International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Arden is a village and art colony in New Castle County, Delaware, in the United States, founded in 1900 as a radical Georgist single-tax community by sculptor Frank Stephens and architect Will Price. The village occupies about 160 acres, with half kept as open land. According to the 2010 Census, the population of the village is 439. In 1973, the entire village was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Two neighboring villages of similar size were founded on Georgist principles, Ardentown, in 1922, Ardencroft, in 1950. In 2003 they were listed on the NRHP as the Ardens Historic District. Many Ardenites, as the villagers of Arden are called, consider themselves to be "close-knit, nature-loving, tolerant, free-spirited, intellectual ex-hippie". Arden was founded in 1900 by sculptor Frank Stephens and architect Will Price, based on ideas such as Henry George's single-tax, William Morris’s Arts and Crafts principles, Peter Kropotkin's theories of community. Philanthropist Joseph Fels funded the project.
The single-tax movement, popular in the U. S. and other countries from the 1890s until the 1930s, believed that the best way to raise government money was to tax only the value of unimproved land and the public-created value, like roads, added to the land. The tax, based on a systematized assessment, would recover both the value of natural resources and public investment for the public, while not impeding labor and capital from profiting from their efforts. Followers of Henry George's philosophy of economics created Arden as an experiment in the single-tax idea after a failed attempt to implement Georgism in the entire State of Delaware in the late 19th century. William Morris, an Englishman, rebelled against modern cities and industry, he advocated a return to craft production, good design, village life. While Kropotkin was an anarchist communist, many of his ideas regarding social and community living were used by the founders of Arden to advance William Morris' ideas for the return to village life.
Land in Arden cannot be sold. The leasehold interest in the land can be sold. People are free to improve it as they choose, but the land-lease fee will not increase because of improvements. Arden is not exempt from New Castle County land taxes, but the buildings within the village are taxed separately for county and school district revenue, while the land is technically one large parcel, taxed by New Castle County accordingly; the land is held in a trust, administered by three elected trustees. Arden's tax structure is based upon the individual leaseholds. Most leaseholds are residential, the land rent is based upon the square footage rather than the improvements upon the land. An elected board of assessors divides the County's full assessment of the residential areas of Arden among the individual lots. Lots that are nearer to open space or woodlands are assessed a bit higher, while lots nearer main road are assessed a bit lower. At first, Arden was a summer community. People lived the simple life in rustic dwellings.
By 1909, much of the land had been leased for summer use. By 1922 there were 148 leaseholders, 100 buildings, 350 summer residents, 100 winter residents; the founding of the Arden Club in 1908 provided an organizational core for community activity. Interest groups and task groups were called gilds rather than committees. From the beginning, Shakespeare’s plays were produced in the outdoor Field Theater. Fairs and Arden holidays filled the calendar. Many of these events continue today through various community organizations including the Arden Recreation and Community Association and the Arden Club, as well as through some of the village committees for each of the three Ardens; the Georgist Gild continues to offer courses in Georgist economics to the Ardens and any other interested communities. Shakespeare's plays were produced early in Arden's history to promote better oratory skills among the Georgists and have continued if only as a tradition and form of entertainment, it took longer to implement the Arts-and-Crafts ideal.
Many people worked in Philadelphia. In 1913, the Craft Shop was built. Arden crafts from the Arden Forge and Arden Weavers, became popular in the area; the conceptual lifestyle of Arden proved so popular that it expanded twice, with Ardentown in 1922 and Ardencroft in 1950. Today, the Ardens remain as single-tax communities at the village municipal level; the spirit of Arden encourages all sorts of artistic and intellectual expression and a strong community life. Most of the village activities and Club activities are run by volunteers. Arden and its sister villages and Ardencroft, are in the National Historic Register because of their cultural landscape, rather than its land or buildings. Still, there are several buildings associated with Stephens and Price, including old farm houses and converted barns, the Craftshop, the Weaveshop, a number of fine Craftsman Houses, that have historical and architectural interest. There are six named houses in Arden designed by Will Price: 2205 Little Lane. Price designed the Arden Craft Shop in 1913.
