A podded engine is a jet engine in a pod attached below the wing or to the tail of the aircraft. The pod itself is called a nacelle. Placing engines on the wing provides beneficial wing bending relief in flight; the further the engines are away from the fuselage the greater the wing bending relief so engines buried in the wing root provide little relief. All modern large jet airplanes use engines in pods located a significant distance from the wing root for substantial wing bending relief; the pods are in front of the wing to help avoid flutter of the wing which, in turn, allows a much lighter wing structure. Locating the pod below the wing provides each engine with air undisturbed by the fuselage or wing. Smaller jet airplanes like the Cessna Citation are not suited to podded engines below the wing because they would be too close to the ground; this is the case with aircraft designed to operate from unimproved grass or gravel runways. Instead, in these cases it is common to mount two podded engines located at the rear of the fuselage, where they are less to be damaged by ingesting foreign objects from the ground.
This mounting location provides no wing bending relief but, following an engine failure, does offer much less yaw due to asymmetric thrust than would wing-mounted engines. Careful examination of such engines will show them mounted nose-high; these engines are mounted to face the local flow of air, the local airflow at the airplane's tail is descending with respect to the centerline of the aircraft's fuselage. Unusual designs that deviate from the norm are the VFW-614, Hondajet and the Softex Aero V24L, which place the podded engines clear above the wings to maximize the distance between ground and engine and therefore minimize the likelihood of foreign object damage; the Antonov An-72 and the Boeing YC-14 place their engines above the wings, but close to the wing. This placement utilizes the Coandă effect allowing a lower minimum flight speed and decreasing the amount of runway needed for takeoff and landing. Another unusual scheme is to mount the engine in a pod above the fuselage; the Heinkel He 162, the Cirrus Vision SF50 are two examples.
In both cases the idea is to mount the engine where it will receive good air flow, be distant from the ground to avoid foreign object damage, not occupy fuselage space. The Piper PA-47 PiperJet is similar except the pod is attached to the tail above the fuselage, not to the fuselage itself; some jet fighters use podded engines under and mounted directly to the wing. An example was the Messerschmitt Me 262, which had the nacelles mounted directly under the wings, with no pylons being used; the A-10 Thunderbolt II ground-attack aircraft uses fuselage-mounted podded turbofan engines. The Heinkel He 162 had a single BMW 003E jet engine in a pod mounted over the fuselage. Stealthy designs do not use podded engines. Instead the engines are contained within the fuselage to minimize radar cross section. Many military transport aircraft and tankers use podded engines. Podded engines... on the wings can act as vortex generators. Can be located outboard on the wing, where the wing thickness is too small to accommodate a buried engine.
The further outboard, the greater the wing bending relief. In front of the wing provide maximum resistance to flutter of the wing; this is why all of the engine pod is located ahead of the leading edge of the wing. Easy maintenance access. Reduce noise within the cabin. Can be exchanged with alternative models more easily. For example, the Boeing 747 uses engines from GE, Pratt and Whitney, Rolls-Royce, the changes being isolated to the pods themselves. Are less to critically damage the aircraft than an engine embedded within the airframe if they explode, catch fire or break free from their mounts. Although such events happen to modern jet engines, this possibility helps explain why podded engines are used on commercial and general aviation aircraft that may carry fare-paying passengers. Military combat jets are occupied only by crew members who can bail out of the craft in an emergency, making this safety factor less crucial. Podded engines can increase drag. A podded engine hanging low from a wing is more to suffer from foreign object damage.
