NFL on Thanksgiving Day
The National Football League (NFL) on Thanksgiving Day is a traditional series of games played during the Thanksgiving holiday in the United States. It has been a regular occurrence since the league's inception in 1920. Currently, three NFL games are played every Thanksgiving. The first two are hosted by the Detroit Lions and the Dallas Cowboys; a third game, with no fixed opponents, has been played annually since 2006.
- 1 History
- 2 Game results
- 3 Thanksgiving Day standings
- 4 Game MVPs
- 5 Broadcasting
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The concept of American football games being played on Thanksgiving Day dates back to 1876, shortly after the game had been invented, as it was a day that most people had off from work. In that year, the college football teams at Yale and Princeton began an annual tradition of playing each other on Thanksgiving Day. The University of Michigan also made it a tradition to play annual Thanksgiving games, holding 19 such games from 1885 to 1905. The Thanksgiving Day games between Michigan and the Chicago Maroons in the 1890s have been cited as "The Beginning of Thanksgiving Day Football." In some areas, high-school teams play on Thanksgiving, usually to wrap-up the regular-season.
By the time football had become a professional event, playing on Thanksgiving had already become an institution. Records of pro football being played on Thanksgiving date back to as early as the 1890s, with the first pro–am team, the Allegheny Athletic Association of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 1902, the "National" Football League, a Major League Baseball-backed organization based entirely in Pennsylvania and unrelated to the current NFL, attempted to settle its championship over Thanksgiving weekend; after the game ended in a tie, eventually all three teams in the league claimed to have won the title. Members of the Ohio League, during its early years, usually placed their marquee matchups on Thanksgiving Day. For instance, in 1905 and 1906 the Latrobe Athletic Association and Canton Bulldogs, considered at the time to be two of the best teams in professional football (along with the Massillon Tigers), played on Thanksgiving. A rigging scandal with the Tigers leading up to the 1906 game led to severe drops in attendance for the Bulldogs and ultimately led to their suspension of operations. During the 1910s, the Ohio League stopped holding Thanksgiving games because many of its players coached high school teams and were unavailable. This was not the case in other regional circuits: in 1919, the New York Pro Football League featured a Thanksgiving matchup between the Buffalo Prospects and the Rochester Jeffersons. The game ended in a scoreless tie, leading to a rematch the next Sunday for the league championship.
Several other NFL teams played regularly on Thanksgiving in the first eighteen years of the league, including the Chicago Bears and Chicago Cardinals (1922–33; the Bears played the Lions from 1934 to 1938 while the Cardinals switched to the Green Bay Packers for 1934 and 1935), Frankford Yellow Jackets, Pottsville Maroons, Buffalo All-Americans, Canton Bulldogs (even after the team moved to Cleveland they played the 1924 Thanksgiving game in Canton), and the New York Giants (1929–38, who always played a crosstown rival). The first owner of the Lions, George A. Richards, started the tradition of the Thanksgiving Day game as a gimmick to get people to go to Lions football games, and to continue a tradition begun by the city's previous NFL teams. What differentiated the Lions' efforts from other teams that played on the holiday was that Richards owned radio station WJR, a major affiliate of the NBC Blue Network; he was able to negotiate an agreement with NBC to carry his Thanksgiving games live across the network.
During the Franksgiving controversy in 1939 and 1940, the only two teams to play the game were the Pittsburgh Steelers and Philadelphia Eagles, as both teams were in the same state (Pennsylvania). (At the time, then-president Franklin Roosevelt wanted to move the holiday for economic reasons and many states were resistant to the move; half the states recognized the move and the other half did not. This complicated scheduling for Thanksgiving games. Incidentally, the two teams were also exploring the possibility of a merger at the time.) Because of the looming World War II and the resulting shorter seasons, the NFL did not schedule any Thanksgiving games in 1941, nor did it schedule any in the subsequent years until the war ended in 1945. When the Thanksgiving games resumed in 1945, only the Lions' annual home game would remain on the Thanksgiving holiday. In 1951, the Packers began a thirteen-season run as the perpetual opponent to the Lions each year through 1963.
The All-America Football Conference and American Football League, both of which would later be absorbed into the NFL, also held Thanksgiving contests, although neither of those leagues had permanent hosts. Likewise, the AFL of 1926 also played two Thanksgiving games in its lone season of existence, while the AFL of 1936 hosted one in its first season, which featured the Cleveland Rams, a future NFL team, and the 1940–41 incarnation of the American Football League played two games in 1940 on the earlier "Franksgiving" date.
In 1966, the Dallas Cowboys, who had been founded six years earlier, adopted the practice of hosting Thanksgiving games. It is widely rumored that the Cowboys sought a guarantee that they would regularly host Thanksgiving games as a condition of their very first one (since games on days other than Sunday were uncommon at the time and thus high attendance was not a certainty). This is only partly true; Dallas had in fact decided to host games on Thanksgiving by their own decision because there was nothing else to do or watch on that day. In 1975 and 1977, at the behest of then-Commissioner Pete Rozelle, the St. Louis Cardinals replaced Dallas as a host team (Dallas then hosted St. Louis in 1976). Although the Cardinals, at the time known as the "Cardiac Cards" due to their propensity for winning very close games, were a modest success at the time, they were nowhere near as popular nationwide as the Cowboys, who were regular Super Bowl contenders during this era. This, combined with St. Louis's consistently weak attendance, a series of ugly Cardinals losses in the three-game stretch, and opposition from the Kirkwood–Webster Groves Turkey Day Game (a local high school football contest) led to Dallas resuming regular hosting duties in 1978; it was then, after Rozelle asked Dallas to resume hosting Thanksgiving games, that the Cowboys requested (and received) an agreement guaranteeing the Cowboys a spot on Thanksgiving Day forever.
Since 1978, Thanksgiving games have been hosted in Detroit and Dallas every year, with Detroit in the early time slot and Dallas in the late afternoon slot. Because of TV network commitments in place through the 2013 season, to make sure that both the AFC-carrying network (NBC from 1965 to 1997, and CBS since 1998) and the NFC-carrying network (CBS from 1956 to 1993, and Fox since 1994) got at least one game each, one of these games was between NFC opponents, and one featured AFC-NFC opponents. Thus, the AFC could showcase only one team on Thanksgiving, and the AFC team was always the visiting team.