His designs are Elizabethan Revival and show the influence of the Arts and Crafts movement. The first houses built in Arden were small summer cottages that have been destroyed, or in a few cases enlarged. Small
Delaware County, Pennsylvania
Delaware County, colloquially referred to as Delco, is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. With a population of 562,960, it is the fifth most populous county in Pennsylvania, the third smallest in area; the county was created on September 26, 1789, from part of Chester County, named for the Delaware River. Its county seat is Media; until 1850, Chester was the county seat of Delaware County and, before that, of Chester County. Delaware County is adjacent to the city-county of Philadelphia and is included in the Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington, PA–NJ–DE–MD Metropolitan Statistical Area. Delaware County is the only county covered in its entirety by area codes 610 and 484. Delaware County lies in the river and bay drainage area named "Delaware" in honor of Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, Governor of the nearby English colony of Virginia; the land was explored by Henry Hudson in 1609, over the next several decades it was variously claimed and settled by the Swedes, the Dutch, the English.
Its original human inhabitants were the Lenni-Lenape tribe of American Indians. Once the Dutch were defeated and the extent of New York was determined, King Charles II of England made his grant to William Penn in order to found the colony which came to be named Pennsylvania. Penn divided his colony into three counties: Bucks and Chester; the riverfront land south of Philadelphia, being the most accessible, was granted and settled. In 1789, the southeastern portion of Chester County was divided from the rest and named Delaware County for the Delaware River. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 191 square miles, of which 184 square miles is land and 6.8 square miles is water. It is the third-smallest county in Pennsylvania by area. Delaware County is diamond- or kite-shaped, with the four sides formed by the Chester County boundary to the northwest, the boundary with the state of Delaware to the southwest, the Delaware River (forming the border with the state of New Jersey to the southeast, the city of Philadelphia and Montgomery County to the east and northeast.
The lowest point in the state of Pennsylvania is located on the Delaware River in Marcus Hook in Delaware County, where it flows out of Pennsylvania and into Delaware. The highest point in Delaware County is 500 feet at two points southeast of Wyola in Newtown Township. Waterways in Delaware County flow in a southward direction and drain into the Delaware River; the waterways are, from west to east: the Brandywine River, Naaman's Creek, Stoney Creek, Chester Creek, Ridley Creek, Crum Creek, Muckinipates Creek, Darby Creek and Cobbs Creek. Crum Creek was dammed in 1931 near Pennsylvania Route 252 to fill Springton Lake, an 391-acre drinking water reservoir maintained by Aqua America, the county's largest lake; the Trainer Refinery and the Port of Chester along located along the shores of the Delaware River. Montgomery County, Pennsylvania Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Gloucester County, New Jersey New Castle County, Delaware Chester County, Pennsylvania Delaware County is one of four counties in the United States to border a state with which it shares the same name.
John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge 2,600 acres of the county are occupied by the Ridley Creek State Park. Delaware County is divided by the boundary between the humid subtropical and the hot-summer humid continental climate; the hardiness zones are 7b. As of the 2010 census, the county was 71.1% White non-Hispanic, 19.7% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American or Alaskan Native, 4.7% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian, 2.0% were two or more races, 0.9% were some other race. 3.0% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of the 2000 census, there were 550,864 people, 206,320 households, 139,472 families residing in the county; the population density was 2,990 people per square mile. There were 216,978 housing units at an average density of 1,178 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 80.32% White, 14.52% African American, 0.11% Native American, 3.29% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.56% from other races, 1.19% from two or more races. 1.52% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
24.6 % were of Irish, 10.1 % German and 6.7 % English ancestry. There were 206,320 households out of which 31.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.80% were married couples living together, 12.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.40% were non-families. 27.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.17. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.80% under the age of 18, 8.90% from 18 to 24, 28.80% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 15.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 91.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $50,092, the median income for a family was $61,590. Males had a median income of $44,155 versus $31,831 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,040.
