NOAA Weather Radio is an automated 24-hour network of VHF FM weather radio stations in the United States that broadcast weather information directly from a nearby National Weather Service office. The routine programming cycle includes local or regional weather forecasts, climate summaries, synopsis or zone/lake/coastal waters forecasts. During severe conditions the cycle is shortened into: hazardous weather outlooks, short-term forecasts, special weather statements or tropical weather summaries, it broadcasts other non-weather related events such as national security statements, natural disaster information and public safety statements sourced from the Federal Communications Commission's Emergency Alert System. NOAA Weather Radio uses automated broadcast technology that allows for the recycling of segments featured in one broadcast cycle seamlessly into another and more regular updating of segments to each of the transmitters, it speeds up the warning transmitting process. Weather radios are sold online and in retail stores that specialize in consumer electronics in Canada and the U.
S. Additionally, they are available in many supermarkets and drugstores in the southern and midwestern US, which are susceptible to severe weather—large portions of these regions are referred to as "Tornado Alley"; the U. S. Weather Bureau first began broadcasting marine weather information in Chicago and New York City on two VHF radio stations in 1960 as an experiment. Proving to be successful, the broadcasts expanded to serve the general public in coastal regions in the 1960s and early 1970s. By early 1970, ESSA listed 20 U. S. cities using 162.550 MHz and one using 163.275 "ESSA VHF Radio Weather." The U. S. Weather Bureau adopted its current name, National Weather Service, was operating 29 VHF-FM weather-radio transmitters under the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration which replaced ESSA in 1970; the service was designed with boaters, fishermen and more in mind, allowing listeners to receive a "life-saving" weather bulletin from their local weather forecast office, along with updated forecasts and other climatological data in a condensed format at any time of the day or night.
The general public could have the latest weather updates when they needed them, the benefit of more lead-time to prepare during severe conditions. In 1974, NOAA Weather Radio, as it was now called, reached about 44 percent of the U. S. population over 66 nationwide transmitters. NWR grew to over 300 stations by the late 1970s. Local NWS staff were the voices heard on NWR stations from its inception until the late 1990s when "Paul" was introduced; the messages were recorded on tape, by digital means placed in the broadcast cycle. This technology limited the programming variability and locked it into a repetitive sequential order, it slowed down the speed of warning messages when severe weather happened, because each NWS office could have up to eight transmitters. "Paul" was a computerized voice using the DECtalk text-to-speech system. "Paul's" voice was difficult to understand. A new voice from the VoiceText text-to-speech system named “Paul”, was introduced in 2016 and implemented nationwide by late in the year.
Live human voices are still used for weekly tests of the Specific Area Message Encoding and 1050 Hz tone alerting systems, station IDs, in the event of system failure or computer upgrades. They will be used on some stations for updates on the time and radio frequency. In the 1990s, the National Weather Service adopted plans to implement SAME technology nationwide. S. government provided the budget needed to develop the SAME technology across the entire radio network. Nationwide implementation occurred in 1997 when the Federal Communications Commission adopted the SAME standard as part of its new Emergency Alert System. NOAA Weather Radio's public alerting responsibilities expanded from hazardous weather-only events to "all hazards" being broadcast. In the wake of the 1965 Palm Sunday tornado outbreak, one of the key recommendations from the U. S. Weather Bureau's storm survey team, was the establishment of a nationwide radio network that could be used to broadcast weather warnings to the general public, key institutions, news media and the public safety community.
Starting in 1966, the Environmental Science Services Administration started a nationwide program known as "ESSA VHF Weather Radio Network." In the early 1970s, this was changed to NOAA Weather Radio. The service was expanded to coastal locations during the 1970s in the wake of Hurricane Camille based upon recommendations made by the Department of Commerce after the storm in September 1969. Since a proliferation of stations have been installed and activated to ensure near-complete geographical coverage and "weather-readiness", many of which have been funded by state emergency management agencies in cooperation with the NOAA to expand the network, or state public broadcasting networks. To avoid interference and allow for more specific area coverage, the number of frequencies in use by multiple stations grew to two with the addition of 162.400 MHz in 1970 followed by the third in 1975 with the remaining four (162
The Rossiya Hotel was a five-star international hotel built in Moscow from 1964 until 1967 at the order of the Soviet government. Construction used the existing foundations of a cancelled skyscraper project, the Zaryadye Administrative Building, which would have been the eighth of what are now referred to as the "Seven Sisters"; the architect was Dmitry Chechulin. Large portions of a historic district of Moscow, known as Zaryadye, were demolished in the 1940s for the original project, it was registered in The Guinness Book of Records as the largest hotel in the world until it was surpassed by the Excalibur in Las Vegas, Nevada in 1990. It remained the largest hotel in Europe until its 2006 closure; the 21-story Rossiya had 3,000 rooms, 245 half suites, a post office, a health club, a nightclub, a movie theater, the Zaryadye, a barber shop, a police station with jail cells behind unmarked black doors near the barber shop, the 2500-seat State Central Concert Hall. The building could accommodate over 4,000 guests.
Most of the rooms were 11 square metres. The hotel was adjacent to Red Square, its 21-story tower looming over the Kremlin walls and the cupolas of Saint Basil's Cathedral. On February 25, 1977, a major fire in the building killed 42 and injured 50; the high death and injury rate was exacerbated because the hotel had few exits, a design intended to make it difficult for guests to enter or exit unseen by the hotel staff. The Rossiya Hotel closed on January 1, 2006. Demolition of the building began in March 2006 for a planned entertainment complex which would have been loosely based on the design of the old Zaryadye district; the project was to be overseen by British architect Sir Norman Foster and would have included a new, two thousand room hotel with apartments and a parking garage. In October 2006, the Supreme Arbitration Court cancelled the results of a tender to reconstruct the Rossiya hotel near the Kremlin; the hotel's site remained vacant until 2013, when it was announced that Zaryadye Park would be developed there.
The park opened in November 2017. Detailed description of the Rossiya Hotel
Ray Kenny is an Irish football defender, who plays for Arklow Town in the Leinster Senior League. Ray signed for Bray Wanderers from TEK United in 1995 and won the Shield and First Division title in his first season with the Club, he picked up a First Division runners-up medal in 1997/98 and despite missing most of the 1998/99 season he returned to play in all three games of the 1999 FAI Cup Final against Finn Harps. He played in Bray's two UEFA Cup games in August 1999, he joined Kilkenny City in 2000–01, however his stay was short as he moved to Finn Harps with Graham O'Hanlon moving the other way. Ray joined Kildare County from Finn Harps in the 2003 season, he was appointed team captain for 2004 and was named in the Professional Footballers Association of Ireland Division One team of the year. He made 101 appearances for Kildare his 101st arriving against Limerick F. C. in 2005. Ray was Kildare County's Player of the Year in 2004, he moved to Shamrock Rovers in 2006 making a total of 31 appearances in all competitions.
With Rovers he won the First Division in 2006 and made an appearance on a Futbol Mundial piece about Rovers in July 2006. Ray moved back to Bray Wanderers for the 2007 season. In February 2009 he signed for Longford Town before leaving at the end of the 2009 season. FAI Cup Bray Wanderers 1999 League of Ireland First Division: 2 Bray Wanderers 1995/1996 Shamrock Rovers - 2006 League of Ireland First Division Shield Bray Wanderers 1995/1996 Player of the Year: Kildare County - 2004