Since 2006, a third NFL game on Thanksgiving has been played at night. It originally aired on the NFL Network as part of its Thursday Night Football package until 2011; NBC began carrying the night game in 2012, officially as a bonus game in its NBC Sunday Night Football package. The night game never had any conference tie-ins, meaning the league could place any game into the time slot. In 2014, a series of changes to the broadcast contracts freed CBS from its obligation to carry an AFC team; by 2018, the last vestiges of conference ties to the Thanksgiving games were eliminated (in practice, games on Fox remain all-NFC contests).
Since 2001 teams playing on Thanksgiving have worn throwback uniforms on numerous occasions. In some years (namely 2002), it extended to nearly all games of the weekend, and in some cases also involved classic field logos at the respective stadiums.
In 2001–2004, and again in 2008, 2010, and 2017 the Detroit Lions have worn throwback uniforms based on their very early years.
From 2001 to 2003, Dallas chose to represent the 1990s Cowboys dynasty by wearing the navy "Double-Star" jersey not seen since 1995. In 2004, the team wore uniforms not seen since 1963. In 2009, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the AFL, both Dallas and Oakland played in a "AFL Legacy Game." In 2013, the Cowboys intended to wear their 1960s throwbacks, but chose not to do so after the NFL adopted a new policy requiring players and teams to utilize only one helmet a season to address the league's new concussion protocol; rather than sport an incomplete throwback look, the Cowboys instead wore their standard blue jerseys at home for the first time since 1963. In 2015, the Cowboys resurrected their 1994 white "Double-Star" jerseys only this time wore them with white pants as part of the league's "Color Rush", a trial run of specially-designed, monochromatic jerseys to be worn during Thursday games.
- 1920: An urban legend states that the Chicago Tigers and Decatur Staleys challenged each other to a Thanksgiving duel, in Chicago, in the league's inaugural season, with the loser being relegated out of the league at the end of the season, purportedly explaining why the Tigers were the only NFL team to fold after the 1920 season (no other team would fold until 1921). The claims of it being a duel are unsubstantiated and no evidence exists that the Tigers were ever officially league members; nevertheless, the Tigers, after a 27–0 win over the non-league Thorn Tornadoes the next week, never played football again. The Staleys would move to Chicago during the next season, later renaming themselves the Bears.
- 1921: In a matchup of two of the league's best teams, the Staleys lose to the Buffalo All-Americans at home. The Staleys demand a rematch, with Buffalo agreeing to a December match only on the terms of it being considered an off-the-record exhibition game. That later match, which Chicago won, ended up counting despite the All-Americans' insistence, controversially handing Chicago the championship.
- 1952: The Dallas Texans are forced to move their lone remaining home game to the Rubber Bowl in Akron, Ohio as the undercard to a high school football contest. Their opponent for that game, the Chicago Bears, underestimated the then-winless Texans and sent their second string team to the game; the Texans scored a 27–23 upset over the Bears for their only win of their existence.
- 1962: The Lions handed the 10–0 Green Bay Packers their lone defeat of the season.
- 1964–65: The 1964 and 1965 AFL contests featured the Buffalo Bills and San Diego Chargers, the two teams that would eventually meet in those years' American Football League Championship Games.
- 1974: Unknown Cowboys backup quarterback Clint Longley took over for an injured Roger Staubach with the team down 16–3 and rallied them to an improbable victory over Washington on two deep passes.
- 1976: The Bills offense put forth one of the best and the worst performances in Thanksgiving history. O. J. Simpson set the NFL record for most rushing yards in a single game, with 273. However, Bills backup quarterback Gary Marangi completed only 4 of 21 pass attempts, for 29 yards passing, and a rating of 19.7. The Lions defeated the Bills 27-14.
- 1980: With the Lions and Bears tied 17-17 at the end of regulation, the game went to overtime, the first Thanksgiving game to do so (overtime was not added to the NFL regular season until 1974), and the first overtime game at the Silverdome. Bears running back Dave Williams returned the fifth-quarter opening kickoff 95 yards for a game-winning touchdown, ending the shortest overtime period in NFL history at the time (13 seconds).
- 1986: The Lions and the Packers had the highest scoring game in Thanksgiving history. It was the best day of receiver Walter Stanley's career; Stanley netted 207 all-purpose yards and three touchdowns, including an 83-yard punt return to win the game for Green Bay, 44–40. Stanley had an otherwise undistinguished career in the NFL.
- 1989: Known as the "Bounty Bowl", the Eagles crushed the Cowboys by a score of 27–0. Allegations surfaced that the Eagles had placed a bounty on the Cowboys kicker, thus becoming the first of a string of three bitterly contested games between the two teams, the other two being Bounty Bowl II and the Porkchop Bowl a year later.
- 1993: In one of the more famous Thanksgiving Day games in recent history, the Cowboys led the Dolphins 14–13 with just seconds remaining in a rare, snow-filled Texas Stadium. Miami's Pete Stoyanovich attempted a game winning 40-yard field goal that was blocked by the Cowboys' Jimmie Jones. Dick Enberg of NBC proclaimed "The Cowboys will win." Indeed, since the kick landed beyond the line of scrimmage, once the ball stopped moving the play would be declared dead and Dallas would gain possession. However, the ball landed and began spinning on its tip, leading Cowboys lineman Leon Lett to try to gain possession. Lett slipped, fell, and knocked the ball forward. By rule, the ball was live and the Dolphins fell on it at the two yard line. With the recovery, Stoyanovich got a second chance to win the game and hit the much shorter field goal. The Dolphins won 16–14.
- 1994: Troy Aikman was injured and third-string quarterback Jason Garrett was forced to start for Dallas against the Green Bay Packers. The Cowboys won a 42–31 shoot-out against Brett Favre.
- 1998: In another controversial Thanksgiving Day game, the Steelers and Lions went to overtime tied 16–16. Pittsburgh's Jerome Bettis called the coin toss in the air, but head referee Phil Luckett awarded Detroit the ball after Bettis tried to call both heads and tails at the same time. The Lions went on to kick a field goal on the first possession, winning 19–16. As a result of the fiasco, team captains are now required to call the coin toss before the coin is tossed, and a later rule change now prevents teams from automatically winning a game by scoring a field goal on the first possession. The day also saw a memorable performance by the Minnesota Vikings in a 46–36 win over the Dallas Cowboys as Vikings rookie Randy Moss caught three touchdowns, all of over 50 yards.
- 2008: The 10–1 Titans routed the 0–11 Lions by a score of 47–10, one of the most lopsided results in history on Thanksgiving. The Lions would go on to finish the season 0–16.
