Michael Trent Reznor is an American singer, musician, record producer, film score composer. He is the founder, lead vocalist, principal songwriter of the industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails, which he founded in 1988 and of which he was the sole official member until adding long-time collaborator Atticus Ross as a permanent member in 2016, his first release under the Nine Inch Nails name, the 1989 album Pretty Hate Machine, was a commercial and critical success. He has since released nine Nine Inch Nails studio albums, he left Interscope Records in 2007 and was an independent recording artist until signing with Columbia Records in 2012. Reznor was associated with the bands Option 30, The Urge, The Innocent, Exotic Birds in the mid-1980s. Outside of Nine Inch Nails, he has contributed to the albums of artists such as Marilyn Manson and Saul Williams, he and his wife, Mariqueen Maandig, are members of the post-industrial group How to Destroy Angels, with Atticus Ross and long-time Nine Inch Nails graphic designer Rob Sheridan.
Reznor and Ross scored the David Fincher films The Social Network, The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, Gone Girl, winning the Academy Award for Best Original Score for The Social Network and the Grammy Award for Best Score Soundtrack for Visual Media for The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo. They scored the 2018 film Bird Box. In 1997, Reznor appeared in Time's list of the year's most influential people, Spin magazine described him as "the most vital artist in music". Michael Trent Reznor was born on May 17, 1965, in New Castle, the son of Nancy Lou and Michael Reznor, he has German and Irish ancestry and is a descendant of businessman George Reznor, who founded the heating and air conditioning manufacturer The Reznor Company in 1888. Reznor grew up in Pennsylvania. After his parents divorced, he lived with his maternal grandparents from the age of six, while his sister Tera lived with their mother, he showed an early aptitude for music. His grandfather, Bill Clark, told People magazine in February 1995 that Reznor was "a good kid... a Boy Scout who loved to skateboard, build model planes, play the piano".
He stated, "Music was his life, from the time. He was so gifted."Reznor has acknowledged that his sheltered life left him feeling isolated from the outside world. In a September 1994 interview with Rolling Stone magazine, he referred to his choices in the music industry: However, in April 1995, Reznor told Details magazine that he did not "want to give the impression it was a miserable childhood". At Mercer Area Junior/Senior High School, he learned to play the tenor saxophone and tuba, was a member of both the jazz and marching band; the school's former band director remembered him as "very upbeat and friendly". Reznor became involved in theater while in high school, was voted "Best in Drama" by classmates for his roles as Judas in Jesus Christ Superstar and Professor Harold Hill in The Music Man, he graduated in 1983 and enrolled at Allegheny College in Meadville, where he studied computer engineering. While he was a student at Mercer Area Junior/Senior High School, Reznor joined local band Option 30 and played three shows a week with them.
After a year of college, Reznor dropped out and moved to Cleveland, Ohio, to pursue a career in music. His first band in Cleveland was a cover band. In 1985, he joined The Innocent as a keyboardist. In 1986, he joined local band Exotic Birds and appeared with them as a fictional band called The Problems in the 1987 film Light of Day. Reznor contributed on keyboards to the band Slam Bamboo during this time. Reznor got a job at Cleveland's Right Track Studio as janitor. Studio owner Bart Koster commented: "He was so focused in everything he did; when that guy waxed the floor, it looked great." Reznor asked Koster for permission to record demos of his own songs for free during unused studio time. Koster agreed, remarking that it cost him "just a little wear on his tape heads". While assembling the earliest Nine Inch Nails recordings, Reznor was unable to find a band that could articulate his songs as he wanted. Instead, inspired by Prince, he played all the instruments. Reznor has continued in this role on most of the band's studio recordings, though he has involved other musicians, assistants and rhythm experts.