In a ditching or water landing, podded engines hanging from the wing increase the stress on the wing by increasing the amount of drag caused by the water. This can cause the wings to shear off or flip the aircraft and destroy the fuselage as happened to Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961. In over-wing or over-fuselage podded engines, gravity may be unable to feed fuel to the engines in the event of a fuel pump failure
Royal Enfield Bullet
The Royal Enfield Bullet was a British overhead valve single cylinder four-stroke motorcycle made by Royal Enfield in Redditch, now produced by Royal Enfield at Chennai, Tamil Nadu, a company founded by Madras Motors to build Royal Enfield motorcycles under licence in India. The Royal Enfield Bullet has the longest unchanged production run of any motorcycle having remained continuously in production since 1948; the Bullet marque is older, has passed 75 years of continuous production. The Royal Enfield and Bullet names derive from the British company having been a subcontractor to Royal Small Arms Factory in Enfield, London; the Bullet has evolved from a four-valve engine with exposed valve-gear to the latest all-alloy unit construction engine with electronic fuel injection. Introduced in 1931 as a four-stroke single cylinder motorcycle, this model was the first to feature the Bullet name, it differed in a number of ways from its successors: it had an inclined engine with exposed valve gear featuring four valves per cylinder with 350 cc and 500 cc options.
In 1933, a 250 cc option was added to the range. Its frame was considerably different, having centre-spring girder front forks, being among a new range of models from Royal Enfield that featured them, along with a saddle-type fuel tank. However, common to motorcycles of this period, it had a rigid rear-end, necessitating a'sprung' seat for the rider, which resulted in the iconic look of the motorcycle, much replicated today though the sprung seat is unnecessary in modern models. After competition success the 350 cc Royal Enfield Bullet was bought by the British Army for dispatch riders and 3,000 were supplied to the RAF during the Second World War; this model refreshed Royal Enfield's model line-up for 1939. It differed in cosmetic details, as well as in having two rocker boxes, which resulted in higher volumetric efficiency for the engine; the basic design with front girder forks was retained. A number of changes were implemented in order to bring the bike up-to-date; this model featured a vertical engine with higher compression.
The frame was changed to a sprung design using a swing-arm with non-adjustable hydraulic shockers at the rear, while the front used a brand-new telescopic fork of Royal Enfield's own design. This enabled the introduction of a bench seat made with no large springs. Power transmission was via the same four-speed Albion gearbox as the previous model, with a unique'neutral-finder' lever the rider could press from any gear other than first to shift to neutral; the crankshaft continued to have a floating big-end bearing. The headlight assembly was enclosed with the speedometer and ammeter into a nacelle, which served as the attachment of the front suspension as well as the handlebars. An otherwise similar model, but with engine displacement of 499 cc, made its debut in 1953; the prototype had done well in a performance trial and went on to win the trophy at the 1948 International Six Days Trial and two Bullet riders won gold medals. In 1952 Johnny Brittain won the Scottish Six Days Trial on a Royal Enfield Bullet and in 1953 he won the International Six Days Trial without losing a single point.
In 1949, the Indian Army ordered Royal Enfield Bullets for border patrol use and the company decided to open a factory in Madras. In 1955, the 350 cc Bullets were sent from the Redditch factory in kit form for assembly in India, but Enfield India Ltd. soon developed the factory and produced complete motorcycles independently under licence. The 1955 model remained unchanged for years and Madras produced over 20,000 Bullets annually. In 1955, Royal Enfield carried out some retooling and redesign at their Redditch plant, in the UK, to modernise the Bullet, in 1959 some changes were made to the gear ratios; these changes, were not incorporated by the Indian arm due to its commitment to supply the Indian Army. Thus the British and Indian lines diverged. Between 1956 and 1960, the British Bullet was released in several models, including a 350 cc Trials "works replica" version, a 350 cc "Clipper" model and in 1958 the Airflow version; this model had full weather protection from a large fibreglass fairing and included panniers for touring.
The design was developed in partnership with British Plastics and featured as a series in The Motor Cycle magazine. The engines were the same and the only differences were in exhaust, instrumentation and fuel tank. Numerous technical improvements were made, including moving to alternator charging and coil ignition; the 350 cc model continued in production, but the 500 cc model was discontinued in 1961. In 1962, the UK company was sold and the Bullet discontinued and in 1967, the Redditch factory closed. In 1970, Royal Enfield closed down completely. Additional to the'separate gearbox' Bullet the Royal Enfield Redditch factory produced 250'unit construction' Bullets bikes known as'New Bullets'. Produced in five batches of fifty between 1963 and 1965 these models were a 350 Crusader. However, unlike their'one piece cranked' smaller sibling the New Bullet had a built up crank and the traditional Bullet bore and stroke dimensions under a Crusader cylinder head; these bikes are difficult to identify as being different from the Crusader.
