NYSE American known as the American Stock Exchange, more as NYSE MKT, is an American stock exchange situated in New York City. AMEX was a mutual organization, owned by its members; until 1953, it was known as the New York Curb Exchange. NYSE Euronext acquired AMEX on October 1, 2008, with AMEX integrated with the Alternext European small-cap exchange and renamed the NYSE Alternext U. S. In March 2009, NYSE Alternext U. S. was changed to NYSE Amex Equities. On May 10, 2012, NYSE Amex Equities changed its name to NYSE MKT LLC. Following the SEC approval of competing stock exchange IEX in 2016, NYSE MKT rebranded as NYSE American and introduced a 350-microsecond delay in trading, referred to as a "speed bump", present on the IEX; the exchange grew out of the loosely organized curb market of curbstone brokers on Broad Street in Manhattan. Efforts to organize and standardize the market started early in the 20th century under Emanuel S. Mendels and Carl H. Pforzheimer; the curb brokers had been kicked out of the Mills Building front by 1907, had moved to the pavement outside the Blair Building where cabbies lined up.
There they were given a "little domain of asphalt" fenced off by the police on Broad Street between Exchange Place and Beaver Street. As of 1907, the curb market operated starting at 10 AM, each day except Sundays, until a gong at 3 PM. Orders for the purchase and sale of securities were shouted down from the windows of nearby brokerages, with the execution of the sale shouted back up to the brokerage; as of 1907, E. S. Mendels gave the brokers rules "by right of seniority", but the curb brokers intentionally avoided organizing. According to the Times, this came from a general belief that if a curb exchange was organized, the exchange authorities would force members to sell their other exchange memberships. However, in 1908 the New York Curb Market Agency was established, which developed appropriate trading rules for curbstone brokers, organized by Mendels; the informal Curb Association formed in 1910 to weed out undesirables. The curb exchange was for years at odds with the New York Stock Exchange, or "Big Board", operating several buildings away.
Explained the New York Times in 1910, the Big Board looked at the curb as "a trading place for'cats and dogs.'" On April 1, 1910, when the NYSE abolished its unlisted department, the NYSE stocks "made homeless by the abolition" were "refused domicile" by the curb brokers on Broad Street until they had complied with the "Curb list" of requirements. In 1911, Mendels and his advisers drew up a constitution and formed the New York Curb Market Association, which can be considered the first formal constitution of American Stock Exchange. In 1920, journalist Edwin C. Hill wrote that the curb exchange on lower Broad Street was a "roaring, swirling whirlpool" that "tears control of a gold-mine from an unlucky operator, pauses to auction a puppy-dog, it is like nothing else under the astonished sky, its only roof." After a group of Curb brokers formed a real estate company to design a building, Starrett & Van Vleck designed the new exchange building on Greenwich Street in Lower Manhattan between Thames and Rector, at 86 Trinity Place.
It opened in 1921, the curbstone brokers moved indoors on June 27, 1921. In 1929, the New York Curb Market changed its name to the New York Curb Exchange; the Curb Exchange soon became the leading international stock market, according to historian Robert Sobel, "had more individual foreign issues on its list than all other American securities markets combined."Edward Reid McCormick, was the first president of the New York Curb Market Association and is credited with moving the market indoors. George Rea was approached about the position of president of the New York Curb Exchange in 1939, he was unanimously elected as the first paid president in the history of the Curb Exchange. He was paid $25,000 per year and held the position for 3 years before offering his resignation in 1942, he left the position having "done such a good job that there is no need for a full-time successor." In 1953 the Curb Exchange was renamed the American Stock Exchange. The exchange was shaken by a scandal in 1961, in 1962 began a reorganization.
Its reputation damaged by charges of mismanagement, in 1962 the American Stock Exchange named Edwin Etherington its president. Writes CNN, he and executive vice president Paul Kolton were "tapped in 1962 to clean up and reinvigorate the scandal-plagued American Stock Exchange." At AMEX for five years, he was credited with improving opportunities for women. In 1971, Johnson Products Company became the first African American-owned company to be listed on the American Stock Exchange; as of 1971, it was the second largest stock exchange in the United States. Paul Kolton succeeded Ralph S. Saul as AMEX president on June 17, 1971, making him the first person to be selected from within the exchange to serve as its leader, succeeding Ralph S. Saul, who announced his resignation in March 1971. In November 1972, Kolton was named as the exchange's first chief executive officer and its first salaried top executive; as chairman, Kolton oversaw the introduction of options trading. Kolton opposed the idea of a merger with the New York Stock Exchange while he headed the exchange saying that "two independent, viable exchanges are much more to be responsive to new pressures and public needs than a single institution".
Kolton announced in July 1977 that he would be leaving his position at the American Exchange in November of that year. In 1977, Thomas Peterffy purchased a seat on the American Stock Exchange and played a role in developing Interactive Brokers, an electronic trading platform. Peterffy created a major stir among traders by introducing handheld computers onto th
A statutory instrument is the principal form in which delegated legislation is made in Great Britain. Statutory instruments are governed by the Statutory Instruments Act 1946, they replaced statutory rules and orders, made under the Rules Publication Act 1893, in 1948. Most delegated legislation in Great Britain is made in the form of a statutory instrument; the advent of devolution in 1999 resulted in many powers to make statutory instruments being transferred to the Scottish and Welsh governments, oversight to the Scottish Parliament and National Assembly for Wales. Instruments made by the Scottish Government are now classed separately as Scottish statutory instruments. A statutory instrument is used when an Act of Parliament passed after 1947 confers a power to make, confirm or approve delegated legislation on: the Queen and states that it is to be exercisable by Order in Council. Minister of the Crown includes the Welsh Ministers and various Acts provide that delegated legislation, although made by another person, is to be made by statutory instrument.
The Minister authorised to issue a statutory instrument is "the Secretary of State", which the Interpretation Act 1978 defines as "one of Her Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State". A statutory instrument is used when the Queen in Council or a Minister exercises a power under an Act passed before 1947, legislative, rather than executive, in character. Use of a statutory instrument is not required; this may be the case where delegated legislation is of only limited application and therefore not of general importance. Instead, other provisions may be made for publishing the legislation. So, for example, an Order providing for the transfer of contracts from one National Health Service body to another may only be notified to the affected bodies, by-laws made by a local council may be publicised through an announcement in local newspapers; the main effect of delegated legislation being made by statutory instrument is that it is effective as soon as it is made, catalogued, made available for sale and published on the internet.
This ensures. Numbers are assigned by Her Majesty's Stationery Office and are sequential within the year of making; the number provides a means of citing the statutory instrument in addition to the title given by the instrument itself. So, for example, The Income Tax Regulations 2003 are numbered and may be cited as SI 2003 No. 1434 or SI 2003/1434. In addition to the main numbering system, there are a number of subsidiary numbering systems which may indicate an instrument's position within a particular series of instruments:: Commencement and/or Appointed Day orders which bring into force an Act or part of an Act.: legal series: relating to fees or procedures in courts in England and Wales.: Scottish series: instruments made by the United Kingdom Government which apply to Scotland only.: Northern Ireland series: Orders in Council made by the United Kingdom Government under its "direct rule" powers.: National Assembly for Wales series: statutory instruments made by the National Assembly for Wales and applying to Wales only.
Welsh language versions are numbered. Statutory instruments will be classified by subject heading in the annual edition printed by Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Printed copies of a statutory instrument will be on sale within a week of the date it is made. Most statutory instruments are subject to one of two forms of control by Parliament, depending on what is specified in the parent Act. Parliament's control is limited to approving, or rejecting, the instrument as laid before it: it cannot amend or change it. Whether or not a statutory instrument is subject to affirmative or negative resolution procedure is dictated by the parent act; the more common form of control is the negative resolution procedure. This requires that the instrument is either: laid before Parliament in draft, can be made once 40 days have passed unless either House passes a resolution disapproving it, or laid before Parliament after it is made, but will be revoked if either House passes a resolution annulling it within 40 days.
A motion to annul a statutory instrument is known as a "prayer" and uses the following wording: That an humble address be presented to Her Majesty praying that the be annulled. Any member of either House can put down a motion that an instrument should be annulled, although in the Commons, unless the motion is signed by a large number of Members, or is moved by the official Opposition, it is unlikely to be debated, in the Lords such a motion is actually voted upon. If a resolution to annul an instrument is passed, it will be revoked by the Queen through an Order-in-Council. Between the date of the resolution to annul and the date when the Order-in-Council is made, the instrument remains law but ineffective. A
Sergap is a criminal news program that aired on RCTI in Indonesia. This criminal news program was launched on 2 October 2001 and broadcasts criminal news that happens every day. At the beginning, Sergap RCTI was broadcast only 2 times a week at 11.00-11.30 WIB. In 2003 Sergap Siang RCTI increased the broadcast frequency to 7 times a week while moving broadcast time from 12.30 to 13.00 WIB after the RCTI Bulletin Siang program. On 6 June 2005, due to RCTI's Nuansa Pagi program airing every Monday-Saturday at 05.00 to 06.30 WIB, RCTI introduced the Sergap Pagi program which aired from 06.30 to 07.00 WIB. with different segments with the RCTI Afternoon Pass with the entry of the Halte Sergap segment. Sergap Pagi RCTI was stopped on 31 July 2007 due to poor rating. On 18 February 2011, the Sergap Siang RCTI ended and was replaced by Seputar Peristiwa. On 22 October 2018, Sergap aired again on RCTI after Seputar iNews Siang. Sergap itself consists of 5 segments, is: Ungkap - This segment contains the latest criminal and legal news.
Bidik - This segment explores more about a story whose material is considered strong. Justisia - Interactive dialogue around criminal issues. Galeri - Feature or story of police officers. Top Viral - Trending topics of the day. Sergap has a unique segment, is the Bang Napi segment played by Arie Broto. On 29 June 2009 there was an episode of Bang Napi Lepas at the end of the segment with Abu Marlo and only a few seconds Bang Napi escaped and returned to prison again. In this segment, Bang Napi delivered messages relating to the news, delivered. Bang Napi convey a credo at the end of the message, which reads: "Kejahatan tidak selalu terjadi hanya karena niat pelakunya, tetapi juga kesempatan. Waspadalah, waspadalah!". Indonesia Today
Przyrów is a village in Częstochowa County, Silesian Voivodeship, in southern Poland. It is the seat of the gmina called Gmina Przyrów, it lies 29 kilometres east of Częstochowa and 72 km north-east of the regional capital Katowice. The village has a population of 1,222. Przyrów is part of historic province of Lesser Poland, for centuries it belonged to Kraków Voivodeship, it was a town between 1369 and 1869. Przyrów received Magdeburg rights town charter from King Kazimierz Wielki, in the year 1369, in a location of the village of Komorów. Following other medieval towns of Europe, Przyrów had a market square, several streets, its first wójt was Jakub Rechicki of Nagłowice, town’s privileges were confirmed by several other Polish kings. In the 14th century Przyrów emerged as an important center of beer production; until the Partitions of Poland, the town was part of Kraków Voivodeship. It was a royal town, with a council. In 1620, it had 136 houses, prospered together with whole Lesser Poland. On November 8, 1655, Przyrów was destroyed in the Swedish invasion of Poland, the town never recovered from the destruction.
