Barendrecht is a town and lordship in the Netherlands, located as a suburb of Rotterdam in the province of South Holland. The municipality had a population of 48,474 in 2017, covers an area of 21.73 km2 of which 1.90 km2 is water. The writer Jan Geurt Gaarlandt has been Lord of Barendrecht since 1995; the municipality of Barendrecht includes the following communities: Barendrecht-Carnisselande, Smitshoek. The name "Barendrecht" is derived from the Germanic word birni, translated as "mud" or "muddy", the Latin word trāiectum translated as "to cross" to denote a muddy river crossing; the current municipality of Barendrecht is located in the area of three former fiefdoms: East-Barendrecht, West-Barendrecht, Carnisse. The oldest reference to East-Barendrecht is from 1264; these fiefdoms were in Riederwaard, an area reclaimed from water since the 12th century but had to deal with frequent dike breaches throughout the 13th and 14th centuries. Further stages in land reclamation, constituting the major part of modern Barendrecht, were the Binnenland polder, Buitenland polder and Zuidpolder.
During the French Period, the three fiefdoms were merged into one municipality Barendrecht. After the French Period, it was split into East and West-Barendrecht, but in 1836 it was again united as one municipality; the population of Barendrecht increased ten-fold in the last 80 years from just under 5,000 in 1930 to close to 50,000 in 2010. During this time the number of homes increased as well, there was an eight-fold increase in the number of homes in the last 50 years from 2,200 in 1961 to 18,400 in 2011; the overall population increased. This is consistent with the general trend in the Netherlands over this period. In 2012, Barendrecht had a population of 47,055. According to the civil registry, 21% of its population were under the age of 14, 11% were between 15 and 24 years old, 27% were from 25 to 44, 28% were from 45 to 64 and 13% were 65 years of age or older; the marital status of the municipality was distributed such that 46% of its population was married, 45% never married, 6% divorced and 4% widowed.
Twenty percent of the population of Barendrecht was from foreign origin, one percent point below the national average of twenty-one percent. The foreign origin of the municipality was 7% Western, 4% Suriname, 3% Turkey, 2% Morocco, 1% Dutch Caribbean and 4% from other countries. Barendrecht had 18,615 households in 2012, this corresponds to an average of 2.5 persons per household. Of these households, 24% were made up of individuals, 30% were couples with no children under 18 living with them and 45% contained children under 18. Municipalities are the lowest tier of public administration in the Netherlands, they are, further subdivided into districts and neighbourhoods for administrative use. Barendrecht is subdivided into 23 districts, of which 20 are residential, two rural and one all business parks combined; the latter three have largest area of all districts. The district with the highest population is Meerwede in Vinex-location Carnisselande, this district has the highest population density.
Each district is further subdivided in neighbourhoods. Some district consist of one neighbourhood, others consist of up to 14 neighbourhoods; the smallest neighbourhood has a size of 0.07 km2, the largest spans 1.69 km2. Some neighbourhoods are unpopulated. Barendrecht is home to two football clubs. BVV Barendrecht won the KNVB Amateur Cup in the 2008–09 season, they were banned from the 2011–12 KNVB Cup after winning their first round matchup. In addition to these clubs there are numerous other sport clubs, including organized badminton, handball, korfball, tennis and field, volleyball and water polo. Due to its proximity to Rotterdam, Barendrecht is the scene for road events starting or finishing in Rotterdam, it is the penultimate municipality on the route of the 520 km annual Paris-Rotterdam relay run. Athletes from Barendrecht have had individual success notably quadruple Olympic swimming champion Inge de Bruijn, she won four gold medals, two silver medals and two bronze medals in the freestyle and butterfly events at the 2000 and 2004 Summer Olympics.
During her career she won a total of 36 medals in major competitions, 18 of these medals were gold. She has held three world records in long course swimming. Several players on the Dutch water polo teams during the 1984 and 2000 Summer Olympics were from Barendrecht as well. Barendrecht, as all Dutch municipalities, is ruled by both a board of mayor and aldermen and a municipal council; the municipal council is elected every four years. The number of councillors varies over time due to changes in the municipal population, it controls public policy. The executive power lies with the executive board, which consists of multiple aldermen; the mayor is appointed by the crown and the alderman are elected by the municipal council after each municipal election. Thieu van de Wouw, member of the CDA party, was major of Barendrecht from 1989 to his retirement in 2005. Jan van Belzen was appointed as mayor in July 2005, Van Belzen was mayor of Graafstroom before taking the same function in Barendrecht. In 2011 Van
Goods wagons or freight wagons are unpowered railway vehicles that are used for the transportation of cargo. A variety of wagon types are in use to handle different types of goods, but all goods wagons in a regional network have standardized couplers and other fittings, such as hoses for air brakes, allowing different wagon types to be assembled into trains. For tracking and identification purposes, goods wagons are assigned a unique identifier a UIC wagon number, or in North America, a company reporting mark plus a company specific serial number. At the beginning of the railway era, the vast majority of goods wagons were four-wheeled vehicles of simple construction; these were exclusively small covered wagons, open wagons with side-boards, flat wagons with or without stakes. Over the course of time, an increasing number of specialised wagons were developed. Special wagons for specific purposes or wagons with special features were being introduced around 1850 by private companies. Amongst these were tank wagons and numerous refrigerated vans.
In countries like Germany, wagon hire firms procured large numbers of these wagons and hired them to the end users. In the early days of the railway, goods trains still ran at top speeds of only about 20 mph. However, the introduction of through brakes using air pipes from the 1920s enabled higher speeds to be safely achieved. Modern goods wagons are authorised for speeds up to around 75 mph and in certain countries, wagons are equipped with GPS receivers and transponders which provide location monitoring as required; the Deutsche Bahn has goods wagons cleared for high-speed rail travel at up to 100 mph. Because the braking distance of fast goods trains is longer than the separation between distant and home signals, they may only run at high speeds of 150 mph with locos on routes with early signalling systems in the driver’s cab. In Europe, the first agreements were struck early on between the national state railways and private companies for the mutual use of each other’s goods wagons. Around 1850, the Union of German Railway Administrations drew up regulations for the standardisation of dimensions and fittings.
The formation of the Prussian State Railway Union in 1881 encouraged the emergence of wagon classes built to standard norms. One further European milestone was the formation of the German State Railway Wagon Association on 1 April 1909. With the participation of all the German state railways, it created a common pool of goods wagons, which by the end of 1911 had no less than 560,000 wagons. In addition, they all had standardised red-brown livery. In order to standardise future procurements, a total of 11 wagon classes were defined; these wagons of the so-called standard class and subsequent developments from them dominated goods traffic in Germany up to the Second World War and had a significant impact in many other countries which acquired these wagons either through war reparations or because they were left behind by the Germans after the two world wars. From 1939, wagons were developed from a military point of view and were known as wartime classes. After the war, in East Germany, some pre-war goods wagon classes were given a new lease of life as ‘reconstructed goods wagons’ and continued in service for several more decades.
Since the Union of Private Goods Wagon Companies was founded in 1921, the interests of private transport organisations in Germany has been jointly represented. The Union has around 100 members. In 2007, they transported 361,000,000 t of goods. Other countries have similar organisations. Since 1922, the agreement for the mutual use of goods wagons in international traffic has regulated the exchange of goods wagons in Europe and the Middle East. In addition, international goods wagon fleets were created in 1953 in Western Europe with the Europ-Verband and in 1964 in Eastern Europe with the Common Goods Wagon Park. During the second half of the 20th century, national goods wagon classes in Europe were replaced by Union internationale des chemins de fer standard wagons. Since 1964, all goods wagons in Germany, for example, have had to be classified using the UIC goods wagon classification system; the numerous types of goods wagon are categorised here based on their main design features and in accordance with the international UIC classification system: Open wagons were referred to in Germany as O wagons.
Lowmacs Covered wagons or vans have a fixed roof and are used for the transportation of part-load goods or parcels. Today these are divided into: Ordinary classes Special classes, which are distinguished by their large loading volumes. Livestock vans for transporting cattle are no longer used. In Germany they were called V wagons and were c
Norwegian State Railways (1883–1996)
The Norwegian State Railways was a state-owned railway company that operated most of the railway network in Norway. The government agency/directorate was created in 1883 to oversee the construction and operation of all state-owned railways in Norway. On 1 December 1996, it was demerged to create the infrastructure operator Norwegian National Rail Administration, the train operator Norwegian State Railways and the Norwegian Railway Inspectorate; the name was taken by the train operator, although the infrastructure operator remained a government agency and is the legal successor. Norway's first railway, the Trunk Line, was opened in 1854, it was run as a private company, although with some government ownership. This was followed by two wholly state-owned railways, the narrow-gauge Hamar–Grundset Line in 1861 and the standard-gauge Kongsvinger Line in 1862, with the latter branching from the Trunk Line at Lillestrøm. Several more where built over the next two decades. In 1871 the national railway was connected to the Swedish rail infrastructure.
By the 1880s, the pace of railway construction ground to a halt due to economic and political problems. In 1883, the Norwegian State Railways was established and railway construction started up again; the Norwegian State Railways bought up many private railways to integrate them into the national railway network. In 1920 the Bratsberg Line was acquired by the government; the Trunk Line was first formally acquired in 1926, despite having formed a central part of the network for half a century. In January 1942 NSB gave "green light for putting POWs into construction work of the Nordland Line; the POWs had to perform slave labor under conditions that were inhuman, Westlie shows that NSB was informed about the prisoners situation", according to a 2015 Klassekampen article. Of the 100 000 Soviet POWs that came to Norway, 13 000 were put to work on the Nordland Line. Over 1000 died as a result of cold and exhaustion."NSB transported Jews to the outward shipping from the Oslo harbor the NSB employees did not know what fate awaited the Jews.
They understood that the Jews would be shipped out of the country by force, because the train went to Oslo harbor". Furthermore, Westlie points to "dilemmas NSB's employees found themselves in when the NSB leadership cooperated with the Germans"." Vik was to be made the scapegoat for the cooperation with the Germans, writes Westlie though many of the darkest chapters are from the period before Vik" became the chief, according to Halvor Hegtun. There was no investigation of the agencies after the war. However, the former chief Vik was not to be prosecuted if he "did not again work for NSB". In 1952 a plan of electrifying operations was adopted. In 1970 the Dovre Line was electrified. In 2002 the freight operations were split to the subsidiary CargoNet, the maintenance department became Mantena. "The transportation of Jews that were to be deported and the use of POWs on the Nordland Line is a dark chapter of NSB's history ", according to kommunikasjonssjef Åge-Christoffer Lundeby in NSB in 2015.
Bjørn Westlie said about the extermination of Norwegian Jews: "what else than co-responsible was NSB? For me, NSB's use of POWs and this deportation of Jews must be viewed as one: namely, that NSB thereby became an agency that participated in Hitler's violence against these two groups, who were the nazism's main enemies; the fact that the pertinent NSB leaders received awards after the war, confirms NSB's and others' desire to conceal this". The title was changed from director-general to chief executive officer in the late 1980s. 1883–1899: Lorentz Henrik Müller Segelcke 1910–1912: August Fleischer 1912–1919: Christian Emil Stoud Platou 1919–1922: Theodor Holtfodt 1924–1938: Eivind Heiberg 1939–????: Waldemar Hoff 1944–????: Bjarne Vik 1945–1946: Løken 1946–1950: Egil Sundt 1950–1951: Olav Holtmon 1951–1966: Halvdan Eyvind Stokke 1967–1978: Edvard Heiberg 1978–1988: Robert Nordén 1987–1988: Tore Lindholt 1988–1990: Kjeld Rimberg 1990–1990: Tore Lindholt 1990–1995: Kristian Rambjør 1995–1996: Osmund Ueland Norwegian State railways class 21 2-6-0 No. 377'King Haakon VII' is preserved at Bressingham Steam and Gardens.
The Holocaust in Norway
NS Class 1100
The Class 1100 locomotives of Nederlandse Spoorwegen were a class of 1,500 V DC Bo′Bo′ electric locomotives, introduced from 1950. They were built by Alsthom to an original design of the French BB 8100, they operated in the Netherlands. They have been out of service since 1999, they operated all services and passenger, were the NS' main locomotive until the arrival of Class 1600s. They were extensively rebuilt between 1978 and 1982. 1156 had an accident near Tilburg in 1961, 1131 was involved in the largest railway accident in the Netherlands at Harmelen. 1129 was involved in an accident in Westervoort in 1978, this locomotive was not destroyed, was put back in service. In 1986, 1141 derailed at Heeze. After the 1978 accident, the locomotives were rebuilt to improve driver safety, with a crash-absorbing nose ahead of the cab inspired by the French'Nez Cassé' design. In 1991, some of the locos were withdrawn with the arrival of DD-AR double-deck coaching stock, Class 1700 locos were introduced; the 1100 series locomotives were unpopular with NS drivers.
The locomotives used an unusual design: the buffers are attached to the wheel assembly instead of the main body. Buffers attached to the main body are a common design feature, which provides a steady ride as the body is stabilized because it is pressed against the car it is pulling; the 1100 series lacked this stability, resulting in a nervous bouncy ride which can be compared to a ride on a wooden roller coaster. The cabin was designed for French drivers in 1950, anyone taller than 1.70 m had a hard time in the nonadjustable driver seat, air drafted around drivers' lower legs. In operation, cooling fans in the engine compartment produced a remarkably loud roar. For these reasons the locomotives were downright hated, until 1980, their drivers were paid a special bonus, one designated for dirty or unpleasant work
Getlink Groupe Eurotunnel, is a public company which manages and operates the Channel Tunnel between England and France, including the Eurotunnel Shuttle vehicle services, earns revenue on other trains through the tunnel. It is listed on both the Euronext London and Euronext Paris markets, was listed on the London Stock Exchange until 19 July 2012; the company is based in Paris. The railway operation has 50.45 kilometres of double track railway in the main tunnels, plus extensive surface level terminal facilities at Folkestone in England and at Calais in France. Signalling and electric traction supply at 25 kV AC are under Getlink control. Train operation consists of shuttle trains conveying cars and coaches and other trains conveying heavy goods vehicles between the two terminals. Other trains using Getlink infrastructure are operated by the respective owners. In November 2017, Groupe Eurotunnel was rebranded Getlink; the company was formed on 13 August 1986, with the objective of financing and operating a tunnel between England and France.
The company awarded a contract for the construction of the tunnel to TransManche Link. The tunnel cost around £9.5bn to build, about double TML's original estimate of £4.7bn. The tunnel was financed from investment by shareholders and from £8bn of debt, was opened on 6 May 1994 by Queen Elizabeth II, President François Mitterrand. In its first year of operation, the company lost £925m because of disappointing revenue from passengers and freight, together with heavy interest charges on its £8bn of debt. In April 2004, a dissident shareholder group led by Nicolas Miguet succeeded in taking control of the board. However, in February 2005, Jean-Louis Raymond, the Chief Executive appointed after the boardroom coup and Jacques Gounon took complete control becoming Chairman and Chief Executive. In July 2006, shareholders voted on a deal which would have seen half the debt, by reduced to £6.2bn, exchanged for 87% of the equity. However this plan failed, on 2 August 2006, the company was placed into bankruptcy protection by a French court for six months.
In May 2007, a new restructuring plan was approved by shareholders, whereby Deutsche Bank, Goldman Sachs and Citigroup agreed to provide £2.8bn of long term funding, the balance of the debt being exchanged for equity, the shareholders agreed to waive the unlimited free travel and other perks that they had enjoyed. In June 2007, the company entered into a partnership through subsidiary Europorte 2 with the Port of Dunkirk relating to rail freight traffic. Following the restructuring, Eurotunnel was able to announce a small net profit in 2007, of €1 million, for the first time in its existence. Half year earnings for 2008 rose to €26 million; the net profit for 2008 was €40 million, despite the costs associated with traffic loss from September 2008 to February 2009, following a fire in the tunnel, this allowed Eurotunnel to issue its first dividend of €0.04 per euro value. The return to financial health allowed the company to announce on 28 October 2009, the anticipated voluntary redemption of some of its convertible debt.
By anticipating to November 2009 the reimbursement of debt due in July 2010, it aimed to issue up to 119.4 million new ordinary shares, thus shore up its capital while reducing its debt load. In December 2009, the company and SNCF acquired Veolia Cargo; the company took over French operations: Veolia Cargo France, Veolia Cargo Link and CFTA Cargo are expected to be rebranded Europorte France, Europorte Link and Europorte proximity and become part of its Europorte freight business. Socorail has not been announced as being rebranded. In January 2010, the Port of Dunkirk awarded the company a seven year concession, to operate its 200 km railway system. In June 2010, the company acquired British railfreight company First GBRf for £31 million from FirstGroup, to be merged into its Europorte, it was rebranded GB Railfreight On 11 June 2012, a bid by the company for three Channel ferries belonging to the former operator SeaFrance for lease to another operator was accepted. Eurotunnel acquired the assets of SeaFrance ferries Berlioz and Nord Pas-de-Calais.
They were chartered to start the MyFerryLink ferry company on 20 August 2012. In the year 2015, statistics estimate that over 10.5 million passengers travelled on the Eurotunnel with 2,556,585 cars, 58,387 coaches and 1,483,741 goods vehicles making use of Eurotunnel's services. In November 2017, Groupe Eurotunnel was rebranded Getlink; the company operates shuttle services with Eurotunnel Class 9 locomotives. Europorte operates freight trains in France, as well as the cross channel freight services performed by Europorte 2 before 2009. Since the part acquisition of Veolia Cargo in 2009, it provides rail transport services to industrial locations through Socorail. Passenger services are operated by Eurostar, who has a practical monopoly on tunnel passenger services. Eurotunnel levies charges on other operators for use of the tunnel. Deutsche Bahn planned to operate passenger trains between London and Frankfurt and Cologne using the tunnel; the company o
The DB Class 202 commonly referred to under its manufacturers' designation Henschel-BBC DE2500, since it was only in experimental use and never purchased by the DB, is a class of diesel-electric locomotives designed for use on main and secondary lines for both passenger and freight trains. One unit was converted to 1.5 kV DC operation under electric catenary, used by the Nederlandse Spoorwegen, as NS Class 1600P. The class represents a major milestone in the German locomotive development, since in these locomotives three phase asynchronous electric traction was first applied in a mainline diesel-electric locomotive; the DE2500 featured a light-weight and modular construction, which allowed the quick and easy exchange of whole sections of the locomotive, such as the prime mover, generator or alternator sections. It was both capable of driving on Co'Co' bogies as well as Bo'Bo' bogies. All the components of the electric sections - from generator to traction motors - were built to the latest state of the art featuring brushless and nearly contactless operation, which resulted in long service intervals and high reliability.
The locomotives were extensively tested by the Deutsche Bundesbahn on its lines throughout Western Germany, starting in 1971 through the mid-1980s. They were stationed at Bw Mannheim with the following DB numbers: 202 002-2 202 003-0 202 004-8 During the mid-1970s, locomotive 202-002 was converted for the Dutch railways into an all-electric locomotive for 1.5 kV DC-overhead wire. It was painted in the Dutch yellow scheme, assigned the number 1600P and given the logos of the Dutch railways. A pantograph for the collection of the current from the overhead wire was installed, the diesel prime mover and the generator section were removed and replaced with ballast weight; the NS was pleased with the results of the test cycles, but chose to acquire its serial-production Class 1600 from French manufacturers, based on the BB 7200, for both budget and delivery time considerations. The Danish State Railways, DSB, tested the locomotive 202 004; the acquired DSB Class ME, though heavier and stronger, were based on these prototypes.