Look for a ten finned barrel on a Crusader and you will have found a New Bullet. By necessity the tool box air intake slot is a little higher. Other variations from the unit 250 include a 46 tooth rear sprocket, an outrigger bearing on the primary side crankcase a four plate clutch and wider gear cogs; the petrol tank is similar to the earlier unit range item (not the
Boeing 787 Dreamliner
The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is an American long-haul, mid-size wide-body, twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Its variants seat 242 to 335 passengers in typical three-class seating configurations, it is the first airliner with an airframe constructed of composite materials. The 787 was designed to be 20% more fuel-efficient than the Boeing 767, which it was intended to replace; the 787 Dreamliner's distinguishing features include electrical flight systems, raked wingtips, noise-reducing chevrons on its engine nacelles. The aircraft's initial designation was the 7E7, prior to its renaming in January 2005; the first 787 was unveiled in a roll-out ceremony on July 2007 at Boeing's Everett factory. Development and production of the 787 has involved a large-scale collaboration with numerous suppliers worldwide. Final assembly takes place at the Boeing Everett Factory in Everett, at the Boeing South Carolina factory in North Charleston, South Carolina. Planned to enter service in May 2008, the project experienced multiple delays.
The airliner's maiden flight took place on December 15, 2009, flight testing was completed in mid-2011. Boeing has spent $32 billion on the 787 program. Final US Federal Aviation Administration and European Aviation Safety Agency type certification was received in August 2011, the first 787-8 was delivered in September 2011, it entered commercial service on October 2011 with launch customer All Nippon Airways. The stretched 787-9 variant, 20 feet longer and can fly 450 nautical miles farther than the -8, first flew in September 2013. Deliveries of the 787-9 began in July 2014; as of January 2019, the 787 had orders for 1,421 aircraft from 72 identified customers. The aircraft has suffered from several in-service problems related to its lithium-ion batteries, including fires on board during commercial service; these systems were reviewed by both the Japan Civil Aviation Bureau. The FAA issued a directive in January 2013 that grounded all 787s in the US, other civil aviation authorities followed suit.
After Boeing completed tests on a revised battery design, the FAA approved the revised design and lifted the grounding in April 2013. During the late 1990s, Boeing considered replacement aircraft programs as sales of the 767 and 747-400 slowed. Two new aircraft were proposed, the 747X, which would have lengthened the 747-400 and improved efficiency, the Sonic Cruiser, which would have achieved 15% higher speeds while burning fuel at the same rate as the 767. Market interest for the 747X was tepid; the global airline market was disrupted by the September 11, 2001, attacks and increased petroleum prices, making airlines more interested in efficiency than speed. The worst-affected airlines, those in the United States, had been considered the most customers of the Sonic Cruiser. On January 29, 2003 Boeing announced an alternative product, the 7E7, using Sonic Cruiser technology in a more conventional configuration; the emphasis on a smaller midsize twinjet rather than a large 747-size aircraft represented a shift from hub-and-spoke theory toward the point-to-point theory, in response to analysis of focus groups.
Randy Baseler, Boeing Commercial Airplanes VP Marketing stated that airport congestion comes from a large numbers of regional jets and small single-aisles, flying to destinations where a 550-seat A380 would be too large. The replacement for the Sonic Cruiser project was named "7E7". Technology from the Sonic Cruiser and 7E7 was to be used as part of Boeing's project to replace its entire airliner product line, an endeavor called the Yellowstone Project. Early concept images of the 7E7 included rakish cockpit windows, a dropped nose and a distinctive "shark-fin" tail; the "E" was said to stand for various things, such as "efficiency" or "environmentally friendly". In July 2003, a public naming competition was held for the 7E7, for which out of 500,000 votes cast online the winning title was Dreamliner. Other names included eLiner, Global Cruiser, Stratoclimber. On April 26, 2004, Japanese airline All Nippon Airways became the launch customer for the 787, announcing a firm order for 50 aircraft with deliveries to begin in late 2008.
