The NBA Finals is the annual championship series of the National Basketball Association. The Eastern and Western conference champions play a best-of-seven game series to determine the league champion; the winners of the Finals are awarded the Larry O'Brien Championship Trophy, which replaced the Walter A. Brown Trophy in 1983; the series was known as the BAA Finals prior to the 1949–50 season when the Basketball Association of America merged with the National Basketball League to form the NBA. The competition oversaw further name changes to NBA World Championship Series from 1950 to 1985, as well as a brief stint as the Showdown, before settling on NBA Finals in 1986. Since 2018, it has been known as the NBA Finals presented by YouTube TV for sponsorship reasons; the NBA Finals was structured in a 2–2–1–1–1 format. In 1985, to ease the amount of cross-country travel, it was changed to a 2–3–2 format, where the first two and last two games of the series were played at the arena of the team who earned home-court advantage by having the better record during the regular season.
In 2014, the 2–2–1–1–1 format was restored. The first two games are played the higher-seeded team's home, the following two at the home of the lower-seeded team, the remaining three are played at each team's home arena alternately. A total of 19 franchises have won the NBA Finals, with the Toronto Raptors winning in 2019; the Boston Celtics hold the record for the most victories, having won the competition 17 times, as well as the most consecutive titles, winning 8 times from 1959 to 1966. The Los Angeles Lakers have contested the NBA Finals the most times, with 31 appearances; the Eastern Conference has provided the most champions, with 38 wins from 10 franchises. The Boston Celtics went 11–1 in the NBA Finals during 13 seasons, they won eight straight NBA championships from 1959 through 1966. This period marks the largest stretch of seasons that a single team made up over 65% of Finals appearances, includes the only time the NBA Finals was decided in double overtime. With the establishment of the Celtics dynasty in 1957 spearheaded by center Bill Russell, the team saw great success.
Despite encountering some difficulty when up against teams led by Wilt Chamberlain, for most of the late 1950s and 1960s, the Celtics and Russell managed to have an upper hand on Chamberlain's teams. In 1964, who had moved to the state of California alongside his team, led the San Francisco Warriors to a Western Conference championship, but again failed to conquer the Celtics; the following season, he returned to the Eastern Conference to join the Philadelphia 76ers, who were the former Syracuse Nationals that had relocated to the city to cover the vacancy created with the departure of the Warriors. The first clash between the two stars in the playoffs was in 1966, with Boston winning the series 4–1. In the following season, Philadelphia coach Alex Hannum instructed Chamberlain to provide an increased focus on playing a team game, to avoid drawing the double-teams that troubled Chamberlain during the Finals; this tactical change brought the team to a new record of 68 wins the following season, as well as defeating the Celtics before winning the 1967 Finals.
In 1968, Boston overcame a 3–1 deficit against Philadelphia to once again arrive in the Finals. They went on to defeat the Los Angeles Lakers in the Finals to again become NBA champions. In 1969, the Celtics faced great difficulty entering the postseason, as they had an aging team and multiple injuries to a number of players, they qualified for the playoffs as the fourth and final seed in the East, while the Lakers, who had added Chamberlain in the off-season to join stars Jerry West and Elgin Baylor, won the West and were prohibitive favorites to become champions for the first time since relocating to Los Angeles. Despite holding a 2–1 advantage going into Game 4, the Lakers led 87–86 and had the ball with 10 seconds to play, but after a turnover, Sam Jones scored tying the series. The series was tied 3–3 going into Game 7 in Los Angeles, with Lakers owner Jack Cooke hanging balloons in the arena in anticipation of a Lakers victory. West picked up injuries to his thigh and hamstring during the series, but returned to play for the final game.
Russell utilized this newly lacking mobility in West to organize fast breaks at every opportunity for the Celtics, which allowed them to gain an early lead. They held off a furious Lakers comeback to win 108–106 and win the series, win their eleventh championship in 13 years; as many stars either declined or retired following this win, it is recognized as the last NBA Finals conducted by the Celtics dynasty. The 1970s saw. In 1970, a classic final featured the Knicks against the Lakers. In the waning moments of Game 3, with the series tied, Jerry West hit a basket from 60 feet to tie the game, a shot which became one of the most famous ever. However, the Knicks won in overtime and continued their momentum for a 4–3 win, becoming the first team after the Celtics dynasty to win an NBA championship; the Milwaukee Bucks won their first title, defeating the Baltimore Bullets in 1971. Two seasons after losing in the Finals, the Lakers won 33 straight games, the longest such streak in NBA history. By season's end, they broke the record for most wins in a season with 69, one more than the 1966–67 Philadelphia 76ers, before taking home the championship for the first time since relocating to Los Angeles.