- 2011: The trio of games was lauded as one of the better Thanksgiving Day slates of games in NFL history. The night game between Baltimore and San Francisco pitted head coaches and brothers John and Jim Harbaugh against each other – a preview of Super Bowl XLVII.
- 2012: The prime time contest became infamous for the "Butt fumble", an incident in which Jets quarterback Mark Sanchez ran headfirst into the buttocks of his own offensive lineman. He subsequently fumbled the ball; it was recovered by New England, who returned it for a touchdown. In the earlier game, one of the NFL's most infamous rule changes came when former Lions coach Jim Schwartz challenged a play in which Texans running back Justin Forsett's knee clearly touched the ground before sprinting for an 81-yard touchdown. Referee Walt Coleman stated that, by rule, scoring plays are automatically reviewed and the play was not challengeable by a coach. Because of the improper attempted challenge, the review was cancelled and Coleman assessed a 15-yard kickoff penalty for unsportsmanlike conduct. The NFL then passed a new rule that stated that if a coach attempted to challenge a play that is automatically reviewed, the review would continue. It was called the 'Jim Schwartz rule'.
Home team controversy
It has remained a tradition for Dallas and Detroit to host the afternoon games dating back several decades. However, in recent years, other teams have expressed interest in hosting Thanksgiving games. Lamar Hunt, the former owner of the Chiefs (who had hosted Thanksgiving games from 1967–69 as an AFL team prior to the merger), lobbied heavily in favor of his team hosting a game on the holiday. When the NFL adopted a third, prime time game, the Chiefs were selected as the first team to host such a contest, but the team was not made a permanent host, and Hunt's death shortly after the 2006 contest ended the lobbying on behalf of that team.
The host issue came to a head in 2008, focusing particularly on the winless Lions. Going into the game, Detroit had lost their last four Thanksgiving games, and opinions amongst the media had suggested removing Detroit and replacing them with a more attractive matchup. The team also required an extension to prevent a local television blackout. The Lions were routed by Tennessee 47–10, en route to the team's 0–16 season. NFL commissioner Roger Goodell confirmed that the Lions would stay on Thanksgiving for the 2009 season, but kept the issue open to revisit in the future.
Conversely, the Dallas Cowboys, who typically represent a larger television draw, have had much fewer public calls to be replaced on Thanksgiving. One issue that has been debated is a perceived unfair advantage of playing at home on Thanksgiving. The advantage is given in the form of an extra day of practice for the home team while the road team has to travel to the game site. This is true for most Thursday games, but with the night games, the visitor can travel to the game site after practice and hold the final walk-thru the following morning.
With the introduction of the prime time game, which effectively allows all teams in the league an opportunity to play on Thanksgiving, along with the introduction of year-long Thursday Night Football ensuring all teams have one Thursday game during the regular season (thus negating any on-field advantages or disadvantages to being selected for Thanksgiving), the calls for Detroit and Dallas to be removed have curtailed.
(Winning teams are denoted by boldface type; tie games are italicized.)
- All three of the generally recognized iterations of the American Football League that played during this era (AFL I in 1926, AFL II in 1936 and AFL III in 1940) played Thanksgiving games, which are also listed as indicated.
- Non-NFL team games between league teams and non league teams counted in the 1920 standings. The All-Tonawanda Lumberjacks later joined the league as the Tonawanda Kardex, albeit only for one game.
- Thanksgiving fell on the final Thursday in November until 1938 and was held on two conflicting days from 1939 to 1941.
- No Thanksgiving games were held from 1941 to 1944 due to World War II.
- Thanksgiving games were played on the fourth Thursday in November from 1945 onward.
- The All-America Football Conference (AAFC) also played Thanksgiving games from 1946 to 1949.
|Season||League||Visiting Team||Score||Home Team||Score|
|Nov. 22, 1945||NFL||Cleveland Rams||28||Detroit Lions||21|
|Nov. 28, 1946||NFL||Boston Yanks||34||Detroit Lions||10|
|AAFC||New York Yankees||21||Brooklyn Dodgers||7|
|Nov. 27, 1947||NFL||Chicago Bears||34||Detroit Lions||14|
|AAFC||Cleveland Browns||27||Los Angeles Dons||17|
|AAFC||San Francisco 49ers||21||Brooklyn Dodgers||7|
|Nov. 25, 1948||NFL||Chicago Cardinals||28||Detroit Lions||14|
|AAFC||Cleveland Browns||31||Los Angeles Dons||14|
|AAFC||Buffalo Bills||39||Chicago Rockets||35|
|Nov. 24, 1949||NFL||Chicago Bears||28||Detroit Lions||7|
|AAFC||New York Yankees||17||Los Angeles Dons||16|
|AAFC||Cleveland Browns||14||Chicago Hornets||6|
|Nov. 23, 1950||NFL||New York Yanks||14||Detroit Lions||49|
|Pittsburgh Steelers||28||Chicago Cardinals||17|
|Nov. 22, 1951||NFL||Green Bay Packers||35||Detroit Lions||52|
|Nov. 27, 1952||NFL||Green Bay Packers||24||Detroit Lions||48|
|Chicago Bears||23||Dallas Texans (at Akron, Ohio)||27|
|Nov. 26, 1953||NFL||Green Bay Packers||15||Detroit Lions||34|
|Nov. 25, 1954||NFL||Green Bay Packers||24||Detroit Lions||28|
|Nov. 24, 1955||NFL||Green Bay Packers||10||Detroit Lions||24|
|Nov. 22, 1956||NFL||Green Bay Packers||24||Detroit Lions||20|
|Nov. 28, 1957||NFL||Green Bay Packers||6||Detroit Lions||18|
|Nov. 27, 1958||NFL||Green Bay Packers||14||Detroit Lions||24|
|Nov. 26, 1959||NFL||Green Bay Packers||24||Detroit Lions||17|
- The American Football League (AFL) also played Thanksgiving Day games during this decade.