The ANA order was specified as 30 787-3, 290–330 seat, one-class domestic aircraft, 20 787-8, long-haul, 210–250 seat, two-class aircraft for regional international routes such as Tokyo Narita–Beijing, could perform routes to cities not served, such as Denver and New Delhi. The 787-3 and 787-8 were to be the initial variants, with the 787-9 entering service in 2010; the 787 was designed to be the first production airliner with the fuselage comprising one-piece composite barrel sections instead of the multiple aluminum sheets and some 50,000 fasteners used on existing aircraft. Boeing selected two new engines to power the 787, the Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 and General Electric GEnx. Boeing stated the 787 would be 20 percent more fuel-efficient than the 767
The Eurofighter Typhoon is a twin-engine, canard–delta wing, multirole fighter. The Typhoon was designed as an air superiority fighter and is manufactured by a consortium of Airbus, BAE Systems and Leonardo that conducts the majority of the project through a joint holding company, Eurofighter Jagdflugzeug GmbH formed in 1986. NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency is the prime customer; the aircraft's development began in 1983 with the Future European Fighter Aircraft programme, a multinational collaboration among the UK, France and Spain. Disagreements over design authority and operational requirements led France to leave the consortium to develop the Dassault Rafale independently. A technology demonstration aircraft, the British Aerospace EAP, first took flight on 6 August 1986; the aircraft's name, was adopted in September 1998. Political issues in the partner nations protracted the Typhoon's development; the Typhoon entered operational service in 2003. The air forces of Oman and Qatar are export customers, bringing the procurement total to 599 aircraft as of 2016.
The Eurofighter Typhoon is a agile aircraft, designed to be a supremely effective dogfighter in combat. Production aircraft have been better equipped to undertake air-to-surface strike missions and to be compatible with an increasing number of different armaments and equipment, including Storm Shadow and the RAF's Brimstone; the Typhoon had its combat debut during the 2011 military intervention in Libya with the UK's Royal Air Force and the Italian Air Force, performing aerial reconnaissance and ground-strike missions. The type has taken primary responsibility for air-defence duties for the majority of customer nations; the UK had identified a requirement for a new fighter as early as 1971. The AST 403 specification, issued by the Air staff in 1972, led to the P.96 conventional "tailed" design presented in the late 1970s. While the design would have met the Air Staff's requirements, the UK air industry had reservations, as it appeared to be similar to the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet, well advanced in its development.
The P.96 design had little potential for growth, when it entered production, it would secure few exports in a market in which the Hornet would be well established. However, the simultaneous West German requirement for a new fighter had led by 1979 to the development of the TKF-90 concept; this was a cranked delta wing design with forward close-coupled-canard controls and artificial stability. Although the British Aerospace designers rejected some of its advanced features such as engine vectoring nozzles and vented trailing edge controls, a form of boundary layer control, they agreed with the overall configuration. In 1979, Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm and British Aerospace presented a formal proposal to their respective governments for the ECF, the European Collaborative Fighter or European Combat Fighter. In October 1979 Dassault joined the ECF team for a tri-national study, which became known as the European Combat Aircraft, it was at this stage of development the Eurofighter name was first attached to the aircraft.
The development of different national prototypes continued. France produced the ACX; the UK produced two designs. The RAF rejected the P.106 concept on the grounds it had "half the effectiveness of the two-engined aircraft at two-thirds of the cost". West Germany continued to refine the TKF-90 concept; the ECA project collapsed in 1981 for several reasons, including differing requirements, Dassault's insistence on "design leadership" and the British preference for a new version of the RB199 to power the aircraft versus the French preference for the new Snecma M88. The Panavia partners launched the Agile Combat Aircraft programme in April 1982; the ACA was similar to the BAe P.110, having a cranked delta wing, canards and a twin tail. One major external difference was the replacement of the side-mounted engine intakes with a chin intake; the ACA was to be powered by a modified version of the RB199. The German and Italian governments withdrew funding, the UK Ministry of Defence agreed to fund 50% of the cost with the remaining 50% to be provided by industry.
