NCAA Division I is the highest level of intercollegiate athletics sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association in the United States. D-I schools include the major collegiate athletic powers, with larger budgets, more elaborate facilities and more athletic scholarships than Divisions II and III as well as many smaller schools committed to the highest level of intercollegiate competition; this level was once called the University Division of the NCAA, in contrast to the lower level College Division. The University Division was renamed Division I. For college football only, D-I schools are further divided into the Football Bowl Subdivision, the Football Championship Subdivision, those institutions that do not have any football program. FBS teams have higher game attendance requirements and more players receiving athletic scholarships than FCS teams; the FBS is named for its series of postseason bowl games, with various polls ranking teams after the conclusion of these games, while the FCS national champion is determined by a multi-team bracket tournament.
For the 2014–15 school year, Division I contained 345 of the NCAA's 1,066 member institutions, with 125 in the Football Bowl Subdivision, 125 in the Football Championship Subdivision, 95 non-football schools, with six additional schools in the transition from Division II to Division I. There was a moratorium on any additional movement up to D-I until 2012, after which any school that wants to move to D-I must be accepted for membership by a conference and show the NCAA it has the financial ability to support a D-I program. Schools must field teams in at least seven sports for men and seven for women or six for men and eight for women, with at least two team sports for each gender. Teams that include both men and women are counted as men's sports for the purposes of sponsorship counting. Division I schools must meet minimum financial aid awards for their athletics program, there are maximum financial aid awards for each sport that a Division I school cannot exceed. Several other NCAA sanctioned minimums and differences distinguish Division I from Divisions II and III.
Members must sponsor at least one sport for each sex in each playing season, again with coeducational teams counted as men's teams for this purpose. There are participant minimums for each sport, as well as scheduling criteria. For sports other than football and basketball, Division I schools must play 100 percent of the minimum number of contests against Division I opponents—anything over the minimum number of games has to be 50 percent Division I. Men's and women's basketball teams have to play all but two games against Division I teams. In addition to the schools that compete as D-I institutions, the NCAA allows D-II and D-III schools to classify one men's and one women's sport as a D-I sport, as long as they sponsored those sports before the latest rules change in 2011. Division II schools are eligible to compete for Division I national championships in sports that do not have a Division II national championship, in those sports may operate under D-I rules and scholarship limits. For football only, Division I was further subdivided in 1978 into Division I-A, Division I-AA, Division I.
In 2006, Division I-A and I-AA were renamed "Football Bowl Subdivision" and "Football Championship Subdivision", respectively. FBS teams are allowed a maximum of 85 players receiving athletically based aid per year, with each player on scholarship receiving a full scholarship. FCS teams have the same 85-player limit as FBS teams, but are allowed to give aid equivalent to only 63 full scholarships. FCS teams are allowed to award partial scholarships, a practice technically allowed but never used at the FBS level. FBS teams have to meet minimum game attendance requirements, while FCS teams do not need to meet minimum attendance requirements. Another difference is postseason play. Since 1978, FCS teams have played in an NCAA-sanctioned bracket tournament culminating in a title game, the NCAA Division I Football Championship, to determine a national champion. Meanwhile, FBS teams play in bowl games, with various polls ranking teams after the conclusion of these games, yielding a Consensus National Champion annually since 1950.
Starting with the 2014 postseason, a four-team College Football Playoff has been contested, replacing a one-game championship format that had started during the 1992 postseason with the Bowl Coalition. So, Division I FBS football remains the only NCAA sport in which a yearly champion is not determined by an NCAA-sanctioned championship event. Division I athletic programs generated $8.7 billion in revenue in the 2009–2010 academic year. Men's teams provided 55%, women's teams 15%, 30% was not categorized by sex or sport. Football and men's basketball are a university's only profitable sports, are called "revenue sports". From 2008 to 2012, 205 varsity teams were dropped in NCAA Division I – 72 for women and 133 for men, with men's tennis and wrestling hit hard. In the Football Bowl Subdivision, between 50 and 60 percent of football and men's basketball progra
Barbadian singer and songwriter Rihanna has received multiple awards and nominations for her work in music and fashion. Her awards are predominantly in pop, R&B, hip-hop genre categories. Rihanna's first single, "Pon de Replay" led her to win five awards, following her achieving further accolades for both herself and her debut album, Music of the Sun, her second album, A Girl Like Me, earned the singer nominations. Rihanna's third studio album, Good Girl Gone Bad, became Rihanna's breakout album, with the singer receiving a string of awards and nominations in newer categories such as pop and R&B genres; the lead single, "Umbrella" earned Rihanna her first Grammy Award in 2008, while the album's singles and DVD earned a further eight nominations throughout 2008 and 2009. It was named'Song of the Decade' at the Barbados Music Awards in 2010. Rated R, Rihanna's fourth studio effort, produced the single "Rude Boy" which became the main provider of awards and nominations from the album, it was nominated for'Song of the Year' at the MTV Europe Music Awards.
In 2010, Rihanna's collaboration with Jay-Z and Kanye West, "Run This Town" won Rihanna her second and third Grammy Awards for Best Rap Song and Best Rap/Sung Collaboration. Rihanna released her fifth studio album, Loud in 2010, it received many nominations including two Grammys for Album of Best Pop Vocal Album. Furthermore, its lead single, "Only Girl" won Best Dance Recording, while the second single "What's My Name?" received a nomination in the same category. In 2011, Rihanna collaborated on the worldwide hit single "Love the Way You Lie" with Eminem; the song earned a string of nominations and awards including being nominated for six Billboard Music Awards and three Grammy Awards. Kanye West's single "All of the Lights", released in 2011 and featuring Rihanna as a credited artist, was nominated for three awards at the 2012 Grammy Awards winning Best Rap Song and Best Rap/Sung Collaboration. Rihanna released her sixth studio album, Talk That Talk in 2011, earning the singer an American Music Award.
Its lead single, "We Found Love" was nominated for many awards, most notably winning the MTV Video Music Award for Video of the Year in 2012 and Best Short Form Music Video at the 55th Grammy Awards in 2013. Two further releases from the album, the title track featuring Jay-Z and "Where Have You Been" received Grammy nominations. Unapologetic, Rihanna's seventh studio album, produced the lead single "Diamonds" which gained the singer several awards and nominations. Rihanna has won 9 Grammy Awards, 12 Billboard Music Awards, 13 American Music Awards, 7 MTV Video Music Awards; the American Music Awards is an annual awards ceremony created by Dick Clark in 1973. Rihanna has received thirteen awards from twenty-eight nominations, she's the third most awarded female artist ever. At the 2013 ceremony, Rihanna was honored with the first-ever "Icon" Award, an award that honors an artist whose body of work has made a profound influence over pop music on a global level, she holds the record for the most wins in Favorite Female Artist – Soul/R&B category of all time with seven wins.
The Australian Recording Industry Association Music Awards is an annual series of award nights celebrating the Australian music industry, held by the Australian Recording Industry Association. The event has been held annually since 1987. Rihanna has received one nomination; the BET Awards were established in 2001 by the Black Entertainment Television network to celebrate Black Americans and other minorities in music, acting and other fields of entertainment over the past year. The awards are presented annually and broadcast live on BET. Rihanna has received six awards from twenty nine nominations; the Billboard Music Awards is held annually in December. The Billboard Year-End Charts Awards are based on sales data by Nielsen SoundScan and radio information by Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems. Rihanna has won 12 awards from 68 nominations. Rihanna is amongst the artists with most wins in Billboard Music Awards history; the Billboard Latin Music Awards is an awards programme charting the sales and radio airplay success of musical recordings on the Billboard charts.
Rihanna won one of the four. Established in 2004, the Billboard Touring Awards is an annual meeting sponsored by Billboard magazine which honors the top international live entertainment industry artists and professionals. Rihanna has earned one nomination. ‡ Note: Tied with DJ Khaled and Future. The Bravo Otto Awards is a German accolade honoring excellence of performers in film and music. Established in 1957, the award is presented annually, with winners selected by the readers of Bravo magazine; the award is presented in gold and bronze and, since 1996, an honorary platinum statuette presented for lifetime achievement. Rihanna received three awards; the BRIT Awards are the British Phonographic Industry's annual pop music awards. Rihanna has won two awards from eight nominations; the BT Digital Music Awards are held annually. Rihanna has earned one award from three nominations; the Council of Fashion Designers of America called "the Oscars of fashion", is an annual award ceremony, which honors excellence in fashion design.
Rihanna received the Fashion Icon Award in 2014. The Clio Awards is an annual award program that recognizes innovation and creative excellence in advertising and communication, as judged by an international panel
Adolf von Koenen was a German geologist best remembered for his paleontological research of northern Germany. He received his education in Berlin, following study trips through Belgium and France, he obtained his habilitation at the University of Marburg in 1867. In 1878 he became a full professor at Marburg relocated to the University of Göttingen in 1881 as a professor of geology. At Göttingen one of his better known students was mineralogist Friedrich Rinne, his name is associated with koenenite, a mineral that he discovered, Ctenosauriscus koeneni, a sail-backed reptile from the Early Triassic. Ueber eine Paleocäne Fauna von Kopenhagen, 1885 – On the Paleocene fauna of Copenhagen. Das norddeutsche Unter-Oligocän und seine mollusken Fauna, 1889 – On the north German Lower Oligocene and its mollusks. Die Ammonitiden des norddeutschen Neocom, 1902 – Ammonitida of the north German Neocomian. Ueber die untere kreide Helgolands und ihre ammonitiden, 1904 – On the lower Cretaceous of Helgoland and its ammonites.
Die Polyptychites-Arten des Unteren Valanginien, 1909 – Polyptychites-types of the Lower Valanginian De Platylenticeras-Arten des Untersten Valanginien Nordwest-Deutschlands, 1915 – Platylenticeras-types of the Lower Valanginian of northwestern Germany