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NWA Worlds Heavyweight Championship

The NWA Worlds Heavyweight Championship is a world heavyweight championship owned and promoted by the American professional wrestling promotion National Wrestling Alliance. The current champion is Nick Aldis, in his second reign. Although formally established in 1948, its lineage has been traditionally traced back to the first World Heavyweight Wrestling Championship, which traces its lineage to the title first awarded to George Hackenschmidt in 1905; this makes it the oldest surviving wrestling championship in the world. The title began as a governing body's world championship and has been competed for in multiple major promotions across the world, including Capitol Wrestling Corporation, New Japan Pro-Wrestling, Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, Ring of Honor, the now-defunct Jim Crockett Promotions, World Championship Wrestling, Eastern Championship Wrestling. In October 2017, the NWA ceased being a governing body and evolved into a singular wrestling promotion with the NWA Worlds Heavyweight Championship as its premier title.

With many territorial promotions appearing across the United States, the NWA was formed in 1948 as a professional wrestling governing body. The NWA World Heavyweight Championship was created that same year. Like franchises, these territories had the option of NWA membership. Member promotions had to recognize the NWA World Heavyweight Champion as world champion while retaining ownership of their own promotion and its own top championship; every year, the NWA World Heavyweight Champion would travel to each territory and defend the title against the territories' top contender or champion. The purpose of the world champion was to still hold the title; the NWA Board of Directors, composed of territory owners, decided when the title changed hands via a vote. By the late 1950s, the system began to break down; as Lou Thesz continued to hold the title, other popular wrestlers such as Verne Gagne became frustrated over the lack of change. There were disputes over the number of appearances the champion would make in different regions.

On June 14, 1957 in Chicago, Thesz defended the world title against Canadian wrestler Édouard Carpentier in a two out of three falls match. Thesz and Carpentier split. In the third fall, Thesz was disqualified by referee Ed Whalen who raised Carpentier's hand in victory; the NWA voided the title change based on the disqualification. Thesz defeated Carpentier by disqualification in a Montreal rematch on July 24, it had been planned that the NWA would present Thesz and Carpentier as rival champions in different cities following a similar pattern to the successful title dispute matches between Thesz and Leo Nomellini. Carpentier would be able to make appearances in the US as champion while Thesz was on an overseas tour. However, as a result of various disputes within the NWA, Carpentier's manager, wrestling promoter Eddie Quinn, left the organization in August making Carpentier unavailable to the NWA; the organization dealt with the situation by announcing 71 days after Carpentier's win in Chicago that it did not recognize Carpentier's win and had never recognized it.

Quinn started promoting Carpentier as the true NWA world champion based on the match with Thesz. In 1958, Quinn started shopping Carpentier around to promoters interested in leaving the NWA. A victory over Carpentier could give a local champion a credible claim to the world championship of wrestling. Verne Gagne, trying to become NWA World Heavyweight Champion for some time, defeated Carpentier in Omaha, Nebraska on August 9, 1958; this was recognized as a title change by those NWA affiliate promotions that would evolve into the American Wrestling Association in 1960. This disputed version of the NWA World Heavyweight Title was known as the World Heavyweight Championship; the title was unified with the AWA World Heavyweight Championship on September 7, 1963. The Boston NWA affiliate known as the Atlantic Athletic Commission arranged a match between Killer Kowalski and Carpentier in 1958. Kowalski's victory created what was after known as the ACC World Heavyweight Title and the Big Time Wrestling World title.

The "Crown" version of the championship belt debuted in 1959. The NAWA/WWA in Los Angeles recognized Carpentier as NWA champion in July 1959 as part of splitting from the NWA. On June 12, 1961, Carpentier lost a match to Freddie Blassie which created the basis for the WWA World Heavyweight Championship; the title ceased to exist when the WWA returned to the NWA on October 1, 1968. The World Wide Wrestling Federation, which evolved into today's WWE, was the major wrestling promotion in the northeast United States in the early 1960s. Vincent J. McMahon's Capitol Wrestling Corporation, the precursor to the WWWF, seceded from the NWA for a variety of reasons including the selection of the NWA World Heavyweight Champion and the number of dates wrestled by the champion in the promotion. Ostensibly, the dispute was over "Nature Boy" Buddy Rogers losing the NWA World Heavyweight Championship to Lou Thesz in one fall instead of a best-of-three. Capitol Wrestling Corporation executives held majority control over the NWA board of directors at the time.

Following Lou Thesz's World Heavyweight Championship win, Capitol Wrestling Corporation seceded from the NWA and became the World Wide Wrestling Federation. "Nature Boy" Buddy Rogers was recognized as the first WWWF World Hea

HD 10180

HD 10180 is a Sun-like star in the southern constellation Hydrus, notable for its large planetary system. Since its discovery, at least seven planets, as many as nine, have been observed orbiting it, making it the largest of all known planetary systems, including the Solar System. Based upon parallax measurements, it is located at a distance of about 127 light-years from Earth; the apparent visual magnitude of this star is 7.33, too faint to be viewed with the naked eye although it can be observed with a small telescope. At a declination of −60°, this star cannot be seen at latitudes north of the tropics. HD 10180 is a G1V-type star, thus generates energy at its core through the thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen; the mass of this star is estimated as 6% greater than the Sun's mass, it has a radius of 120% that of the Sun, is radiating 149% of the Sun's luminosity. The effective temperature of the star's chromosphere is 5,911 K, giving it a yellow-hued glow like the Sun. HD 10180 has a 20% higher abundance of elements other than hydrogen/helium compared to the Sun.