- The Dallas Cowboys started playing their traditional series in 1966.
|Season||League||Visiting Team||Score||Home Team||Score|
|Nov. 24, 1960||NFL||Green Bay Packers||10||Detroit Lions||23|
|AFL||Dallas Texans||35||New York Titans||41|
|Nov. 23, 1961||NFL||Green Bay Packers||17||Detroit Lions||9|
|AFL||Buffalo Bills||14||New York Titans||21|
|Nov. 22, 1962||NFL||Green Bay Packers||14||Detroit Lions||26|
|AFL||New York Titans||46||Denver Broncos||45|
|Nov. 28, 1963||NFL||Green Bay Packers||13||Detroit Lions||13|
|AFL||Oakland Raiders||26||Denver Broncos||10|
|Nov. 26, 1964||NFL||Chicago Bears||27||Detroit Lions||24|
|AFL||Buffalo Bills||27||San Diego Chargers||24|
|Nov. 25, 1965||NFL||Baltimore Colts||24||Detroit Lions||24|
|AFL||Buffalo Bills||20||San Diego Chargers||20|
|Nov. 24, 1966||NFL||San Francisco 49ers||41||Detroit Lions||14|
|Cleveland Browns||14||Dallas Cowboys||26|
|AFL||Buffalo Bills||31||Oakland Raiders||10|
|Nov. 23, 1967||NFL||Los Angeles Rams||31||Detroit Lions||7|
|St. Louis Cardinals||21||Dallas Cowboys||46|
|AFL||Oakland Raiders||44||Kansas City Chiefs||22|
|Denver Broncos||20||San Diego Chargers||24|
|Nov. 28, 1968||NFL||Philadelphia Eagles||12||Detroit Lions||0|
|Washington Redskins||20||Dallas Cowboys||29|
|AFL||Buffalo Bills||10||Oakland Raiders||13|
|Houston Oilers||10||Kansas City Chiefs||24|
|Nov. 27, 1969||NFL||Minnesota Vikings||27||Detroit Lions||0|
|San Francisco 49ers||24||Dallas Cowboys||24|
|AFL||Denver Broncos||17||Kansas City Chiefs||31|
|San Diego Chargers||21||Houston Oilers||17|
- From 1970 to 2005, three NFC teams and one AFC team played each Thanksgiving.
- The two afternoon games were held at Detroit (12:30 p.m. EST) and Dallas (4:15 p.m. EST), respectively. Detroit always hosts the "early" game because a 12:30 p.m. EST kick-off at Dallas would be 11:30 a.m. local time (CST), and the NFL avoids starting games before noon locally. The two games rotate annually as intra-conference (NFC vs. NFC) and inter-conference (AFC vs. NFC) games. This is to satisfy the television contract balance between CBS (which broadcasts games in which the visiting team is from the AFC) and Fox (which broadcasts games in which the visiting team is from the NFC).
- The "early" game kicks off at a special time of 12:30 p.m. EST as opposed to the typical afternoon start time of 1 p.m. This provides an additional 30 minutes to prevent overlapping of the "late" game, and also gave the network time for a pregame show and some additional time for an expanded halftime show (selected years). When Fox carries the "early" game, they typically start their pregame coverage (Fox NFL Sunday) at 11:30 a.m. (with the addition of Fox NFL Kickoff to the Fox lineup, its pregame will begin at 10:30 a.m. for 2015). When CBS carries the "early" game, they start their pregame coverage (The NFL Today) at 12:00 p.m., due to the fact that their morning parade coverage runs until noon. The network with the 4:15 "late" game begins pregame coverage at 3:30 p.m. EST.
- Dallas was replaced by the St. Louis Cardinals as a host team in 1975 and 1977; Dallas and St. Louis faced each other at Texas Stadium in 1976. Because of the Missouri Turkey Day Game, the long-established Kirkwood–Webster Groves high school football game that takes place on Thanksgiving in St. Louis, weak fan support in St. Louis, and general national preference of the Cowboys over the historically weaker Cardinals, the Cardinals' hosting of the Thanksgiving game was not popular. Dallas returned to hosting the game in 1978 and has hosted since. Likewise, the Rams never played on Thanksgiving while in St. Louis, in part because of the Turkey Day Game and also because the Missouri State High School Activities Association has held its state football championship games on Thanksgiving weekend at The Dome at America's Center since 1996.
- Since the time NFL began its current alignment in 2002, no team from the AFC North can play a Thanksgiving Day game against the traditional hosts. This is because under the current rotation, the Cowboys and the Lions each play AFC North teams in years that FOX is scheduled to broadcast its Thanksgiving Day game, requiring an NFC opponent. To date, the last game to feature a team currently in the AFC North was the Lions matchup against the Pittsburgh Steelers in 1998. AFC North teams can play in the prime time game, as the Cincinnati Bengals did in 2010.
|Season||Visiting Team||Score||Home Team||Score||OT|
|Nov. 26, 1970||Oakland Raiders||14||Detroit Lions||28|
|Green Bay Packers||3||Dallas Cowboys||16|
|Nov. 25, 1971||Kansas City Chiefs||21||Detroit Lions||32|
|Los Angeles Rams||21||Dallas Cowboys||28|
|Nov. 23, 1972||New York Jets||20||Detroit Lions||37|
|San Francisco 49ers||31||Dallas Cowboys||10|
|Nov. 22, 1973||Washington Redskins||20||Detroit Lions||0|
|Miami Dolphins||14||Dallas Cowboys||7|
|Nov. 28, 1974||Denver Broncos||31||Detroit Lions||27|
|Washington Redskins||23||Dallas Cowboys||24|
|Nov. 27, 1975||Los Angeles Rams||20||Detroit Lions||0|
|Buffalo Bills||32||St. Louis Cardinals||14|
|Nov. 25, 1976||Buffalo Bills||14||Detroit Lions||27|
|St. Louis Cardinals||14||Dallas Cowboys||19|
|Nov. 24, 1977||Chicago Bears||31||Detroit Lions||14|
|Miami Dolphins||55||St. Louis Cardinals||14|
|Nov. 23, 1978||Denver Broncos||14||Detroit Lions||17|
|Washington Redskins||10||Dallas Cowboys||37|
|Nov. 22, 1979||Chicago Bears||0||Detroit Lions||20|
|Houston Oilers||30||Dallas Cowboys||24|
|Nov. 27, 1980||Chicago Bears||23||Detroit Lions||17||(OT)|
|Seattle Seahawks||7||Dallas Cowboys||51|
|Nov. 26, 1981||Kansas City Chiefs||10||Detroit Lions||27|