Several labels responded favorably to the demo material and Reznor signed with TVT Records. Nine selections from the Right Track demos were unofficially released in 1988 as Purest Feeling and many of these songs appeared in revised form on Pretty Hate Machine, Reznor's first official release under the Nine Inch Nails name. Most of Reznor's work as a musician has been as founding and primary member of Nine Inch Nails. Pretty Hate Machine was released in 1989 and was a moderate commercial success, certified Gold in 1992. Amid pressure from his record label to produce a follow-up to Pretty Hate Machine, Reznor secretly began recording under various pseudonyms to avoid record company interference, resulting in an EP called Broken. Nine Inch Nails was included in the Lollapalooza tour in the summer of 1991, won a Grammy Award in 1993 under "Best Heavy Metal Performance" for the song "Wish". Nine Inch Nails' second full-length album, The Downward Spiral, entered the Billboard 200 chart in 1994 at number two, remains the highest-selling Nine Inch Nails release in America.
To record the album, Reznor rented and moved into the 10050 Cielo Drive mansion, where the 1969 Manson Family murders took place. He built a studio space in the house, whic
Thomas Baptiste Morello is an American musician, songwriter and political activist. He is best known for his tenure with the band Rage Against the Machine and with Audioslave; as of 2019, Morello is a member of the supergroup Prophets of Rage. Morello was a touring musician with Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band, he is known for his acoustic solo act, the Nightwatchman, Street Sweeper Social Club. Morello co-founded Axis of Justice, which airs a monthly program on Pacifica Radio station KPFK in Los Angeles. Born in Harlem, New York and raised in Libertyville, Morello became interested in music and politics while in high school, he attended Harvard University and earned a Bachelor of Arts degree from the Committee on Degrees in Social Studies. After his previous band Lock Up disbanded, Morello met Zack de la Rocha, the two founded Rage Against the Machine together, going on to become one of the most popular and influential rock acts of the 1990s, he is best known for his unique and creative guitar playing style, which incorporates feedback noise, unconventional picking and tapping, as well as heavy use of guitar effects.
Morello is known for his leftist political views and activism. He was ranked number 40 in Rolling Stone magazine's list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time". Morello was born on May 1964, in Harlem, New York, to Ngethe Njoroge and Mary Morello. Morello, an only child, is the son of an American mother of Italian and Irish descent and a Kikuyu Kenyan father, his mother was a schoolteacher from Marseilles, who earned a Master of Arts at Loyola University and traveled to Germany, Spain and Kenya as an English language teacher between 1977 and 1983. His father participated in the Mau Mau Uprising and was Kenya's first ambassador to the United Nations. Morello's paternal great-uncle, Jomo Kenyatta, was the first elected president in Kenyan history, his parents met in August 1963 while attending a pro-democracy protest in Kenya. After discovering her pregnancy, Mary returned to the United States with Njoroge in November and married in New York City; when Morello was 16 months old, Njoroge returned to his native Kenya and denied his paternity of his son.
Morello was raised by his mother in Libertyville and attended Libertyville High School, where his mother was a U. S. history teacher. She was the homeroom teacher for Morello's classmate and fellow guitarist Adam Jones of the band Tool. Morello was active in speech and drama club. Morello developed leftist political leanings early, has described himself as having been "the only anarchist in a conservative high school", has since identified as a nonsectarian socialist. In the 1980 mock elections at Libertyville, he campaigned for a fictitious anarchist "candidate" named Hubie Maxwell, who came in fourth place in the election, he wrote a piece headlined "South Africa: Racist Fascism That We Support" for the school alternative newspaper, The Student Pulse. Morello graduated from high school with honors in June 1982 and enrolled at Harvard University as a political science student that autumn. Morello graduated in 1986 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in social studies, he moved to Los Angeles, where he supported himself, first by working as a stripper."When I graduated from Harvard and moved to Hollywood, I was unemployable.
I was starving, so I had to work menial labor and, at one point, I worked as an exotic dancer.'Brick House' was my jam! I did bachelorette parties and I'd go down to my boxer shorts. Would I go further? All I can say is thank God it was in the time before YouTube! You could make decent money doing that job – people do what they have to do." Adam Jones, his high school classmate, moved to Los Angeles as well. From 1987 to 1988, Morello worked in the office of United States Senator Alan Cranston, it just made. He had to compromise his entire being every day; the other was the time a woman phoned up to the office and wanted to complain that there were Mexicans moving into her neighborhood. I said to her,'Ma'am, you're a damn racist', she was indignant. I thought I was representing our cause well, but I got yelled at for a week by everyone for saying that! I thought to myself that if I'm in a job where I can't call a damn racist a damn racist it's not for me." At age 13, Morello joined his first band, a cover band called Nebula, as the lead singer.