The Knicks returned to win the Finals again a season their second championship. Despite the rise of the Knicks, the 1974 championship returned to the
Carl George Niemann was an American biochemist who worked extensively on the chemistry and structure of proteins, publishing over 260 research papers. He is known, with Max Bergmann, for proposing the Bergmann-Niemann hypothesis that proteins consist of 288 residue polypeptides or multiples thereof with periodic sequences of amino acids, for contributing to the downfall of the cyclol model of protein structure. Niemann attended the University of Wisconsin -- Madison. After completing his Ph. D. in biochemistry there in 1934 and staying on as research associate until 1935, Niemann took a position at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, where he worked with the eminent protein chemist Max Bergmann. Niemann analyzed the amino acid content of range of proteins. Based on Niemann's tests and other published protein analyses and Niemann deduced that the sizes of protein molecules are always multiples of 288 and could be expressed according to the formula 2n X 3m, they suggested that in the polypeptides of a given protein, amino acids occurred in a regular, repeating pattern.
Niemann worked with Bergmann on this theory from 1936–1938. After his work at the Rockefeller Institute and at the University College Hospital as a Rockefeller Foundation Fellow, with strong support from Warren Weaver, Niemann joined Linus Pauling's Crellin Laboratory at Caltech in 1938. In 1939, Niemann and Linus Pauling published a strong critique of Dorothy Wrinch's cyclol hypothesis of protein structure, which held that globular proteins formed inter-linked, cage-like polyhedral structures. Niemann and Pauling argued that X-ray crystallography and other data indicated that cyclol bonds did not occur in proteins and that polypeptides were held together in globular proteins by hydrogen bonds and weaker intermolecular forces, he went on to head the organic chemistry of proteins. In 1945, Niemann became of full professor at Caltech, he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1952, was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the New York Academy of Sciences. He died of a heart attack, according to his eulogizer John D. Roberts, "at the height of his career".
Anonymous. "Carl G. Niemann—In Memoriam". Engineering and Science, Volume 27:8, p. 17, May 1964. California Institute of Technology. Cohn, Mildred. "Mini-series: Significant contributions to biological chemistry over the past 125 years: Biochemistry in the United States in the first half of the twentieth century". Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education. 30: 77–85. Doi:10.1002/bmb.2002.494030020034. Unknown ID:4-03-002003-4. Fruton, Joseph S. Proteins, Genes: The Interplay of Chemistry and Biology. Yale University Press: New Haven, 1999. ISBN 0-300-07608-8 Kay, Lily E; the Molecular View of Life: Caltech, The Rockefeller Foundation, the Rise of the New Biology. Oxford University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-19-511143-5 "Niemann, Carl G.". Biographical Memoirs, Vol. 40. National Academy of Sciences, 1969. Carl Niemann — Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences
King & Balloon is a fixed shooter arcade game, released by Namco in 1980, licensed to GamePlan for U. S. manufacture and distribution. It runs upon the Namco Galaxian hardware, based on the Z80 microprocessor, with an extra Zilog Z80 microprocessor to drive a DAC for speech. An MSX port was released in Japan in 1984; the player controls two green men with an orange cannon, stationed on the parapet of a castle, that fires at a fleet of hot-air balloons. Below the cannon, the King moves back and forth on the ground as the balloons return fire and dive toward him. If a balloon reaches the ground, it will sit there until the King walks into it, at which time it lifts off with him; the player must shoot the balloon to free the King, who will parachute safely to the ground. At times, two of more diving balloons can combine to form a single larger one, which awards extra points and splits apart when hit; the cannon is destroyed by collision with balloons or their shots, but is replaced after a brief delay with no effect on the number of remaining lives.
One life is lost. As in Galaxian, the round number stops increasing at round 48; the King speaks when he is captured, when he is rescued, when he is carried away. The balloons make the same droning sound as the aliens from Galaxian, released in the previous year, the cannon's shots make the same sound as those of the player's ship from the same game. In the original Japanese version of the game, the King speaks English with a heavy Japanese accent, saying "herupu", "sankyū", "baibai"; the U. S. version of the game features a different voice for the King without the Japanese accent. King & Balloon was featured in Namco Museum Encore for the PlayStation, as Japan-only release, it made its North American console debut on Namco Museum Battle Collection for the PSP, in which the player could choose the King's voice after unlocking the manic settings. It appeared in Namco Museum Virtual Arcade for the Xbox 360, as well as Namco Museum Megamix for the Wii. King & Balloon at the Killer List of Videogames