MBB and Aeritalia signed up with the aim of producing two aircraft, one at Warton and one by MBB. In May 1983, BAe announced a contract with the MoD for the development and production of an ACA demonstrator, the Experimental Aircraft Programme. In 1983 Italy, France, the UK and Spain launched the "Future European Fighter Aircraft" programme; the aircraft was to have short take landing and beyond visual range capabilities. In 1984, France reiterated its requirement for a carrier-capable version and demanded a leading role. Italy, West Germany and the UK established a new EFA programme. In Turin on 2 August 1985, West Germany, the UK and Italy agreed to go ahead with the Eurofighter. Despite pressure from France, Spain rejoined the Eurofighter project in early September 1985. France withdrew from the project to pursue its own ACX project, t
In a vehicle with a pusher configuration, the propeller are mounted behind their respective engine. According to British aviation author Bill Gunston, a "pusher propeller" is one mounted behind the engine, so that the drive shaft is in compression. Pusher configuration describes this specific thrust device attached to a craft, either aerostat or aerodyne or others types such as hovercraft and propeller-driven snowmobiles."Pusher configuration" describes the layout of a fixed-wing aircraft in which the thrust device has a pusher configuration. This kind of aircraft is called a pusher. Pushers have been designed and built in many different layouts, some of them quite radical; the rubber-powered "Planophore", designed by Alphonse Pénaud in 1871, was an early successful model aircraft with a pusher propeller. Many early aircraft were "pushers", including the Wright Flyer, the Santos-Dumont 14-bis, the Voisin-Farman I and the Curtiss Model D used by Eugene Ely for the first ship landing on January 18, 1911.
Henri Farman's pusher Farman III and its successors were so influential in Britain that pushers in general became known as the "Farman type". Other early pusher configurations were minor variations on this theme; the classic "Farman" pusher had the propeller "mounted behind the main lifting surface" with the engine fixed to the lower wing or between the wings forward of the propeller in a stub fuselage called a nacelle. The main difficulty with this type of pusher design was attaching the tail; the earliest examples of pushers relied on a canard but this has serious aerodynamic implications that the early designers were unable to resolve. Mounting the tail was done with a complex wire-braced framework that created a lot of drag. Well before the beginning of the First World War this drag was recognized as just one of the factors that would ensure that a Farman style pusher would have an inferior performance to an otherwise similar tractor type; the U. S. Army banned pusher aircraft in late 1914 after several pilots died in crashes of aircraft of this type, so from about 1912 onwards the great majority of new U.
S. landplane designs were tractor biplanes, with pushers of all types becoming regarded as old fashioned on both sides of the Atlantic. However, new pusher designs continued to be designed right up to the armistice, such as the Vickers Vampire, although few new ones entered service after 1916.. At least up to the end of 1916, pushers were still favoured as gun-carrying aircraft by the British Royal Flying Corps, because a forward-firing gun could be used without being obstructed by the arc of the propeller. With the successful introduction of Fokker's mechanism for synchronising the firing of a machine gun with the blades of a moving propeller, followed by the widespread adoption of synchronisation gears by all the combatants in 1916 and 1917, the tractor configuration became universally favoured and pushers were reduced to the tiny minority of new aircraft designs that had a specific reason for using the arrangement. Both the British and French continued to use pusher configured bombers, though there was no clear preference either way until 1917.
Such aircraft included the Voisin bombers, the Vickers F. B.5 "Gunbus", the Royal Aircraft Factory F. E.2, however these would find themselves being shunted into training roles before disappearing entirely. The last fighter to use the Farman pusher configuration was the 1931 Vickers Type 161 COW gun fighter. During the long eclipse of the configuration the use of pusher propellers continued in aircraft which derived a small benefit from the installation and could have been built as tractors. Biplane flying boats, had for some time been fitted with engines located above the fuselage to offer maximum clearance from the water driving pusher propellers to avoid spray and the hazards involved by keeping them well clear of the cockpit; the Supermarine Walrus was a late example of this layout. The so-called push/pull layout, combining the tractor and pusher configurations — that is, with one or more propellers facing forward and one or more others facing back — was another idea that continues to be used from time to time as a means of reducing the asymmetric effects of an outboard engine failure, such as on the Farman F.222, but at the cost of a reduced efficiency on the rear propellers, which were smaller and attached to lower-powered engines as a result.