|Chicago Bears||9||Dallas Cowboys||10|
|Nov. 25, 1982||New York Giants||13||Detroit Lions||6|
|Cleveland Browns||14||Dallas Cowboys||31|
|Nov. 24, 1983||Pittsburgh Steelers||3||Detroit Lions||45|
|St. Louis Cardinals||17||Dallas Cowboys||35|
|Nov. 22, 1984||Green Bay Packers||28||Detroit Lions||31|
|New England Patriots||17||Dallas Cowboys||20|
|Nov. 28, 1985||New York Jets||20||Detroit Lions||31|
|St. Louis Cardinals||17||Dallas Cowboys||35|
|Nov. 27, 1986||Green Bay Packers||44||Detroit Lions||40|
|Seattle Seahawks||31||Dallas Cowboys||14|
|Nov. 26, 1987||Kansas City Chiefs||27||Detroit Lions||20|
|Minnesota Vikings||44||Dallas Cowboys||38||(OT)|
|Nov. 24, 1988||Minnesota Vikings||23||Detroit Lions||0|
|Houston Oilers||25||Dallas Cowboys||17|
|Nov. 23, 1989||Cleveland Browns||10||Detroit Lions||13|
|Philadelphia Eagles||27||Dallas Cowboys||0|
|Nov. 22, 1990||Denver Broncos||27||Detroit Lions||40|
|Washington Redskins||17||Dallas Cowboys||27|
|Nov. 28, 1991||Chicago Bears||6||Detroit Lions||16|
|Pittsburgh Steelers||10||Dallas Cowboys||20|
|Nov. 26, 1992||Houston Oilers||24||Detroit Lions||21|
|New York Giants||3||Dallas Cowboys||30|
|Nov. 25, 1993||Chicago Bears||10||Detroit Lions||6|
|Miami Dolphins||16||Dallas Cowboys||14|
|Nov. 24, 1994||Buffalo Bills||21||Detroit Lions||35|
|Green Bay Packers||31||Dallas Cowboys||42|
|Nov. 23, 1995||Minnesota Vikings||38||Detroit Lions||44|
|Kansas City Chiefs||12||Dallas Cowboys||24|
|Nov. 28, 1996||Kansas City Chiefs||28||Detroit Lions||24|
|Washington Redskins||10||Dallas Cowboys||21|
|Nov. 27, 1997||Chicago Bears||20||Detroit Lions||55|
|Tennessee Oilers||27||Dallas Cowboys||14|
|Nov. 26, 1998||Pittsburgh Steelers||16||Detroit Lions||19||(OT)|
|Minnesota Vikings||46||Dallas Cowboys||36|
|Nov. 25, 1999||Chicago Bears||17||Detroit Lions||21|
|Miami Dolphins||0||Dallas Cowboys||20|
|Nov. 23, 2000||New England Patriots||9||Detroit Lions||34|
|Minnesota Vikings||27||Dallas Cowboys||15|
|Nov. 22, 2001||Green Bay Packers||29||Detroit Lions||27|
|Denver Broncos||26||Dallas Cowboys||24|
|Nov. 28, 2002||New England Patriots||20||Detroit Lions||12|
|Washington Redskins||20||Dallas Cowboys||27|
|Nov. 27, 2003||Green Bay Packers||14||Detroit Lions||22|
|Miami Dolphins||40||Dallas Cowboys||21|
|Nov. 25, 2004||Indianapolis Colts||41||Detroit Lions||9|
|Chicago Bears||7||Dallas Cowboys||21|
|Nov. 24, 2005||Atlanta Falcons||27||Detroit Lions||7|
|Denver Broncos||24||Dallas Cowboys||21||(OT)|
- Since 2006, three contests have been played on Thanksgiving. In addition to the traditional Detroit and Dallas home afternoon games, a third game is now played in primetime and televised by NFL Network (2006–2011) or NBC (since 2012). Current plans call for the various NFL teams (other than the Lions and Cowboys) to take turns hosting the night game on a rotation basis.
- In 2006, Kansas City hosted the first prime time Thanksgiving game. The game marked a new "Thanksgiving Tripleheader" tradition. The Denver/Kansas City game marked the first time more than two games were played on Thanksgiving (as well as the first all-AFC holiday matchup) since the AFL–NFL merger in 1970.
- The 2014 season was the first in which all three games feature NFC vs. NFC opponents; since then, none of the three Thanksgiving games have been bound to any conference.
|Season||Visiting Team||Score||Home Team||Score||OT|
|Nov. 23, 2006||Miami Dolphins||27||Detroit Lions||10|
|Tampa Bay Buccaneers||10||Dallas Cowboys||38|
|Denver Broncos||10||Kansas City Chiefs||19|
|Nov. 22, 2007||Green Bay Packers||37||Detroit Lions||26|
|New York Jets||3||Dallas Cowboys||34|
|Indianapolis Colts||31||Atlanta Falcons||13|
|Nov. 27, 2008||Tennessee Titans||47||Detroit Lions||10|
|Seattle Seahawks||9||Dallas Cowboys||34|
|Arizona Cardinals||20||Philadelphia Eagles||48|
|Nov. 26, 2009||Green Bay Packers||34||Detroit Lions||12|
|Oakland Raiders||7||Dallas Cowboys||24|
|New York Giants||6||Denver Broncos||26|
|Nov. 25, 2010||New England Patriots||45||Detroit Lions||24|
|New Orleans Saints||30||Dallas Cowboys||27|
|Cincinnati Bengals||10||New York Jets||26|
|Nov. 24, 2011||Green Bay Packers||27||Detroit Lions||15|
|Miami Dolphins||19||Dallas Cowboys||20|
|San Francisco 49ers||6||Baltimore Ravens||16|
|Nov. 22, 2012||Houston Texans||34||Detroit Lions||31||(OT)|
|Washington Redskins||38||Dallas Cowboys||31|
|New England Patriots||49||New York Jets||19|
|Nov. 28, 2013||Green Bay Packers||10||Detroit Lions||40|
|Oakland Raiders||24||Dallas Cowboys||31|
|Pittsburgh Steelers||20||Baltimore Ravens||22|
|Nov. 27, 2014||Chicago Bears||17||Detroit Lions||34|
|Philadelphia Eagles||33||Dallas Cowboys||10|
|Seattle Seahawks||19||San Francisco 49ers||3|
|Nov. 26, 2015||Philadelphia Eagles||14||Detroit Lions||45|
|Carolina Panthers||33||Dallas Cowboys||14|
|Chicago Bears||17||Green Bay Packers||13|
|Nov. 24, 2016||Minnesota Vikings||13||Detroit Lions||16|
|Washington Redskins||26||Dallas Cowboys||31|
|Pittsburgh Steelers||28||Indianapolis Colts||7|
|Nov. 23, 2017||Minnesota Vikings||30||Detroit Lions||23|
|Los Angeles Chargers||28||Dallas Cowboys||6|
|New York Giants||10||Washington Redskins||20|
|Nov. 22, 2018||Chicago Bears||0||Detroit Lions||0|
|Washington Redskins||0||Dallas Cowboys||0|
|Atlanta Falcons||0||New Orleans Saints||0|
Thanksgiving Day standings
|Team||Last Game||Wins||Losses||Ties||Win %||Other names appeared under|
|New Orleans Saints||2010||1||0||1.000|
|Los Angeles Rams||1975||3||1||.750||Cleveland Rams (1937–1945), does not include 1936 AFL's Cleveland Rams|
|Tennessee Titans||2008||5||2||.714||Houston Oilers (1960–1996)|
Tennessee Oilers (1997–1998)