After the invasion, the number of still existing houses was reduced to 55, the population shrank to 330. In early November 1655, Swedish troops under General Burchard Müller von der Luhnen demanded large amounts of bread, meats, beer and hay. Since residents of Przyrów did not have enough goods, von der Luhnen ordered the destruction of the town. In 1793 Przyrów was annexed as part of New Silesia. In 1807 it belonged to the Duchy of Warsaw. In the early 19th century Przyrów had the population of app. 1,200. After January Uprising, Russian government turned it into a village. By 1880, the population grew to 2,500, with a 40% Jewish minority. In the Second Polish Republic and in 1945 - 1950, Przyrów belonged to Kielce Voivodeship. Since 1950, it has been administratively tied with Częstochowa. Jewish Community in Przyrów on Virtual Shtetl
The culture of New England comprises a shared heritage and culture shaped by its indigenous peoples, early English colonists, waves of immigration from Europe, Asia and the Americas. In contrast to other American regions, many of New England's earliest Puritan settlers came from eastern England, contributing to New England's distinctive accents, foods and social structures. New England is the oldest region of the United States and one of the first successful English settlements in the Americas, it has a long and oft-contested cultural history. Professor of American and New England Studies Joseph A. Conforti writes, "New England has been a storied place, its identity has been encoded in narratives about its past—stories that have been continually revised in response to new interpretive needs generated by the transformations of regional life New Englanders negotiate and resist change." As such, New England culture is a complex combination of its overarching and popular Puritan English colonial narrative and its multiple and important complementary and competing alternative narratives.
Within modern New England, a cultural divide exists between urban, mobile New Englanders living along the densely populated coastline, in much of Connecticut, rural New Englanders in western Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine, where population density is low. The creative economy plays an important role in the larger economy of New England. In 2002, there were nearly 275,000 workers in the region engaged in cultural enterprises, with nearly half in Massachusetts alone; as a percentage of the workforce compared to other US states, Massachusetts ranks first for architects, Connecticut ranks third for producers and directors, Maine ranks fourth for visual artists, New Hampshire ranks eleventh for writers, Rhode Island ranks first for photographers, Vermont ranks third for visual artists and writers. Historian Samuel Eliot Morison uses the metaphor of wine to describe the relationship between present New England culture and its past: The wine of New England is not a series of successive vintages, each distinct from the other, like the wines of France.
Thus the change is gradual and the mother wine of 1656 still gives bouquet and flavor to what is drawn in 1956. Many of the first European colonists of New England had a maritime orientation toward whaling and fishing, in addition to farming. New England has developed a distinct cuisine, dialect and government. New England cuisine has a reputation for its emphasis on dairy. Today, New England is the least religious part of the U. S. In 2009, less than half of those polled in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont claimed that religion was an important part of their daily lives. Southernmost New England in Connecticut is among the ten least religious states, 53 percent, of those polled claimed that it was. According to the American Religious Identification Survey, 34 percent of Vermonters, a plurality, claimed to have no religion. S. New England has one of the highest percentages of Catholics in the U. S; this number declined from 50% in 1990 to 36% in 2008. The literature of New England has had an enduring influence on American literature in general, with themes such as religion, the individual versus society, social repression, nature, emblematic of the larger concerns of American letters.
New England has been the birthplace of American poets. Ralph Waldo Emerson was born in Boston. Henry David Thoreau was born in Concord, where he famously lived, for some time, by Walden Pond, on Emerson's land. Nathaniel Hawthorne, romantic era writer, was born in historical Salem. All three of these writers have strong connections to The Old Manse, a home in the Emerson family and a key center of the Transcendentalist movement. Emily Dickinson lived most of her life in Massachusetts. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was from Portland and Edgar Allan Poe was born in Boston. According to reports, the famed Mother Goose, the author of fairy tales and nursery rhymes was a person named Elizabeth Foster Goose or Mary Goose who lived in Boston. Poets James Russell Lowell, Amy Lowell, Robert Lowell, a Confessionalist poet and teacher of Sylvia Plath, were all New England natives. Anne Sexton taught by Lowell, was born and died in Massachusetts. Much of the work of Nobel Prize laureate Eugene O'Neill is associated with the city of New London, Connecticut where he spent many summers.