With an estimated age of 7.3 billion years, it is a stable star with no significant magnetic activity. The estimated period of rotation is about 24 days. On August 24, 2010, a research team led by Christophe Lovis of the University of Geneva announced that the star has at least five planets, as many as seven; the planets were detected using the HARPS spectrograph, in conjunction with the ESO's 3.6 m telescope at La Silla Observatory in Chile, using Doppler spectroscopy. On April 5, 2012, astronomer Mikko Tuomi of the University of Hertfordshire submitted a paper to Astronomy and Astrophysics approved for publishing on the April 6, 2012 that proposed a nine planet model for the system. Re-analysing the data using Bayesian probability analysis known planets' parameters were revised and further evidence was found for the innermost planet as well as evidence of two additional planets; the system is not known to be a transiting planetary system and as such planets are unlikely to be detected or verified by the transit method.

The system contains five planets with minimum masses from 12 to 25 times Earth's at orbital radii of 0.06, 0.13, 0.27, 0.49 and 1.42 AU just short of that of Mars. There are no planets known to be in mean-motion resonances, although it has a number of near resonances including 3c:2i:1d and 3e:2j:1f; the approximate ratios of periods of adjacent orbits are: 1:5, 1:3, 1:3, 2:5, 1:5, 3:11. Since the inclination of the planets' orbits is unknown, only minimum planetary masses can presently be obtained. Dynamical simulations suggest that the system cannot be stable if the true masses of the planets exceed the minimum masses by a factor of greater than three. HD 10180 b is a possible Earth-sized planet located at 0.02 AU. Its orbital radius was estimated to have a near circular orbit at a distance of 0.02225 ± 0.00035 AU, taking 1.1 days to complete a full orbit. Planet b was confirmed in 2012 with a smaller orbital radius and a more eccentric orbit; the false detection probability was 1.4%. HD 10180 c, with a minimum mass comparable to that of Uranus, is a hot Neptune.

Dynamical simulations suggest that if the mass gradient was any more than a factor of two, the system would not be stable. Planet c's orbital period and eccentricity were estimated at 5.75979 ± 0.00062 and 0.045 ± 0.026 respectively. The false detection probability is less than 0.1%. HD 10180 i is a possible but unconfirmed hot super-Earth discovered by Mikko Tuomi in 2012. HD 10180 d is a hot Neptune, its mass was estimated at >11.75 ± 0.65 and on a eccentric orbit. HD 10180 e is a hot Neptune with about twice the mass of Neptune, its estimated orbital distance and eccentricity were downscaled in 2012. The false detection probability is less than 0.1%. HD 10180 j is a possible but unconfirmed hot super-Earth or gas dwarf discovered by Mikko Tuomi in 2012. HD 10180 f is a hot Neptune and of similar in mass to HD 10180 e. At orbital distance of 0.49AU and eccentricity of 0.13, its tight and wild orbit is analogous to that of Mercury with a similar black-body-temperature range though with its immense mass, any greenhouse effect caused by an atmosphere would give it searing Venus-like or greater temperatures.

Estimated orbital distance and eccentricity were downscaled in 2012. The false detection probability is less than 0.1%. HD 10180 g is a giant planet with a mass larger than Neptune's, it has a circular orbit at 1.4 AU and therefore within the system's predicted habitable zone though it does not fit the current models for planetary habitability due to its large mass. If it is a gas giant, it is of Sudarsky Class II. There is a possibility that a natural satellite with sufficient atmospheric pressure could have liquid water on its surface, its estimated orbital distance and eccentricity were downscaled in 2012 but remains in the habitable zone. The false detection probability is less than 0.1%. HD 10180 h is the largest and outermost known planet in the system, it is a Saturn-sized giant planet with a minimum mass 65 times that of Earth. O

Kamioka Station

Kamioka Station is a railway station on the Nippō Main Line operated by JR Kyushu in Saiki, Japan. The station is served by the Nippō Main Line and is located 202.4 km from the starting point of the line at Kokura. The station, unstaffed, consists of an island platform serving two tracks, with a siding; the station building is a simple wooden structure in Japanese style with a tiled roof which serves only to house a waiting area with seats and an automatic ticket vending machine. Access to the island platform is by means of a footbridge. A wooden shed is provided on the platform as a weather shelter; the private Kyushu Railway had, by 1909, through acquisition and its own expansion, established a track from Kokura to Yanagigaura. The Kyushu Railway was nationalised on 1 July 1907. Japanese Government Railways, designated the track as the Hōshū Main Line on 12 October 1909 and expanded it southwards in phases, with Gōnohara opening as the new southern terminus on 20 November 1920. On the same day, Kamioka was opened as an intermediate station on the new track.

On 15 December 1923, the Hōshū Main Line was renamed the Nippō Main Line. With the privatization of Japanese National Railways, the successor of JGR, on 1 April 1987, the station came under the control of JR Kyushu. In fiscal 2015, there were a total of 4,706 boarding passengers, giving a daily average of 13 passengers. List of railway stations in Japan Kamioka