|Los Angeles Chargers||2017||3||1||1||.700||San Diego Chargers (1961–2016)|
|Indianapolis Colts||2016||2||1||1||.625||Baltimore Colts (1953–1983)|
|New York Giants||2017||7||6||3||.607|
|New England Patriots||2012||3||2||.600|
|Chicago Bears||2015||17||15||2||.529||Decatur Staleys (1920)|
Chicago Staleys (1921)
|Kansas City Chiefs||2006||5||5||.500||Dallas Texans (1960–1962), does not include 1–0 record of unrelated NFL Dallas Texans.|
|New York Jets||2012||4||4||.500||New York Titans (1960–1962)|
|San Francisco 49ers||2014||2||2||1||.500||Does not include 1–0 record when team was a member of the AAFC.|
|Buffalo Bills||1994||3||4||1||.438||Does not include 1–0 record of unrelated AAFC team of same name.|
|Green Bay Packers||2015||14||20||2||.417|
|Arizona Cardinals||2008||6||15||2||.304||Chicago Cardinals (1920–1959)|
St. Louis Cardinals (1960–1987)
Phoenix Cardinals (1988–1993)
|Tampa Bay Buccaneers||2006||0||1||.000|
|Cleveland Browns||1989||0||3||.000||Does not include 3–0 record when team was a member of the AAFC.|
|Jacksonville Jaguars||None||0||0||–||Only active franchise to have never played on Thanksgiving.|
Notable appearance droughts
An idiosyncrasy in the NFL's current scheduling formula, which has been in effect in its basic form since 2002, effectively prevented teams from the AFC North from playing the Lions or Cowboys on Thanksgiving, as the formula had the AFC North playing in Dallas or Detroit in years when the other team was slated to play the AFC game on Thanksgiving. These teams, under the television contracts in place at the time, could only play in the third (night) game. With the changes in the scheduling practices in 2014, the division is no longer barred from participating in the game (since both CBS and Fox can choose teams from either conference; because of the idiosyncrasy, the AFC North team would, if chosen, always play on Fox). In practice, the changes have led to fewer AFC games, as the league has regularly scheduled the Lions' and Cowboys' division rivals for the contests so that ratings are maximized; seven out of the ten Thanksgiving games involving the Lions or Cowboys since 2014 have involved a team in the same division, while only one (a 2017 contest between the Cowboys and Los Angeles Chargers) has involved the AFC.
The Los Angeles Rams have the longest active appearance drought of any team, with their last appearance coming in 1975. Among current NFL markets, Cleveland has had the longest wait to have a team from its city play on Thanksgiving; the Browns last appeared in 1989, several years before being suspended in the Cleveland Browns relocation controversy, and have not appeared in the game since rejoining the league as an expansion team.
Since 2010, the league has made efforts to end the longest droughts. New Orleans, Cincinnati, Baltimore, Houston, and Carolina all played their first Thanksgiving games during this time frame. San Francisco likewise played their first Thanksgiving game since 1972 in 2011, and the Los Angeles Chargers, who last played on the holiday in 1969 (while the team was still an AFL franchise in San Diego) before actually joining the league, appeared for the first time as an NFL member in 2017.
Thanksgiving Day records of defunct teams
- League teams only, since 1920.
|Team||Wins||Losses||Ties||Win Pct.||Other names appeared under|
|Frankford Yellow Jackets||2||0||1.000||Defunct (1931)|
|New York Yankees*||2||0||1.000||Defunct (1949)|
|Pottsville Maroons||2||0||1.000||Defunct (1928)|
|Boston Yanks||1||0||1.000||Defunct (1948)|
|Buffalo Bills*||1||0||1.000||Defunct (1949), unrelated to current NFL team with this name|
|Dallas Texans||1||0||1.000||Defunct (1952), does not count AFL's Dallas Texans, which are now the Kansas City Chiefs|
|Los Angeles Buccaneers||1||0||1.000||Defunct (1926)|
|Oorang Indians||1||0||1.000||Defunct (1923)|
|Rock Island Independents||1||0||1.000||Defunct (1925)|
|All-Tonawanda Lumberjacks||1||0||1.000||Defunct (1921)|
|Akron Pros||3||1||1||.700||Defunct (1926)|
|Buffalo Bisons||1||1||1||.500||Buffalo All-Americans (1920–1923), Defunct (1929)|
|Canton Bulldogs||1||1||1||.500||Defunct (1926)|
|Cleveland Bulldogs||1||1||.500||Defunct (1927)|
|Dayton Triangles||1||1||.500||Defunct (1929)|
|Kansas City Cowboys||1||1||.500||Kansas City Blues (1924), Defunct (1926)|
|Milwaukee Badgers||1||1||.500||Defunct (1926)|
|Brooklyn Lions||0||1||.000||Defunct (1926)|
|Chicago Tigers||0||1||.000||Defunct (1920)|
|Detroit Heralds||0||1||.000||Defunct (1920)|
|New York Yanks||0||1||.000||Defunct (1950)|
|Providence Steam Roller||0||1||.000||Defunct (1931)|
|Racine Legion||0||1||.000||Defunct (1926)|
|Toledo Maroons||0||1||.000||Defunct (1923)|
|Brooklyn Dodgers*||0||2||.000||Defunct (1949)|
|Chicago Hornets*||0||2||.000||Chicago Rockets (1946–1948), Defunct (1949)|
|Columbus Panhandles||0||2||.000||Defunct (1926)|
|Detroit Panthers||0||2||.000||Defunct (1926)|
|Hammond Pros||0||2||.000||Defunct (1926)|
|Rochester Jeffersons||0||2||.000||Defunct (1925)|
|Los Angeles Dons*||0||3||.000||Defunct (1949)|
Since 1989, informal and sometimes lighthearted Man of the Match awards have been issued by the networks broadcasting the respective games. Running back Emmitt Smith holds the record for most Thanksgiving MVPs with five (1990, 1992, 1994, 1996 and 2002). Voting on the respective awards is typically done informally by the announcing crew themselves, and criteria are loose. Noteworthy statistical accomplishments weigh heavily, and "group" awards are common. The announcement of the winner(s), and the presentation of the award is normally done immediately following the game, during post-game network coverage.