The 14th U. S. Poet Laureate Donald Hall, a New Hampshire resident, continues the line of renowned New England poets. Noah Webster, the Father of American Scholarship and Education, was born in West Hartford, Connecticut. Pulitzer Prize winning poets Edwin Arlington Robinson, Edna St. Vincent Millay and Robert P. T. Coffin were born in Maine. Poets Stanley Kunitz and Elizabeth Bishop were both born in Worcester and Pulitzer Prize–winning poet Galway Kinnell was born in Providence, Rhode Island. Oliver La Farge, a New Englander of French and Narragansett descent, won the Pulitzer Prize for the Novel, the predecessor to the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, in 1930 for his book Laughing Boy. John P. Marquand grew up in Newburyport, Massachuse
Radio-frequency identification uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. An RFID tag consists of a tiny radio transponder; when triggered by an electromagnetic interrogation pulse from a nearby RFID reader device, the tag transmits digital data an identifying inventory number, back to the reader. This number can be used to inventory goods. There are two types. Passive tags are powered by energy from the RFID reader's interrogating radio waves. Active tags are powered by a battery and thus. Unlike a barcode, the tag doesn't need to be within the line of sight of the reader, so it may be embedded in the tracked object. RFID is one method of automatic identification and data capture. RFID tags are used in many industries. For example, an RFID tag attached to an automobile during production can be used to track its progress through the assembly line. Since RFID tags can be attached to cash and possessions, or implanted in animals and people, the possibility of reading personally-linked information without consent has raised serious privacy concerns.
These concerns resulted in standard specifications development addressing privacy and security issues. ISO/IEC 18000 and ISO/IEC 29167 use on-chip cryptography methods for untraceability and reader authentication, over-the-air privacy. ISO/IEC 20248 specifies a digital signature data structure for RFID and barcodes providing data and read method authenticity; this work is done within ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Automatic identification and data capture techniques. Tags can be used in shops to expedite checkout, to prevent theft by customers and employees. In 2014, the world RFID market was worth US$8.89 billion, up from US$7.77 billion in 2013 and US$6.96 billion in 2012. This figure includes tags and software/services for RFID cards, labels and all other form factors; the market value is expected to rise from $12.08bn in 2020 to US$16.23 billion by 2029. In 1945, Léon Theremin invented a listening device for the Soviet Union which retransmitted incident radio waves with the added audio information. Sound waves vibrated a diaphragm which altered the shape of the resonator, which modulated the reflected radio frequency.
Though this device was a covert listening device, rather than an identification tag, it is considered to be a predecessor of RFID because it was passive, being energized and activated by waves from an outside source. Similar technology, such as the Identification friend or foe transponder, was used by the allies and Germany in World War II to identify aircraft as friend or foe. Transponders are still used by most powered aircraft. An early work exploring RFID is the landmark 1948 paper by Harry Stockman, who predicted that "... considerable research and development work has to be done before the remaining basic problems in reflected-power communication are solved, before the field of useful applications is explored." Mario Cardullo's device, patented on January 23, 1973, was the first true ancestor of modern RFID, as it was a passive radio transponder with memory. The initial device was passive, powered by the interrogating signal, was demonstrated in 1971 to the New York Port Authority and other potential users.
It consisted of a transponder with 16 bit memory for use as a toll device. The basic Cardullo patent covers the use of RF, light as transmission media; the original business plan presented to investors in 1969 showed uses in transportation, banking and medical. In 1973, an early demonstration of reflected power RFID tags, both passive and semi-passive, was performed by Steven Depp, Alfred Koelle and Robert Frayman at the Los Alamos National Laboratory; the portable system operated at 915 MHz and used 12-bit tags. This technique is used by the majority of today's microwave RFID tags. In 1983, the first patent to be associated with the abbreviation RFID was granted to Charles Walton. A radio-frequency identification system uses tags, or labels attached to the objects to be identified. Two-way radio transmitter-receivers called interrogators or readers send a signal to the tag and read its response. RFID tags are made out of three pieces: a micro chip, an antenna for receiving and transmitting the signal and a substrate.
The tag information is stored in a non-volatile memory. The RFID tag includes either fixed or programmable logic for processing the transmission and sensor data, respectively. RFID tags can be either active or battery-assisted passive. An active tag periodically transmits its ID signal. A battery-assisted passive has a small battery on board and is activated when in the presence of an RFID reader. A passive tag is smaller because it has no battery. However, to operate a passive tag, it must be illuminated with a power level a thousand times stronger than for signal transmission; that makes a difference in exposure to radiation. Tags may either be read-only, having a factory-assigned serial