37 of the class were built. An H0 scale model engine has been made of the BR 202 by the German company Heris. Matthias Maier, Diesellokomotiven deutscher Eisenbahnen, Düsseldorf: alba Markus Hehl, Eisenbahn-Kurier Special: Deutsche Diesellokomotiven, Freiburg: EK-Verlag Karl Gerhard Baur: Die Geschichte der Drehstromlokomotiven. EK-Verlag, Freiburg, 2005. ISBN 3-88255-146-1 BBC Asynchronous motor drive for Diesel locomotives Order No. D VK 40810 E Horst J. Obermayer: Diesellokomotiven - Mit Kleinlokomotiven, Stuttgart 1972
In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels. For road vehicles with more than two axles, the wheelbase is the distance between the steering axle and the centerpoint of the driving axle group. In the case of a tri-axle truck, the wheelbase would be the distance between the steering axle and a point midway between the two rear axles; the wheelbase of a vehicle equals the distance between its rear wheels. At equilibrium, the total torque of the forces acting on a vehicle is zero. Therefore, the wheelbase is related to the force on each pair of tires by the following formula: F f = d r L m g F r = d f L m g where F f is the force on the front tires, F r is the force on the rear tires, L is the wheelbase, d r is the distance from the center of mass to the rear wheels, d f is the distance from the center of gravity to the front wheels, m is the mass of the vehicle, g is the gravity constant. So, for example, when a truck is loaded, its center of gravity shifts rearward and the force on the rear tires increases.
The vehicle will ride lower. The amount the vehicle sinks will depend on counter acting forces, like the size of the tires, tire pressure, the spring rate of the suspension. If the vehicle is accelerating or decelerating, extra torque is placed on the rear or front tire respectively; the equation relating the wheelbase, height above the ground of the CM, the force on each pair of tires becomes: F f = d r L m g − h c m L m a F r = d f L m g + h c m L m a where F f is the force on the front tires, F r is the force on the rear tires, d r is the distance from the CM to the rear wheels, d f is the distance from the CM to the front wheels, L is the wheelbase, m is the mass of the vehicle, g is the acceleration of gravity, h c m is the height of the CM above the ground, a is the acceleration. So, as is common experience, when the vehicle accelerates, the rear sinks and the front rises depending on the suspension; when braking the front noses down and the rear rises.:Because of the effect the wheelbase has on the weight distribution of the vehicle, wheelbase dimensions are crucial to the balance and steering.
For example, a car with a much greater weight load on the rear tends to understeer due to the lack of the load on the front tires and therefore the grip from them. This is why it is crucial, when towing a single-axle caravan, to distribute the caravan's weight so that down-thrust on the tow-hook is about 100 pounds force. A car may oversteer or "spin out" if there is too much force on the front tires and not enough on the rear tires; when turning there is lateral torque placed upon the tires which imparts a turning force that depends upon the length of the tire distances from the CM. Thus, in a car with a short wheelbase, the short lever arm from the CM to the rear wheel will result in a greater lateral force on the rear tire which means greater acceleration and less time for the driver to adjust and prevent a spin out or worse. Wheelbases provide the basis for one of the most common vehicle size class systems; some luxury vehicles are offered with long-wheelbase variants to increase the spaciousness and therefore the luxury of the vehicle.
This practice can be found on full-size cars like the Mercedes-Benz S-Class, but ultra-luxury vehicles such as the Rolls-Royce Phantom and large family cars like the Rover 75 came with'limousine' versions. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair was given a long-wheelbase version of the Rover 75 for official use, and some SUVs like the VW Tiguan and Jeep Wrangler come in LWB models In contrast, coupé varieties of some vehicles such as the Honda Accord are built on shorter wheelbases than the sedans they are derived from. The wheelbase on many commercially available bicycles and motorcycles is so short, relative to the height of their centers of mass, that they are able to perform stoppies and wheelies. In skateboarding the word'wheelbase' is used for the distance between the two inner pairs of mounting holes on the deck; this is different from the distance between the rotational centers