At this same age, Morello purchased his first guitar. Around 1982, Morello first started studying the guitar seriously, he had formed a band in the same year called the Electric Sheep, featuring future Tool guitarist Adam Jones on bass. He wrote original material for the band, he has said that he was profoundly influenced by Run-D. M. C, Jam Master Jay in particular; this influence can be heard in songs like "Bulls on Parade" where his guitar solos mimic a DJ scratching. Add
Eric Adam Avery is an American musician. He is best known as the former bass guitarist and co-founding member of alternative rock band Jane's Addiction. Avery played in Jane's Addiction from the beginning in 1985 to its first end 1991, rejoined the group in 2008 before departing again in 2010, he began playing with Garbage in a role that he still keeps. He has recorded two studio albums with Garbage and a live DVD, he was a member of Nine Inch Nails and The Smashing Pumpkins. Eric Avery was born in California, his father is the actor Brian Avery best known for playing Carl Smith in The Graduate. Avery and Dave Navarro met as classmates at St. Paul the Apostle Grammar School in West Los Angeles, a Catholic parochial school founded by the Paulist Father. Eric went on to St. Monica High School of Santa Monica and Dave Notre Dame High School in Sherman Oaks, California. Dave was classmates at Notre Dame with Stephen Perkins. Stephen met Eric's sister, Rebecca Avery, they dated. Rebecca suggested that Eric and Perry Farrell audition Stephen as the drummer for Jane's Addiction after Perry and Eric cofounded the band.
Avery kept a low profile after the first demise of Jane's Addiction, participating in the Deconstruction project with Navarro after Jane's Addiction's breakup, but declining invitations for Jane's reunions. "I've asked him," said Farrell before 2001's Jubilee Tour, "but he says he wants no part of it. What else can you say but, Good luck to ya?"Avery has recorded tracks for, toured with and dated Alanis Morissette, as well as creating another side project, Polar Bear, in 1994. He was once suggested as the replacement bassist for Tool by former Jane's Addiction and then-current Tool manager Ted Gardner. Eric declined the invitation; as seen in the film Some Kind of Monster, Avery auditioned for Metallica, after the departure of bassist Jason Newsted. The role didn't quite fit Avery and the band went with Ozzy Osbourne and Suicidal Tendencies bassist Robert Trujillo. Avery toured with the band Garbage to promote 2005's Bleed Like Me. Avery has performed with Peter Murphy, on tour and on 2004's Unshattered.
Avery worked with the revived Smashing Pumpkins, but did not join the band. He was not paid for his work, but said the sessions were a lot of fun: "I went into with the same mentality I took with me when I auditioned for Metallica – I expected to have a good story to tell my wife. I had no expectations. I had heard nothing but bad things about working with Billy, but I went, I found it to be a inspiring time." Billy Corgan ended up playing bass on what would become 2007's Zeitgeist and hired Ginger Reyes for live performances. In 2007, he contributed original music to the feature film documentary The 11th Hour, he released his debut solo album Help Wanted in April 2008 through Dangerbird Records. He performed with Jane's Addiction – for the first time since 1991 – at the NME Awards in 2008. Jane's played secret club shows in October and November 2008. On March 19, 2009, at South by Southwest Music festival in Austin, the quartet performed a 45-minute set at an abandoned Safeway grocery store. Jane's Addiction's official website was updated in February 2009 stating that there was to be another club show soon.
Photos of Avery and Navarro, taken by Trent Reznor, appeared on Nine Inch Nails' official site, which led to speculation that Reznor was helping Jane's record new material. The relationship led to the booking of the "NIN/JA" tour, on which Avery played, which evoked the first Lollapalooza tour of 1991, starring Jane's and Nine Inch Nails. On March 1, 2010, after a 10-date rescheduled tour in Australia, Avery stated on his Twitter page: "the janes addiction experiment is at an end." Rumors were spreading around a few weeks before, as Duff McKagan was said to be the new bassist for Jane's, but Avery had kept his position for the remaining few dates of the 2009/2010 tour. In February 2012, Justin Meldal-Johnsen commented on the talkbass.com forum that Avery would be joining Garbage on their upcoming tour. In early May 2012 Garbage uploaded a video from their rehearsal, performing the song "Battle in Me", with Avery playing bass. Avery has since performed in the two Garbage tours that followed, the band's 20th anniversary tour and the one for the album Strange Little Birds, in which Avery plays bass in six tracks.
Avery released his second solo album, entitled LIFE. TIME. On February 15, 2013. On February 25, 2013, Trent Reznor named Avery as the new touring bassist of Nine Inch Nails. Avery was slated to perform in the Twenty Thirteen Tour from Summer 2013 into 2014, but announced his withdrawal on May 15, 2013, stating that after a year travelling with Garbage he did not feel like going on another extended tour. A self-taught bassist, Avery has singled Peter Hook of Joy Division and New Order as his major influence on bass playing, considering that British bassists were deeper with the instrument as "American rock bass is kick drum, it's just kick drum and the root note of what the guitar player is doing." In Jane's Addiction, Avery stated that in the early phases the basslines would end up as a replacement rhythm guitar, "sort of built on that so Dave can riff on it and Stephen can riff on it". On his solo career, Avery only played the bass at the final stages of Help Wanted, instead "focused on gadgets and keyboards and guitars and vocals and lyrics and other things like that".
While playing with Garbage, Avery was for the first time "playing a more traditional bass role in a rock band" as his bass would only t
Year Zero (album)
Year Zero is the fifth studio album by American industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails, released by Interscope Records on April 17, 2007. Conceived while touring in support of the band's previous album, With Teeth, the album was recorded throughout late-2006, was produced by frontman Trent Reznor and Atticus Ross, it was the band's last album for Interscope, following Reznor's departure the same year over a dispute of overseas pricing. In contrast to the introspective style of songwriting featured on the band's previous work, the record is a concept album that criticizes contemporary policies of the United States government by presenting a dystopian vision of the year 2022, it was part of a larger Year Zero project, which included a remix album, an alternate reality game of the same name, as well a conceived television or film adaptation. The game expanded upon the album's storyline, using websites, pre-recorded phone messages, among other media in promotion of the project; the album was promoted by two singles: "Survivalism" and "Capital G".
Year Zero received positive reviews from critics, who complimented its concept and production, as well as the accompanying alternate reality game. The album reached number two in the US, number six in the UK, the top 10 in various other countries. In a 2005 interview with Kerrang!, Trent Reznor expressed his intentions to write material for a new release while on tour promoting With Teeth. He began work on the new album by September 2006. Reznor devised much of the album's musical direction on his laptop. Reznor told Kerrang! in a interview, "When I was on the Live: With Teeth tour, to keep myself busy I just hunkered down and was working on music the whole time, so this kept me in a creative mode and when I finished the tour I felt like I wasn't tired and wanted to keep at it."The limitations of devising the album's musical direction on a tour bus forced Reznor to work differently from usual. Reznor said, "I didn't have guitars around because it was too much hassle... It was another creative limitation...
If I were in my studio, I would have done things the way I do them. But not having the ability to do that forced me into trying some things that were fun to do."By the end of the tour, Reznor began work on the album's lyrical concepts, attempting to break away from his introspective approach. Reznor drew inspiration from his concern at the state of affairs in the United States and at what he envisioned as the country's political and social direction. Year Zero was mixed in January 2007, Reznor stated on his blog that the album was finished as of February 5; the album's budget was a reported US$2 million, but since Reznor composed most of the album himself on his laptop and in his home-studio, much of the budget instead went toward the extensive accompanying promotional campaign. A song cut from the album included vocal work by Queens of the Stone Age's Josh Homme; the same year, Reznor contributed vocals to their song "Era Vulgaris", cut from the album of the same name. The album's music features the styles of industrial rock, electro-industrial and digital hardcore.
