Galaxy morphological classification
Galaxy morphological classification is a system used by astronomers to divide galaxies into groups based on their visual appearance. There are several schemes in use by which galaxies can be classified according to their morphologies, the most famous being the Hubble sequence, devised by Edwin Hubble and expanded by Gérard de Vaucouleurs and Allan Sandage; the Hubble sequence is a morphological classification scheme for galaxies invented by Edwin Hubble in 1926. It is known colloquially as the “Hubble tuning-fork” because of the shape in which it is traditionally represented. Hubble's scheme divides galaxies into three broad classes based on their visual appearance: Elliptical galaxies have smooth, featureless light distributions and appear as ellipses in images, they are denoted by the letter "E", followed by an integer n representing their degree of ellipticity on the sky. Spiral galaxies consist of a flattened disk, with stars forming a spiral structure, a central concentration of stars known as the bulge, similar in appearance to an elliptical galaxy.
They are given the symbol "S". Half of all spirals are observed to have a bar-like structure, extending from the central bulge; these barred spirals are given the symbol "SB". Lenticular galaxies consist of a bright central bulge surrounded by an extended, disk-like structure but, unlike spiral galaxies, the disks of lenticular galaxies have no visible spiral structure and are not forming stars in any significant quantity; these broad classes can be extended to enable finer distinctions of appearance and to encompass other types of galaxies, such as irregular galaxies, which have no obvious regular structure. The Hubble sequence is represented in the form of a two-pronged fork, with the ellipticals on the left and the barred and unbarred spirals forming the two parallel prongs of the fork. Lenticular galaxies are placed between the ellipticals and the spirals, at the point where the two prongs meet the “handle”. To this day, the Hubble sequence is the most used system for classifying galaxies, both in professional astronomical research and in amateur astronomy.
The de Vaucouleurs system for classifying galaxies is a used extension to the Hubble sequence, first described by Gérard de Vaucouleurs in 1959. De Vaucouleurs argued that Hubble's two-dimensional classification of spiral galaxies—based on the tightness of the spiral arms and the presence or absence of a bar—did not adequately describe the full range of observed galaxy morphologies. In particular, he argued that rings and lenses are important structural components of spiral galaxies; the de Vaucouleurs system retains Hubble's basic division of galaxies into ellipticals, lenticulars and irregulars. To complement Hubble's scheme, de Vaucouleurs introduced a more elaborate classification system for spiral galaxies, based on three morphological characteristics: The different elements of the classification scheme are combined — in the order in which they are listed — to give the complete classification of a galaxy. For example, a weakly barred spiral galaxy with loosely wound arms and a ring is denoted SABc.
Visually, the de Vaucouleurs system can be represented as a three-dimensional version of Hubble's tuning fork, with stage on the x-axis, family on the y-axis, variety on the z-axis. De Vaucouleurs assigned numerical values to each class of galaxy in his scheme. Values of the numerical Hubble stage T run from −6 to +10, with negative numbers corresponding to early-type galaxies and positive numbers to late types. Elliptical galaxies are divided into three'stages': compact ellipticals, normal ellipticals and late types. Lenticulars are subdivided into early and late types. Irregular galaxies can be of type magellanic irregulars or'compact'; the use of numerical stages allows for more quantitative studies of galaxy morphology. Created by American astronomer William Wilson Morgan. Together with Philip Keenan, Morgan developed the MK system for the classification of stars through their spectra; the Yerkes scheme uses the spectra of stars in the galaxy. Thus, for example, the Andromeda Galaxy is classified as kS5.
Morphological Catalogue of Galaxies Galaxy color–magnitude diagram Galaxy Zoo William Wilson Morgan Fritz Zwicky Galaxies and the Universe - an introduction to galaxy classification Near-Infrared Galaxy Morphology Atlas, T. H. Jarrett The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey Hubble Tuning-Fork, SINGS Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy Science Project Go to GalaxyZoo.org to try your hand at classifying galaxies as part of an Oxford University open community project
SIMBAD is an astronomical database of objects beyond the Solar System. It is maintained by the Centre de données astronomiques de France. SIMBAD was created by merging the Catalog of Stellar Identifications and the Bibliographic Star Index as they existed at the Meudon Computer Centre until 1979, expanded by additional source data from other catalogues and the academic literature; the first on-line interactive version, known as Version 2, was made available in 1981. Version 3, developed in the C language and running on UNIX stations at the Strasbourg Observatory, was released in 1990. Fall of 2006 saw the release of Version 4 of the database, now stored in PostgreSQL, the supporting software, now written in Java; as of 10 February 2017, SIMBAD contains information for 9,099,070 objects under 24,529,080 different names, with 327,634 bibliographical references and 15,511,733 bibliographic citations. The minor planet 4692 SIMBAD was named in its honour. Planetary Data System – NASA's database of information on SSSB, maintained by JPL and Caltech.
NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database – a database of information on objects outside the Milky Way maintained by JPL. NASA Exoplanet Archive – an online astronomical exoplanet catalog and data service Bibcode SIMBAD, Strasbourg SIMBAD, Harvard
Asymptotic giant branch
The asymptotic giant branch is a region of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram populated by evolved cool luminous stars. This is a period of stellar evolution undertaken by all low- to intermediate-mass stars late in their lives. Observationally, an asymptotic-giant-branch star will appear as a bright red giant with a luminosity ranging up to thousands of times greater than the Sun, its interior structure is characterized by a central and inert core of carbon and oxygen, a shell where helium is undergoing fusion to form carbon, another shell where hydrogen is undergoing fusion forming helium, a large envelope of material of composition similar to main-sequence stars. When a star exhausts the supply of hydrogen by nuclear fusion processes in its core, the core contracts and its temperature increases, causing the outer layers of the star to expand and cool; the star becomes a red giant, following a track towards the upper-right hand corner of the HR diagram. Once the temperature in the core has reached 3×108 K, helium burning begins.
The onset of helium burning in the core halts the star's cooling and increase in luminosity, the star instead moves down and leftwards in the HR diagram. This is the horizontal branch or red clump, or a blue loop for stars more massive than about 2 M☉. After the completion of helium burning in the core, the star again moves to the right and upwards on the diagram and expanding as its luminosity increases, its path is aligned with its previous red-giant track, hence the name asymptotic giant branch, although the star will become more luminous on the AGB than it did at the tip of the red giant branch. Stars at this stage of stellar evolution are known as AGB stars; the AGB phase is divided into two parts, the early AGB and the thermally pulsing AGB. During the E-AGB phase, the main source of energy is helium fusion in a shell around a core consisting of carbon and oxygen. During this phase, the star swells up to giant proportions to become a red giant again; the star's radius may become as large as one astronomical unit.
After the helium shell runs out of fuel, the TP-AGB starts. Now the star derives its energy from fusion of hydrogen in a thin shell, which restricts the inner helium shell to a thin layer and prevents it fusing stably. However, over periods of 10,000 to 100,000 years, helium from the hydrogen shell burning builds up and the helium shell ignites explosively, a process known as a helium shell flash; the luminosity of the shell flash peaks at thousands of times the total luminosity of the star, but decreases exponentially over just a few years. The shell flash causes the star to expand and cool which shuts off the hydrogen shell burning and causes strong convection in the zone between the two shells; when the helium shell burning nears the base of the hydrogen shell, the increased temperature reignites hydrogen fusion and the cycle begins again. The large but brief increase in luminosity from the helium shell flash produces an increase in the visible brightness of the star of a few tenths of a magnitude for several hundred years, a change unrelated to the brightness variations on periods of tens to hundreds of days that are common in this type of star.
During the thermal pulses, which last only a few hundred years, material from the core region may be mixed into the outer layers, changing the surface composition, a process referred to as dredge-up. Because of this dredge-up, AGB stars may show S-process elements in their spectra and strong dredge-ups can lead to the formation of carbon stars. All dredge-ups following thermal pulses are referred to as third dredge-ups, after the first dredge-up, which occurs on the red-giant branch, the second dredge up, which occurs during the E-AGB. In some cases there may not be a second dredge-up but dredge-ups following thermal pulses will still be called a third dredge-up. Thermal pulses increase in strength after the first few, so third dredge-ups are the deepest and most to circulate core material to the surface. AGB stars are long-period variables, suffer mass loss in the form of a stellar wind. Thermal pulses produce periods of higher mass loss and may result in detached shells of circumstellar material.