About 5.80% of families and 8.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.00% of
New Castle County, Delaware
New Castle County is the northernmost of the three counties of the U. S. state of Delaware. As of the 2010 census, the population was 538,479, making it the most populous county in Delaware, with just under 60% of the state's population of 897,936 in the same census; the county seat is Wilmington. New Castle County is included in the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county is named after the English city of Newcastle. New Castle County has the highest population and population density of any Delaware county, it is the smallest county in the state by area, it has more people than the other two counties and Sussex, combined. It is the most economically developed of the three. Matt Meyer was elected New Castle County Executive in 2016. New Castle County is home to two minor league sports teams: the Wilmington Blue Rocks and the Delaware Blue Coats which plays in Wilmington, it has a professional auto racing track in New Castle known as Airport Speedway, which races on Saturday nights throughout the summer.
The first permanent European settlement on Delaware soil was Fort Christina, resulting from Peter Minuit's 1638 expedition on the Swedish vessels Fogel Grip and Kalmar Nyckel. The Swedes laid out the town at the site of modern-day Wilmington, they contracted with the Lenape Native Americans for land of Old Cape Henlopen north to Sankikans, inland as far as they desired. However, a dispute ensued between the Dutch, who asserted a prior claim to that land. In 1640, New Sweden was founded a few miles south of Christina. In 1644, Queen Christina appointed Lt. Col. Johan Printz as Governor of New Sweden, she directed boundaries to be set and to reach Cape Henlopen north along the west side of Godyn's Bay, up the South River, past Minquas Kill, to Sankikans. Printz settled as the seat of government and capital of the New Sweden colony. Peter Stuyvesant, Governor of New Netherland, sailed up the South River in 1651, he purchased land from the Lenape. Stuyvesant began to build Fort Casimir. In 1654, Johan Risingh and councilor to the Governor Lt. Col. Printz assumed Printz's duties and began to expel all Dutch from New Sweden.
Fort Casimir surrendered and was renamed Fort Trinity in 1654. The Swedes had complete possession of the west side of the Delaware River. On June 21, 1654, the Lenape met with the Swedes to reaffirm the purchase. Having learned of the fall of Fort Casimir, the Dutch sent Stuyvesant to drive the Swedes from both sides of the river, they allowed only Dutch colonists to settle in the area and on August 31, 1655, the territory was converted back to Fort Casimir. Fort Christina fell on September 15 to the Dutch and New Netherland ruled once again. John Paul Jacquet was appointed governor, making New Amstel the capital of the Dutch-controlled colony; as payment for regaining the territory, the Dutch West India Company conveyed land from the south side of Christina Kill to Bombay Hook, as far west as Minquas land. This land was known as the Colony of The City. On December 22, 1663, the Dutch transferred property rights to the territory along the Delaware River to England. In 1664, the Duke of York, was granted this land by King Charles II.
One of the first acts by the Duke was to order removal of all Dutch from New Amsterdam. In 1672, the town of New Castle was incorporated and English law ordered. However, in 1673, the Dutch attacked the territory. On September 12, 1673, the Dutch established New Amstel in present-day Delaware coterminous with today's New Castle County; the establishment was not stable, it was transferred to the British under the Treaty of Westminster on February 9, 1674. On November 6, 1674, New Amstel was made dependent on New York Colony, was renamed New Castle on November 11, 1674. On September 22, 1676, New Castle County was formally placed under the Duke of York's laws, it gained land from Upland County on November 12, 1678. On June 21, 1680, St. Jones County was carved from New Castle County, it is known today as Delaware. On August 24, 1682, New Castle County, along with the rest of the surrounding land, was transferred from the Colony of New York to the possession of William Penn, who established the Colony of Delaware.