Reznor called Year Zero a "shift in direction" in that it "doesn't sound like With Teeth ". He said that when he finishes a new album, he has to "go into battle with the people whose job it is to figure out how to sell the record; the only time that didn't happen was With Teeth. This time, expecting an epic struggle. Is not a friendly record and it doesn't sound like anything else out there right now."Fifteen original tracks were considered for inclusion on the album, which Reznor described as "Highly conceptual. Quite noisy. Fucking cool." Reznor described the album as a "collage of sound type of thing", citing musical inspiration from early Public Enemy records the production techniques of The Bomb Squad. Most of Year Zero's musical elements were created by Reznor on his laptop, as opposed to the instrument-heavy With Teeth. AllMusic's review described the album's laptop-mixed sound: "guitars squall against glitches, beeps and blotches of blurry sonic attacks. Percussion looms large, organic, screwed and broken."
Many reviews of the album compared the album's electronic sound to earlier Nine Inch Nails releases such as The Downward Spiral and The Fragile, while contrasting its modified sounds to the more "organic" approach of With Teeth. Many critics commented on the album's overall tone, including descriptions such as "lots of silver and grey ambience " and reference to the album's "oblique tone"; the New York Times review described the album's sound by saying "Hard beats are softened with distortion, static cushions the tantrums, sneaky bass lines float beneath the surface." The article went on to describe individual tracks: "And as usual the music is packed with details: "Meet Your Master" goes through at least three cycles of decay and rebirth. The album was co-produced by Reznor and Atticus Ross, mixed by long-time collaborator Alan Moulder, mastered by Brian Gardner; the album features instrumental contributions by live band member Josh Freese and vocals by Saul Williams. Nine Inch Nails' 2006 tour merchandise designs featured overt references to the United States military, which Reznor said "reflect future directions".
Reznor described Year Zero as "the soundtrack to a movie that doesn't exist". The album criticizes the American government's policies, "could be about the end
Jane's Addiction is an American rock band from Los Angeles, formed in 1985. The band consists of vocalist Perry Farrell, guitarist Dave Navarro, drummer Stephen Perkins and bassist Chris Chaney. Founded by Farrell and original bass guitarist Eric Avery, following the disintegration of Farrell's previous band Psi Com, Jane's Addiction was one of the first bands from the early 1990s alternative rock movement to gain both mainstream media attention and commercial success in the United States. Jane's Addiction's first release was a self-titled live album in 1987 and caught the attention of Warner Bros. Records; the band's first two studio albums, Nothing's Shocking and Ritual de lo habitual, were released to widespread critical acclaim, an increasing cult fanbase. As a result, Jane's Addiction became icons of what Farrell dubbed the "Alternative Nation"; the band's initial farewell tour, in 1991, launched the first Lollapalooza, which has since become a perennial alternative rock festival. The band reunited in 1997, with Flea, of the Red Hot Chili Peppers, replacing Avery on bass guitar.
In 2001, a second reunion took place, with Martyn LeNoble—and Chris Chaney—occupying the role of bass guitarist. In 2003, the band released its third studio album, before dissolving again the following year. In 2008, the band's original line-up embarked on a world tour. Eric Avery, subsequently left the band in early 2010 as the group began working on new material; the band released its fourth studio album The Great Escape Artist in 2011, with Chaney returning to the band for its recording and subsequent tour. In 2016, Jane's Addiction were nominated for induction into the Roll Hall of Fame. Jane's Addiction formed from the remains of Psi Com. In mid-1985, Farrell was searching for a bassist to replace Kelly Wheeler in the faltering Psi-com, he was introduced to Eric Avery by Carla Bozulich, the pair bonded over a mutual appreciation of Joy Division and The Velvet Underground. They began to practice together, although Avery never became a full-fledged member of Farrell's disintegrating group; the new band was dubbed "Jane's Addiction" in honor of Farrell's housemate, Jane Bainter, their muse and inspiration.
"My girlfiend and I were sitting in the car…" Farrell recalled, "and we started to think about band names. She threw in Jane's Heroin Experience. I thought. If you want to invite people in, you don't want to put heroin on your door."In its formative incarnation, Jane's Addiction went through four guitarists and featured Matt Chaikin of Kommunity FK, on drums. After Chaikin failed to show up for rehearsals, Farrell sought a new drummer. Avery's younger sister Rebecca suggested her boyfriend Stephen Perkins. Avery was uncertain because of their differing tastes in music, but relented. After Perkins was hired, the drummer and Rebecca promised to get their friend Dave Navarro into the group. Based on Perkins' recommendation, the band hired Navarro. Jane's Addiction became a sensation on the Los Angeles club scene headlining at Scream, won interest from a variety of record labels. While the group decided to sign with Warner Bros. Records label Triple X Records first; the band's manager negotiated the largest advance up to that point, with Warner Bros. signing the band for between $250,000 to $300,000.
In January 1987, the band recorded its debut Jane's Addiction during a performance at the Roxy Theatre, at a cost of $4,000. Before the album's release, Jane's Addiction supported British band Love and Rockets on a two-month tour in late 1987. In late 1987, the band opened for former Bauhaus vocalist Peter Murphy at the now demolished Fender's Ballroom in Long Beach. In January 1988, Jane's Addiction went into the studio to record its major label debut and follow-up to Jane's Addiction, Nothing's Shocking. Warner Bros. gave Jane's Addiction a list of producers to choose from, but the group chose Dave Jerden. Nothing's Shocking was released in 1988. "Mountain Song" was released as a single. Farrell decided to release the music video commercially with added live footage to create the Soul Kiss home video; because of lack of airplay on MTV and modern rock radio, the album only sold 200,000 to 250,000 copies in its first year of release. After the album's release, the band went on tour, opening for The Ramones.
By the end of the tour, Jane's Addiction was headlining theaters. Jane's Addiction was scheduled to begin recording its next album in mid-1989. Navarro stated he had no recollection of working on the album due to his addiction to heroin. Ritual de lo Habitual was released in 1990. To support it, the band embarked on a lengthy tour. Farrell recalled, "That thirteen-month tour behind Ritual was half the reason we wound up unable to stand one another; the other half is that I am an intolerable narcissist who can't get along with anyone."Part of the tour included headlining the first Lollapalooza festival, which traveled across North America in mid-1991. The festival, created by Farrell and Marc Geiger, was to become a farewell for Jane's Addiction, but a showcase for other cult artists: Siouxsie and the Banshees, Nine Inch Nails, the Butthole Surfers, Living Colour, The Rollins Band, The Violent Femmes, Ice-T's Body Count; the headliners began to get more exposure than before: "Been Caught Stealing" and "Stop!" became hits and earned rotation on MTV.
During the first Lollapalooza show and Navarro got into a fight onstage after violently bumping each
Jane's Addiction (album)
Jane's Addiction is the eponymous live album by Jane's Addiction, released on May 15, 1987. Its basic tracks were recorded live at the Roxy Theatre in Los Angeles on January 26, 1987, with additional overdubs and corrections recorded at The Edge Studio in Los Angeles. An audience applause dub from a Los Lobos concert was overlaid onto the final mix; the basic tracks were recorded live over a single night in Los Angeles, with additional in-studio recording and overdubs done later. Several songs would be rerecorded for other releases. Of the band-written songs, only "Trip Away," "1%," "I Would For You," and "My Time" have not been rerecorded and rereleased. Of the original recording, Perry Farrell recalled: "There was a lot of heat in that room. Heat from brains and bodies that were charged up. I knew it was important to speak to the artisans, but I felt I was addressing the powers that be, too.""Jane Says" and "Pigs in Zen" were rerecorded for Nothing's Shocking, the band's major label debut. "Whores" and "Chip Away" were rerecorded in 2009 by the reunited Jane's Addiction for the NINJA EP, a collaboration with Nine Inch Nails to promote the joint NINJA tour.
The album included two covers: "Rock & Roll" by The Velvet Underground, "Sympathy for the Devil" by The Rolling Stones, the latter retitled "Sympathy". At least one other song, "Slow Divers," was left off for unknown reasons. "Slow Divers" would be released ten years on the band's 1997 outtake/alternate/live/new compilation Kettle Whistle. No singles were released from Jane's Addiction. "Here is proof that Jane's Addiction surpassed puberty before they came of age," wrote Nick Griffiths in a review of a CD reissue for Select. "Jane's Addiction is sex, tortured-soul food – a rape of the senses. It's no Immaculate Conception, but it's immaculate." Jane's Addiction has a large number of packaging variations. There are at least four distinct variations of the CD artwork, seven variations of the vinyl; the variations all deal with actual disc color and art. The first CD pressing of the album, just a standard silver disc with track names and other info in black typeface, contains a typo in the track list on the disc itself.
This typo was corrected on all subsequent pressings. Versions of the CD album include a blue colored disc with rounded, stylized text for the track list as well as a version that has the actual cover artwork silkscreened on the disc itself. All tracks written by Perry Farrell, Dave Navarro, Eric Avery and Stephen Perkins, except where noted. Jane's Addiction Perry Farrell – vocals Dave Navarro – guitar Eric Avery – bass Stephen Perkins – drumsProduction Mark Linett – production Patrick von Wiegandt – recording engineer Eddy Schreyer – recording engineerDesign Karyn Cantor – photography Perry Farrell – artwork
Alternative rock is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became popular in the 1990s. In this instance, the word "alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream rock music; the term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style or the independent, DIY ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not, seen to be descended from punk rock. Alternative rock broadly consists of music that differs in terms of its sound, social context and regional roots. By the end of the 1980s, magazines and zines, college radio airplay, word of mouth had increased the prominence and highlighted the diversity of alternative rock, helping to define a number of distinct styles such as noise pop, indie rock and shoegaze.
Most of these subgenres had achieved minor mainstream notice and a few bands representing them, such as Hüsker Dü and R. E. M. had signed to major labels. But most alternative bands' commercial success was limited in comparison to other genres of rock and pop music at the time, most acts remained signed to independent labels and received little attention from mainstream radio, television, or newspapers. With the breakthrough of Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became successful. In the past, popular music tastes were dictated by music executives within large entertainment corporations. Record companies signed contracts with those entertainers who were thought to become the most popular, therefore who could generate the most sales; these bands were able to record their songs in expensive studios, their works sold through record store chains that were owned by the entertainment corporations.
The record companies worked with radio and television companies to get the most exposure for their artists. The people making the decisions were business people dealing with music as a product, those bands who were not making the expected sales figures were excluded from this system. Before the term alternative rock came into common usage around 1990, the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms. In 1979, Terry Tolkin used the term Alternative Music to describe the groups. In 1979 Dallas radio station KZEW had a late night new wave show entitled "Rock and Roll Alternative". "College rock" was used in the United States to describe the music during the 1980s due to its links to the college radio circuit and the tastes of college students. In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture. According to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called "Alternative Charts".
The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January 1980. At the time, the term indie was used to describe independently distributed records. By 1985, indie' had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, rather than distribution status; the use of the term alternative to describe rock music originated around the mid-1980s. Individuals who worked as DJs and promoters during the 1980s claim the term originates from American FM radio of the 1970s, which served as a progressive alternative to top 40 radio formats by featuring longer songs and giving DJs more freedom in song selection. According to one former DJ and promoter, "Somehow this term'alternative' got rediscovered and heisted by college radio people during the 80s who applied it to new post-punk, indie, or underground-whatever music". At first the term referred to intentionally non–mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by "heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave" and "high-energy dance anthems".
Usage of the term would broaden to include new wave, punk rock, post-punk, "college"/"indie" rock, all found on the American "commercial alternative" radio stations of the time such as Los Angeles' KROQ-FM. Journalist Jim Gerr wrote that Alternative encompassed variants such as "rap, trash and industrial". In December 1991, Spin magazine noted: "this year, for the first time, it became resoundingly clear that what has been considered alternative rock – a college-centered marketing group with lucrative, if limited, potential- has in fact moved into the mainstream"; the bill of the first Lollapalooza, an itinerant festival in North America conceived by Jane's Addiction frontman Perry Farrell, reunited "disparate elements of the alternative rock community" including Henry Rollins, Butthole Surfers, Ice-T, Nine Inch Nails and the Banshees and Jane's Addiction. That same year, Farrell coined the term Alternative Nation. In the late 1990s, the definition again became more specific. In 1997, Neil Strauss of The New York Times defined alternative rock as "hard-edged rock distinguished by brittle,'70s-inspired guitar riffing and singers agonizing over their problems until they take on epic proportions".
Defining music as alt