A star may lose 50 to 70% of its mass during the AGB phase. The extensive mass loss of AGB stars means that they are surrounded by an extended circumstellar envelope. Given a mean AGB lifetime of one Myr and an outer velocity of 10 km/s, its maximum radius can be estimated to be 3×1014 km; this is a maximum value since the wind material will start to mix with the interstellar medium at large radii, it assumes that there is no velocity difference between the star and the interstellar gas. Dynamically, most of the interesting action is quite close to the star, where the wind is launched and the mass loss rate is determined. However, the outer layers of the CSE show chemically interesting processes, due to size and lower optical depth, are easier to observe; the temperature of the CSE is determined by heating and cooling properties of the gas and dust, but drops with radial distance from the photosphere of the stars which are 2,000–3,000 K. Chemical peculiarities of an AGB CSE outwards include: Photosphere: Local thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry Pulsating stellar envelope: Shock chemistry Dust formation zone Chemically quiet Interstellar ultraviolet radiation and photodissociation of molecules – complex chemistryThe dichotomy between oxygen-rich and carbon-rich stars has an initial role in determining whether the first condensates are oxi
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
A constellation is a group of stars that forms an imaginary outline or pattern on the celestial sphere representing an animal, mythological person or creature, a god, or an inanimate object. The origins of the earliest constellations go back to prehistory. People used them to relate stories of their beliefs, creation, or mythology. Different cultures and countries adopted their own constellations, some of which lasted into the early 20th century before today's constellations were internationally recognized. Adoption of constellations has changed over time. Many have changed in shape; some became popular. Others were limited to single nations; the 48 traditional Western constellations are Greek. They are given in Aratus' work Phenomena and Ptolemy's Almagest, though their origin predates these works by several centuries. Constellations in the far southern sky were added from the 15th century until the mid-18th century when European explorers began traveling to the Southern Hemisphere. Twelve ancient constellations belong to the zodiac.
The origins of the zodiac remain uncertain. In 1928, the International Astronomical Union formally accepted 88 modern constellations, with contiguous boundaries that together cover the entire celestial sphere. Any given point in a celestial coordinate system lies in one of the modern constellations; some astronomical naming systems include the constellation where a given celestial object is found to convey its approximate location in the sky. The Flamsteed designation of a star, for example, consists of a number and the genitive form of the constellation name. Other star patterns or groups called asterisms are not constellations per se but are used by observers to navigate the night sky. Examples of bright asterisms include the Pleiades and Hyades within the constellation Taurus or Venus' Mirror in the constellation of Orion.. Some asterisms, like the False Cross, are split between two constellations; the word "constellation" comes from the Late Latin term cōnstellātiō, which can be translated as "set of stars".
The Ancient Greek word for constellation is ἄστρον. A more modern astronomical sense of the term "constellation" is as a recognisable pattern of stars whose appearance is associated with mythological characters or creatures, or earthbound animals, or objects, it can specifically denote the recognized 88 named constellations used today. Colloquial usage does not draw a sharp distinction between "constellations" and smaller "asterisms", yet the modern accepted astronomical constellations employ such a distinction. E.g. the Pleiades and the Hyades are both asterisms, each lies within the boundaries of the constellation of Taurus. Another example is the northern asterism known as the Big Dipper or the Plough, composed of the seven brightest stars within the area of the IAU-defined constellation of Ursa Major; the southern False Cross asterism includes portions of the constellations Carina and Vela and the Summer Triangle.. A constellation, viewed from a particular latitude on Earth, that never sets below the horizon is termed circumpolar.
From the North Pole or South Pole, all constellations south or north of the celestial equator are circumpolar. Depending on the definition, equatorial constellations may include those that lie between declinations 45° north and 45° south, or those that pass through the declination range of the ecliptic or zodiac ranging between 23½° north, the celestial equator, 23½° south. Although stars in constellations appear near each other in the sky, they lie at a variety of distances away from the Earth. Since stars have their own independent motions, all constellations will change over time. After tens to hundreds of thousands of years, familiar outlines will become unrecognizable. Astronomers can predict the past or future constellation outlines by measuring individual stars' common proper motions or cpm by accurate astrometry and their radial velocities by astronomical spectroscopy; the earliest evidence for the humankind's identification of constellations comes from Mesopotamian inscribed stones and clay writing tablets that date back to 3000 BC.
It seems that the bulk of the Mesopotamian constellations were created within a short interval from around 1300 to 1000 BC. Mesopotamian constellations appeared in many of the classical Greek constellations; the oldest Babylonian star catalogues of stars and constellations date back to the beginning in the Middle Bronze Age, most notably the Three Stars Each texts and the MUL. APIN, an expanded and revised version based on more accurate observation from around 1000 BC. However, the numerous Sumerian names in these catalogues suggest that they built on older, but otherwise unattested, Sumerian traditions of the Early Bronze Age; the classical Zodiac is a revision of Neo-Babylonian constellations from the 6th century BC. The Greeks adopted the Babylonian constellations in the 4th century BC. Twenty Ptolemaic constellations are from the Ancient Near East. Another ten have the same stars but different names. Biblical scholar, E. W. Bullinger interpreted some of the creatures mentioned in the books of Ezekiel and Revelation as the middle signs of the four quarters of the Zodiac, with the Lion as Leo, the Bull as Taurus, the Man representing Aquarius and the Eagle standing in for Scorpio.
The biblical Book of Job also
David Dunlap Observatory Catalogue
David Dunlap Observatory Catalogue, known as the DDO or A Catalogue of Dwarf Galaxies, is a catalogue of dwarf galaxies, published in 1959 by Sidney van den Bergh. DDO 3 is a dwarf spheroidal galaxy, located in the northern constellation of Cassiopeia, near the border of Andromeda, it is a small satellite galaxy of the famous Messier 31, the largest galaxy in the Local Group. DDO 8 is a dwarf irregular galaxy in the constellation Cetus, near the border of Pisces, it was discovered in 1906 by a German astronomer Max Wolf. It is a member of the Local Group as well. DDO 69 is an irregular galaxy, located in the constellation of Leo, it is a small satellite galaxy of the Milky Way. DDO 70 is an irregular galaxy, in the constellation of Sextans, it is located 4.44 million light years away from Earth. DDO 74 lies 820,000 light years away in the constellation Leo, it is one of the most distant satellite galaxy of our Milky Way. The dwarf spheroidal galaxy is located only 12 arcminutes from Regulus, the light from Regulus makes the visibility of DDO 74 becomes poor, so it is difficult to be observed.
DDO 75 is an irregular galaxy located in the constellation Sextans, same as its neighbour DDO 70. When it is observed from Earth, it appears as a square in shape. DDO 82 is a Magellanic spiral galaxy lies 13 million light years away in the constellation Ursa Major. DDO 93 is a dwarf spheroidal galaxy, located in the constellation of Leo, it was discovered in 1950 by Albert George Wilson. It is one of the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way. DDO 155 is a dwarf irregular galaxy located 7.9 million light years away from Earth in the constellation of Virgo. People give a nickname to this galaxy, called'Imprint of a Foot' because of its shape. DDO 169 is a dwarf irregular galaxy in the constellation Canes Venatici, it is one of the members of the M51 Group. DDO 190 is a dwarf irregular galaxy, located in the constellation of Boötes, it is a member of the M94 Group as well. DDO 199 is a dwarf spheroidal galaxy, located in the northern constellation of Ursa Minor, it was discovered in 1955 by an American astronomer Albert George Wilson.
It is a satellite of the Milky Way as well. DDO 210 is a dwarf irregular galaxy in the constellation of Aquarius, it lies 3.2 ± 0.2 million light years from our Milky Way. DDO 216 is a dwarf irregular galaxy located in the constellation Pegasus. Aquarius Boötes Canes Venatici Cassiopeia Cetus Leo Pegasus Sextans Ursa Major Ursa Minor Virgo
Cassiopeia is a constellation in the northern sky, named after the vain queen Cassiopeia in Greek mythology, who boasted about her unrivaled beauty. Cassiopeia was one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd-century Greek astronomer Ptolemy, it remains one of the 88 modern constellations today, it is recognizable due to its distinctive'W' shape, formed by five bright stars. It is opposite Ursa Major. In northern locations above latitude 34ºN it is visible year-round and in the tropics it can be seen at its clearest from September to early November. In low southern latitudes below 25ºS it can be seen low in the North. At magnitude 2.2, Alpha Cassiopeiae, or Schedar, is the brightest star in Cassiopeia, though is shaded by Gamma Cassiopeiae, which has brightened to magnitude 1.6 on occasion. The constellation hosts some of the most luminous stars known, including the yellow hypergiants Rho Cassiopeiae and V509 Cassiopeiae and white hypergiant 6 Cassiopeiae; the semiregular variable. In 1572, Tycho Brahe's supernova flared brightly in Cassiopeia.