In September 1673, a Dutch council established a court at New Castle with the boundaries defined as north of Steen Kill and south to Bomties Hook. In 1681, a 12-mile arc was drawn to delineate the northern border of New Castle County as it exists. In 1685, the western border was established by King James II. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 494 square miles, of which 426 square miles is land and 68 square miles is water; the boundaries of New Castle County are described in § 102 of the Delaware Code. The county is drained by Brandywine Creek, Christina River, other channels, its eastern edge sits along the Delaware Delaware Bay. Two small exclaves of the county and the state lie across the Delaware River, on its east bank on the New Jersey side, Finns Point adjacent to Pennsville Township, New Jersey, the northern tip of Artificial Island, adjacent to Lower Alloways Creek Township, New Jers
Claymont is a census-designated place in New Castle County, United States. The population was 8,253 at the 2010 census. Claymont has been a continuous settlement near the mouth of Naamans Creek on the Delaware River since at least A. D. 1200, with evidence of its original inhabitants along both banks pointing to the Middle Woodland period. The first western inhabitants named the creek and settlement after the Lenape chief who occupied the region. In 1681, John Grubb purchased a one-third interest in a 600-acre tract of the Brandywine Hundred which came to be known as Grubb's Landing. During the colonial period, the town served as a stop along the King's Highway, with its location at the confluence of Interstate 95, Interstate 495, US 13 and US 13 Bus. has long been a thoroughfare for travel between Philadelphia and Washington, D. C.. Claymont was so-named in 1856 upon the efforts of the wife of Reverend Clemson, pastor of the Episcopal church, after they had relocated from their family plantation, Claymont Court, in Charles Town, West Virginia.
The area developed from a agricultural community in the mid-19th century into a suburban resort area for wealthy Philadelphia families, in the early 20th century into an industrial working community. Since 1993, several major revitalization efforts have been completed, including renovations of historical sites such as the Claymont Stone School, the Darley House and the Robinson House; the Claymont Renaissance Development Corporation, a nonprofit organization working to stimulate economic growth and residential improvement in Claymont, received a Sustainable Communities Award from the National Association of Counties. In what has been called "the single largest redevelopment project in Brandywine Hundred in the last 40 years", the 633-unit, 66-acre community of Brookview was razed beginning in 2007 to make way for Renaissance Village. In addition to the Claymont Stone School, the Darley House and the Robinson House, the Archmere Academy, Hickman Row, Ivyside Farm are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Claymont is located at 39°48′02″N 75°27′35″W, in northeastern Brandywine Hundred, on the ridge line between the coastal floodplain of the Delaware River and the upland piedmont area of northwestern New Castle County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 2.1 square miles, all land. The area considered to be Claymont encompasses the entire 19703 ZIP code, bounded by the Pennsylvania border to the north, the Delaware River to the east, the CSX railroad line to the west, Perkins Run to the south; as of the census of 2000, there were 9,220 people, 3,792 households, 2,400 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 4,371.4 people per square mile. There were 4,193 housing units at an average density of 1,988.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 71.04% White, 23.33% African American, 0.33% Native American, 1.44% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.63% from other races, 2.21% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.18% of the population.
There were 3,792 households out of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.6% were married couples living together, 17.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.7% were non-families. 30.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.01. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 26.4% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 34.0% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, 12.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $40,813, the median income for a family was $46,780. Males had a median income of $36,493 versus $28,399 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $20,211. About 6.6% of families and 7.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.4% of those under age 18 and 3.0% of those age 65 or over.
The ZIP Code Tabulation Area for 19703 includes communities such as Ashbourne Hills, the Greentree section, the Society Hill Section, parts of Rolling Park, which are not included in Claymont CDP, had a population of 15,312 at the 2000 census. Major roads that serve Claymont include Interstate 95, Interstate 495, US 13, US 13 Bus. and DE 92. Claymont Station is a SEPTA Regional Rail train station on the Wilmington/Newark Line, providing service north to Center City Philadelphia and south to Wilmington and Newark. Trains along Amtrak's Northeast Corridor do not stop. DART First State provides bus service to Claymont along Route 13, which runs from the Tri-State Mall in Claymont south along Philadelphia Pike to Wilmington and the Walmart on Wilton Boulevard near New Castle. SEPTA Suburban Bus Route 113 runs from the Tri-State Mall in Claymont north into Delaware County, providing service to the Chester Transportation Center in Chester, the Darby Transportation Center in Darby, the 69th Street Transportation Center in Upper Darby.
Claymont is home to several historic places, including the Claymont Stone Schoo
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman