cultivated from a part of a plant used in plant propagation. While propagating a shoot, pot mixtures made of coco peat or a mixture of peat moss and coco peat create best results, including improved root formation and growth; the plant is efficient at removing indoor pollutants such as formaldehyde, toluene and benzene. A study found that this effect declined as the molecular weight of the polluting substance increased; the plant is sometimes used in aquariums, placed on top of the aquarium and allowed to grow roots in the water. This is beneficial to the plant and the aquarium as it absorbs many nitrates and uses them for growth; the plant is listed as toxic to cats and dogs by the ASPCA, because of the presence of insoluble raphides. Care should be taken to ensure. Symptoms may include oral irritation and difficulty in swallowing.
Due to the calcium oxalate within the plant, it can be mildly toxic to humans as well. Possible side effects from the consumption of E. aureum are atopic dermatitis as well as burning and/or swelling of the region inside of and surrounding the mouth. Excessive contact with the plant can lead to general skin irritation. Epipremnum aureum can become a invasive species when introduced into tropical countries where it is not native. In Sri Lanka it overgrows several hectares of the Udawatta Kele Sanctuary in Kandy. Having no natural enemies, it overgrows the forest floor as well as the trunks of trees, causing severe ecological disruption, it has invaded the Kurulukele Forest Reserve in Kegalla, Sri Lanka and other places where it has been planted as a decorative plant, or to hold steep banks along roads. It was included in the Florida Exotic Pest Control Council's 1999 list of invasive species. A study publ
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. NASA was established in 1958; the new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science. Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, the Space Shuttle. NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles; the agency is responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.
In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet launch of the world's first artificial satellite on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts; the US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership, urged immediate and swift action. On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a "Special Committee on Space Technology", headed by Guyford Stever. On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published "A National Research Program for Space Technology" stating: It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space... It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency...
NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology. While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application. On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA; when it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard's earlier works. Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force and many of ARPA's early space programs were transferred to NASA.
In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology. The agency's leader, NASA's administrator, is nominated by the President of the United States subject to approval of the US Senate, reports to him or her and serves as senior space science advisor. Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, the appointee is associated with the President's political party, a new administrator is chosen when the Presidency changes parties; the only exceptions to this have been: Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970. Republican James C. Fletcher, appointed by Nixon and confirmed in April 1971, stayed through May 1977 into the term of Democrat Jimmy Carter. Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.
Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr. associate administrator under Democrat Barack Obama, was kept on as acting administrator by Republican Donald Trump until Trump's own choice Jim Bridenstine, was confirmed in April 2018. Though the agency is independent, the survival or discontinuation of projects can depend directly on the will of the President; the first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan appointed by Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research; the second administrator, James E. Webb, appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy's Moon la
Sansevieria trifasciata is a species of flowering plant in the family Asparagaceae, native to tropical West Africa from Nigeria east to the Congo. It is most known as the snake plant, mother-in-law's tongue, viper's bowstring hemp, among other names, it is an evergreen perennial plant forming dense stands, spreading by way of its creeping rhizome, sometimes above ground, sometimes underground. Its stiff leaves grow vertically from a basal rosette. Mature leaves are dark green with light gray-green cross-banding and range from 70–90 centimetres long and 5–6 centimetres wide, though it can reach heights above 2 m in optimal conditions; the specific epithet trifasciata means "three bundles". The plant exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide using the crassulacean acid metabolism process, only present in a small number of plant species, it allows them to withstand drought. The microscopic pores on the plant's leaves, called the stomata and used to exchange gases, are only opened at night to prevent water from escaping via evaporation in the hot sun.
As a result, stored oxygen is released at the opening of the stomata at night, unlike most plants which continuously exchange gases during the day. Sansevieria trifasciata is called "mother-in-law's tongue" or "snake plant", because of the shape and sharp margins of its leaves, it is known as the "viper's bowstring hemp", because it is one of the sources for plant fibers used to make bowstrings. It is known as hǔwěilán in China. In Portugal and Brazil, it is known as espada de São Jorge. In the Netherlands and Flanders, the plant is known as "vrouwentong". In Russia it is known as "тёщин язык" and "щучий хвост". Like some other members of its genus, S. trifasciata yields bowstring hemp, a strong plant fiber once used to make bowstrings. It is now used predominantly as an ornamental plant, outdoors in warmer climates, indoors as a houseplant in cooler climates, it is popular as a houseplant. It will rot if overwatered; the NASA Clean Air Study found S. trifasciata has potential indoor air filtration qualities, removing 4 of the 5 main toxins involved in the effects of sick building syndrome.
It can be propagated by dividing the rhizome. The first method has the disadvantage. S. trifasciata is considered by some authorities as a potential weed in Australia, although used as an ornamental, in both the tropics outdoors in both pots and garden beds and as an indoor plant in temperate areas. The plant contains saponins which are mildly toxic to dogs and cats and can lead to gastrointestinal upset if consumed. Numerous cultivars have been selected, many of them for variegated foliage with yellow or silvery-white stripes on the leaf margins. Popular cultivars include'Compacta','Goldiana','Hahnii','Laurentii','Silbersee', and'Silver Hahnii'.'Hahnii' was discovered in 1939 by William W. Smith, Jr. in the Crescent Nursery Company, New Orleans, Louisiana. The 1941 patent was assigned to Sylvan Frank Hahn, Pennsylvania; the variety S. trifasciata var. laurentii and the cultivar'Bantel's Sensation' have both gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. In its native range in Africa, a yellow-tipped cultivar is associated with Oya, the female orisha of storms.
In Nigeria it is linked with Ogun, the Orisha of war, is used in rituals to remove the evil eye. In Brazil its common name espada de São Jorge links it to Saint George, who by syncretism is associated with Ogun. "Sansevieria trifasciata". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture
Dracaena fragrans, is a flowering plant species, native throughout tropical Africa, from Sudan south to Mozambique, west to Côte d'Ivoire and southwest to Angola, growing in upland regions at 600–2,250 m altitude. Dracaena fragrans is a slow growing shrub multistemmed at the base, mature specimens reaching 15 m or more tall with a narrow crown of slender erect branches. Stems may reach up to 30 cm diameter on old plants. Young plants have a single unbranched stem with a rosette of leaves until the growing tip flowers or is damaged, after which it branches, producing two or more new stems; the leaves are lanceolate, 20 -- 150 cm long and 2 -- 12 cm wide. The flowers are produced in panicles 15–160 cm long, the individual flowers are 2.5 cm diameter, with a six-lobed corolla, pink at first, opening white with a fine red or purple central line on each of the 7–12 mm lobes. The fruit is an orange-red berry 1–2 cm diameter, containing several seeds. In Africa, D. fragrans is grown as a hedge plant.
It is suited to frost-free climates and USDA Hardiness zones 10-11. Elsewhere, it is popular as a houseplant and valued for its tolerance of a wide range of indoor conditions from full light to low light, it is very tolerant of neglect. The NASA Clean Air Study indicated that the plant aided removal of indoor pollutants such as formaldehyde and toluene; the plant is known as "masale" to the Chagga people of Tanzania. Several cultivars have variegated foliage.'Massangeana' commonly denominated "Mass Cane", has a bright yellow central stripe on the foliage.'Compacta' is more compact and suitable for indoor cultivation. Other popular cultivars include'Janet Craig','Lemon Lime', and'Warneckei', which are sold under the synonym D. deremensis. The cultivars'Lemon Lime', ‘Massangeana’, and'Warneckei' bear the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. In cultivation in the Neotropics, a few generalist hummingbird species like the sapphire-spangled emerald visit the flowers. Dracaena fragrans is propagated by cutting segments of old stems 10–20 cm long, drying them, inserting them into moist sand until they root.
New growth being two or three shoots, comes from old foliar scars at the top of the stem. The species name refers to the fragrant flowers, while the English name derives from a perceived resemblance of the stem to a corn stalk. Synonyms include. Pleomele fragrans Salisb. Sansevieria fragrans Jacq. Dracaena deremensis Engl. Dracaena smithii Hook.f. and Dracaena ugandensis Baker. Other English names include striped dracaena, corn plant, Chinese money tree, fortune plant; the plant is known as "බෝතල ගස - bothal gas" in Sri Lanka. Dressler, S.. "Dracaena fragrans". African plants – a Photo Guide. Frankfurt/Main: Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg
Philodendron cordatum called the Heart Leaf Philodendron for its 2-4 inch heart-shaped leaves, is an epiphytic and epilithic species of Philodendron endemic to southeastern Brazil and Argentina. This philodendron is a vining plant and can tolerate shade. Despite its toxicity it is popular as a houseplant in temperate regions. Plants in the Exotic Rainforest Collection
Aglaonema is a genus of flowering plants in the arum family, Araceae. They are native to subtropical regions of Asia and New Guinea, they are known as Chinese evergreens. These are evergreen perennial herbs with decumbent and creeping. Stems that grow along the ground may root at the nodes. There is a crown of wide leaf blades which in wild species are variegated with silver and green coloration; the inflorescence bears unisexual flowers in a spadix, with a short zone of female flowers near the base and a wider zone of male flowers nearer the tip. The fruit is a fleshy berry; the fruit is a thin layer covering one large seed. Plants of the genus are native to shady tropical forest habitat. Aglaonema have been grown as luck-bringing ornamental plants in Asia for centuries, they were introduced to the West in 1885, when they were first brought to the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. They have been cultivated and bred into a wide array of cultivars, they are popular houseplants. This tropical genus is known for its intolerance of cold temperatures.
Chilling injury can begin at 59 °F. The injury manifests in greasy-looking patches on the foliage. Cultivars have been selected for their shape and size, for the color and pattern of the leaves. Many have cream-colored stems; some have been developed to tolerate colder temperatures. The most common cultivar is'Silver Queen', which has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Most propagation of Aglaonema is done by dividing the basal shoots. Care of the houseplant involves protecting it from cold temperatures and excessive sunlight and removing any inflorescences that develop, which can prolong the life of the plant, it requires moist soil, while some cultivars require a small amount of fertilizer, plants are injured when oversupplemented. Aglaonema are prone to false mites, they may acquire populations of nematodes, such as root-knot nematodes and Pratylenchus species, which cause root lesions. Pathogens include the fungus Myrothecium roridum and bacteria such as Pseudomonas cichorii, Erwinia chrysanthemi, Xanthomonas campestris, which can all cause leaf spot.
Colletotrichum fungi can cause anthracnose. Aglaonema plants are poisonous due to calcium oxalate crystals. If ingested they cause irritation of the mucous membranes, the juice can cause skin irritation and painful rash. Species include: Aglaonema brevispathum - Indochina Aglaonema chermsiriwattanae - Thailand Aglaonema cochinchense Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia Aglaonema commutatum - Philippines, Sulawesi. Aroid.org Aglaonema - The Queen of Leaves