Cassiopeia A is a supernova remnant and the brightest extrasolar radio source in the sky at frequencies above 1 GHz. Fourteen star systems have been found to have exoplanets, one of which—HR 8832—is thought to host seven planets. A rich section of the Milky Way runs through Cassiopeia, containing a number of open clusters, young luminous galactic disc stars, nebulae. IC 10 is an irregular galaxy, the closest known starburst galaxy and the only one in the Local Group of galaxies; the constellation is named after the queen of Aethiopia. Cassiopeia was the wife of mother of Princess Andromeda. Cepheus and Cassiopeia were placed next to each other among the stars, along with Andromeda, she was placed in the sky as a punishment after enraging Poseidon with the boast that her daughter Andromeda was more beautiful than the Nereids or, that she herself was more beautiful than the sea nymphs. She was forced to wheel around the North Celestial Pole on her throne, spending half of her time clinging to it so she does not fall off, Poseidon decreed that Andromeda should be bound to a rock as prey for the monster Cetus.
Andromeda was rescued by the hero Perseus, whom she married. Cassiopeia has been variously portrayed throughout her history as a constellation. In Persia, she was drawn by al-Sufi as a queen holding a staff with a crescent moon in her right hand, wearing a crown, as well as a two-humped camel. In France, she was portrayed as having a marble throne and a palm leaf in her left hand, holding her robe in her right hand; this depiction is from Augustin Royer's 1679 atlas. In Chinese astronomy, the stars forming the constellation Cassiopeia are found among three areas: the Purple Forbidden enclosure, the Black Tortoise of the North, the White Tiger of the West; the Chinese astronomers saw several figures in. Kappa, Mu Cassiopeiae formed a constellation called the Bridge of the Kings; the charioteer's whip was represented by Gamma Cassiopeiae, sometimes called "Tsih", the Chinese word for "whip". In the 1600s, various Biblical figures were depicted in the stars of Cassiopeia; these included Solomon's mother.
A figure called the "Tinted Hand" appeared in the stars of Cassiopeia in some Arab atlases. This is variously said to represent a woman's hand dyed red with henna, as well as the bloodied hand of Muhammad's daughter Fatima; the hand is made up of the stars α Cas, β Cas, γ Cas, δ Cas, ε Cas, η Cas. The arm is made up of the stars α Per, γ Per, δ Per, ε Per, η Per, ν Per. Another Arab constellation that incorporated the stars of Cassiopeia was the Camel, its head was composed of Lambda, Kappa and Phi Andromedae. Other cultures see a moose antlers in the pattern; these include the Lapps. The Chukchi of Siberia saw the five main stars as five reindeer stags; the people of the Marshall Islands saw Cassiopeia as part of a great porpoise constellation. The main stars of Cassiopeia make its tail and Triangulum form its body, Aries makes its head. In Hawaii, Alpha and Gamma Cassiopeiae were named. Alpha Cassiopeiae was called Poloahilani, Beta Cassiopeiae was called Polula, Gamma Cassiopeiae was called Mulehu.
The people of Pukapuka saw the figure of Cassiopeia as a distinct constellation called Na Taki-tolu-a-Mataliki. In Modern Indian Astronomy Cassiopeia is known as Sharmishtha. In Hindu mythology, Sharmistha known as Sharmista or Sharmishtha, was the daughter of the great Devil King Vrishparva, she was a friend of Devayani for whom she becomes a servant. Covering 598.4 square degrees and hence 1.451% of the sky, Cassiopeia ranks 25th of the 88 constellations in area. It is bordered by Cepheus to the north and west, Andromeda to the south and west, Perseus to the southeast and Camelopardalis to the east, shares a short border with Lacerta to the west; the three-letter abbreviation for the constellation, as adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1922, is'Cas'. The official constellation boundaries, as set by Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined by a polygon of 30 segments. In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 00h 27m 03s and 23h 41m 06s, while the decl