Turkey Leg Award (CBS & FOX)
In 1989, John Madden of CBS awarded the first "Turkey Leg Award", for the game's most valuable player. Pursuant to its name, it was an actual cooked turkey leg, and players typically took a celebratory bite out of the leg for the cameras during post-game interviews. Reggie White of the Eagles was the first recipient. The gesture was seen mostly as a humorous gimmick relating to Madden's famous multi-legged turkey, cooked and delivered by local restaurant owner Joe Pat Fieseler of Harvey's Barbecue (located less than a mile from Texas Stadium). Since then, however, the award has gained subtle notoriety. Madden brought the award to FOX in 1994, and it continued through 2001.
Because of the loose and informal nature of the award, at times it has been awarded to multiple players. On one occasion in 1994, it was given to players of both teams.
Galloping Gobbler / Game Ball (FOX)
When John Madden left FOX after 2001, the network introduced a new award starting in 2002, named the "Galloping Gobbler." It was represented by a small figurine of a silver turkey wearing a football helmet striking a Heisman-like pose. Much like Cleatus and Digger, the original Galloping Gobbler trophy reflected Fox's irreverent mascots, and went through several iterations. Unimpressed by its tackiness, 2002 winner Emmitt Smith (who holds the record for most Thanksgiving MVP awards and had won the Turkey Leg Award four previous times) famously threw his in a trash can.
In 2007, the kitschy statuette was replaced with a bronze-colored statue of a nondescript turkey holding a football. In 2011, the trophies were discarded altogether and replaced by an attractive plaque. Unlike the aforementioned "Turkey Leg Award", the "Galloping Gobbler" is normally awarded to only one player annually, however in 2016, co-winners were honored.
For 2017, the Galloping Gobbler was permanently retired, and replaced with the "Game Ball," an stylish, ornate football-shaped trophy, reminiscent of the tradition where game-used balls are typically awarded to players of the game. No one at Fox seemed to notice the first ball awarded has the stripe markings of a college ball.
All-Iron Award (CBS)
When the NFL returned to CBS in 1998, they introduced their own award, the "All-Iron Award", which is, suitably enough, a small silver iron, a reference to Phil Simms' All-Iron team for toughness. The All-Iron winner also receives a skillet of blackberry cobbler made by Simms' mother.
Through 2006, the trophy was only awarded to one player annually. Occasionally, it has been issued as a "group award" in addition to a single player award. In 2008, Simms stated it was "too close to call" and named four players to the trophy; he then gave the award to several people every year until 2013, after which he reverted to a single MVP in 2014.
Simms was removed from the broadcast booth for the 2017 season and no player of the game was chosen that year.
Prime time games (NFLN & NBC)
During the time when NFL Network held the broadcast rights the prime time game, from 2007 to 2011 they gave out the "Pudding Pie Award" for MVPs. The award was an actual pie. In 2009, NFL Network gave Brandon Marshall a pumpkin pie rather than the chocolate pudding pie of the previous two years.
NBC, which carried Thanksgiving afternoon games through 1997, did not issue an MVP award during that time. NBC began broadcasting the Thanksgiving prime time game in 2012, at which point the MVP award was added. The award is currently called the Sunday Night Football on Thanksgiving Night Player of the Game, and is typically awarded to multiple players on the winning team. From 2012 to 2015, the NBC award was referred to as the "Madden Thanksgiving Player-of-the-Game", honoring John Madden (who announced NBC games from 2006 to 2008). In the first few years, the award specifically went to players on both offense and defense, but in recent years, defensive players have not necessarily been recognized. The winning players are presented with ceremonial game balls and, as a gesture to Madden, a cooked turkey leg.
- Of the members of the 2007 Cowboys defense, Chris Canty, DeMarcus Ware, Terence Newman and Greg Ellis were particularly noted.
- In 2017 no official CBS award was handed out, though Philip Rivers and Keenan Allen (both of the Chargers) was interviewed after the game during post-game coverage.
DuMont was the first network to televise Thanksgiving games in 1953; CBS took over in 1956, and in 1965, the first ever color television broadcast of an NFL game was the Thanksgiving match between the Lions and the Baltimore Colts.
Starting in 2012, all three broadcast networks with NFL rights will carry one game apiece. The first two games are split between CBS and Fox. These games are rotated annually, with CBS getting the 12:30 p.m. (EST) "early" game, and Fox getting the 4:25 p.m. "late" game in even-numbered years, while Fox likewise gets the "early" game and CBS the "late" game in odd-numbered years. The third game, with a prime time 8:30 p.m. start, is carried by NBC. The NFL may involve the Flexible Scheduling rule in the future to reassign games if the night game has less importance than the Dallas or Detroit game.
In 2014, two developments would eventually allow for the networks to carry teams from either of the two conferences, something that was not allowed prior to this point. First, a system known as "cross-flex" was imposed, in which the two networks bound by conference restrictions, CBS and Fox, could carry Sunday afternoon games that would otherwise air on the other network. That same year, in order to accommodate CBS's new contract to simulcast Thursday Night Football, the network was given permission to air games with teams from either conference on Thursdays in a deal separate from its Sunday afternoon rights. From that year through 2016, CBS carried all-NFC contests every year on Thanksgiving, and in 2014 and 2015, no AFC teams played in any of the Thanksgiving games. It was initially unclear what mechanism was involved that allowed CBS to carry the NFC vs. NFC matchups; two separate articles on the NFL's official Web site gave conflicting possibilities, with one by Kevin Patra speculating that it was covered under the cross-flex rule and another by Gregg Rosenthal stating that, because the Thanksgiving matchup was on a Thursday, the cross-flex rule did not apply.[not in citation given (See discussion.)]
CBS's Thursday Night Football rights expired after the 2017 season, after which Fox won the bidding. The league then scheduled all three games in 2018 to feature NFC vs. NFC opponents, with CBS given the Chicago Bears as the Lions' opponent for the early game while Fox carries the Washington at Dallas late afternoon game. NBC still held the rights to the Thanksgiving night game, Atlanta Falcons at New Orleans Saints. (The same year, the league expanded its flexible scheduling policies to include days other than Sundays.) To date, the NFL has never assigned an AFC road game to Fox on Thanksgiving.
Westwood One most recently held national radio broadcast rights to all three games, with Compass Media Networks sharing rights to the Cowboys contest. (Under league rules, only radio stations that carry at least 12 Cowboys games in a season are allowed to carry the Compass broadcast.) The participating teams also air the games on their local flagship stations and regional radio networks.
The Cowboys Thanksgiving game has regularly been the most watched NFL regular season telecast each year, with the Lions Thanksgiving game usually in the top five.
- "Navy vs Michigan st (NJ)". College Football Data Warehouse. Archived from the original on December 7, 2013. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
- "1885 Football Team". University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library.
- "1887 Football Team". University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library.
- "1888 Football Team". University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library.
- "1889 Football Team". University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library.
- "1891 Football Team". University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library.
- "Football on Thanksgiving: A Brief But Comprehensive History". Midwest Sports Fans. November 23, 2011.
- "The Origins of the Thanksgiving Day Tradition". Detroit Lions. Retrieved 2007-10-04.
- Jaworowski, Matt (November 24, 2016). Timeline: How football became a Thanksgiving tradition. WIVB-TV. Retrieved November 24, 2016.
- See also: Pennsylvania Keystoners
- Scales, Kristi (November 26, 2014). "Why Do the Cowboys Play on Thanksgiving Day?". 5 Points Blue (Dallas Cowboys). Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- McManaman, Bob (November 22, 2017). Cardinals, not Cowboys, could have been an NFL Thanksgiving Day staple. azcentral.com. Retrieved November 23, 2017.
- Eatman, Nick (November 26, 2013). "Cowboys To Wear Blue Jerseys At Home Thursday". Dallas Cowboys. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- Splash of color for Thursday Night teams. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- Buffalo Bills at Detroit Lions - November 25th, 1976 | Pro-Football-Reference.com
- 1993 - Dolphins @ Cowboys - Leon Lett Opps - YouTube
- Miami Dolphins at Dallas Cowboys - November 25th, 1993 | Pro-Football-Reference.com
- "NFL Thanksgiving Day Football Preview: Games, TV Schedule, Point Spreads, Picks and Predictions". Midwestsportsfans.com. 2011-11-21. Retrieved 2012-11-23.
- Silver, Michael (2011-11-21). "NFL Thanksgiving games are appealing, for once – NFL – Yahoo! Sports". Sports.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2012-11-23.
- Bakay, Nick (12 November 2008). "Manly House of Football: Another helping of Lions football for the holiday? No, thanks!". NFL.com.
- Kulfan, Ted. Annual Lions game is roasted. The Detroit News. 25 November 2008
- Slevin, Peter (November 27, 2008). "In Detroit, Tradition Takes a Hike; Annual Thanksgiving Football Game Offers Little Joy for Troubled City". Washington Post. p. A1.
- Lage, Larry (November 28, 2008). "Once-beaten Titans dominate winless Lions 47–10". Associated Press.
- Niyo, John (31 January 2009). "Turkey game safe ... for now". Detroit Free Press. p. C6.
- Kowalski, Tom (22 March 2009). "Lions president says NFL will not take away team's Thanksgiving Day game". mlive.com.
- Horn, Barry (10 March 2009). "Networks vie for Dallas Cowboys' home opener". Dallas Morning News.
- King, Peter (1 December 2008). "The best football writer of our time". si.com.
- Patra, Kevin (23 April 2014). "2014 NFL Schedule: No AFC teams on Thanksgiving Day". NFL.com. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Brinson, Will (19 April 2018). "2018 NFL Schedule: Thanksgiving has three great division rivalry games, Bears-Lions on CBS". CBS Sports. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- Bergman, Jeremy (April 20, 2017). "Previewing the 2017 Thanksgiving Day slate". National Football League. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
- Imnam, Cam (November 23, 2016). "John Madden talks Thanksgiving, his health, Raiders rise, 49ers fall, NFL TV ratings". The Mercury News. Retrieved November 27, 2016.
- "Galloping Gobbler: An evolution of greatness". Laces Out – Fox Blog. Fox Sports. November 21, 2013. Retrieved December 2, 2014.
- "NFL Thanksgiving Day Football History, Trivia, and Fun Facts". Sports Geekery. November 24, 2014. Retrieved December 2, 2014.
- "NFL Thanksgiving Day Football History, Trivia, and Fun Facts - Sports Geekery". 2010-11-24. Retrieved 2016-09-28.
- Ezekiel Elliott, Dak Prescott win Galloping Gobbler after Thanksgiving win vs. Washington
- 2016 Steelers-Colts Game Broadcast on NBC, Post-game coverage: November 24, 2016
- "Easton-P'burg TV coverage won't crash gate". The Morning Call. November 20, 2012. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
As an added bonus, John Madden will return to NBC to open the broadcast and will give his first "Madden Thanksgiving Player of the-Game" award
- "Thanksgiving Night Game on NBC New England Patriots vs. New York Jets" (Press release). NBCUniversal. November 20, 2012. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
- Turkey Leg Award is the best NFL football on Thanksgiving tradition. SB Nation (November 24, 2016). Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- "NBC's "Turkey Day" tradition begins". NBC Sports History Page.
- "NFL announces Week 13 flex plan". ESPN. Retrieved November 21, 2011.
- Best, Neil (December 14, 2011). "NFL renews lucrative TV deals". Newsday. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
- "CBS to broadcast eight Thursday night football games in 2014". CBS Sports. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
- Rosenthal, Gregg (April 23, 2014). "2014 NFL Schedule: Flex games can now start in Week 5". National Football League. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
Thursday, Saturday, and Monday games are not affected.
- "NFL Announces the 2018 Regular Season Schedule". NFL Football Operations. April 19, 2018. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
- 2003 NFL Record and Fact Book (ISBN 0-7611-3148-5) (for game results through 2002)
- Detroit Lions 2003, 2004 and 2005 game schedules (for game results 2003 to 2005)
- Dallas Cowboys 2003, 2004 and 2005 game schedules (for game results 2003 to 2005)