By the late 1930s the widespread adoption of all-metal stressed skin construction of aircraft meant, at least in theory, that the aerodynamic penalties that had limited the performance of pushers, were reduced. During World War II, experiments were conducted with pusher fighters by most of the major powers. Difficulties remained that a pilot having to bail out of a pusher was liable to pass through the propeller arc; this meant that of all the types concerned, only the conventional Swedish SAAB 21 of 1943 went into series production. Other problems related to the aerodynamics of canard layouts, used on most of the pushers, proved more difficult to resolve. One of
The Triumph Thunderbird is a British motorcycle, introduced by Triumph in 1949 and produced in many forms until 1966. The name was used three more times for distinct Triumph models. To capture the American market, the 6T Thunderbird used a variant of the earlier Speed Twin's parallel twin engine, bored out from 500 cc to 650 cc to give the added horsepower American customers demanded; the concept of enlarging the Speed Twin, the Thunderbird name and its'paper dart' logo were thought up by managing director Edward Turner on one of his regular trips to Triumph's operations in the USA. The'paper dart' logo was embossed onto the chain case cover on Thunderbirds from 1955 to 1962 and can be seen upon closer examination on the supplied photograph of the 1962 model, it appeared as a decal on the headlamp nacelle. The 6T Thunderbird was launched publicly at Montlhéry near Paris, where three standard-production bikes were ridden around a circuit by a team of riders who between them averaged a speed of 92 mph over a distance of 500 miles.
All three machines were ridden back to the Meriden factory. Triumph obtained further lasting publicity with Marlon Brando's 1953 motion picture The Wild One, in which he rode a 1950 6T Thunderbird. In the book Triumph Motorcycles In America, there is reproduced a letter from Triumph's importers objecting to the producers as to the use of their machine in this film about rowdy motorcycle gangs. From 1960, the Thunderbird acquired Turner's rear fairing nicknamed the'bathtub' on account of its shape; this unpopular feature, dropped in the USA market, remained in ever-abbreviated forms for the home market until disappearing altogether for the final year of production, 1966. Before in 1963, the Thunderbird, along with Triumph's other 650 cc models, was given the Turner-designed unit engine. Throughout this time, the Thunderbird retained its distinctive nacelle. A 1966 Thunderbird was prominently used by the leads in the popular 2006 romance film, Once; the Triumph worker's co-operative at the Meriden factory re-introduced the Thunderbird model name to their range in April 1981.
The Triumph TR65 Thunderbird 650 cc parallel-twin was a short-stroke version of the 750 cc T140 Bonneville engine and was the cheapest model in Triumph's range with budget features such as a drum rather than disc rear brake, the absence of a tachometer, a siamesed exhaust system, painted rather than polished alloy and economy Dunlop Gold Seal tyres. Moreover, whereas Triumph's 750cc range had electronic ignition, the TR65 was fitted with contact breaker points. Respecting its lineage, the model retained the Turner-designed'paper dart' logo on its side panels but with a different, updated'Thunderbird' script; the TR65 was priced upon introduction at £1,829.82. The economy finish was upgraded for 1982'export' models although the contact breaker points and drum rear brake remained. A trail version of the TR65, the TR65T, was introduced in 1981 but as it was priced the same as the 750 cc version, suffered poor sales and was dropped from the range in late 1982. Planned for 1984, a custom-styled and further sleeved-down TR60 600 cc Thunderbird was exhibited but not produced, the co-operative closing down towards the end of 1983.
The scheduled price for this model was £2,181. The prototype Thunderbird 600 was converted by the factory into a conventional TR65 to fulfil a Ministry Of Defence order. From the Meriden Triumph factory production records held by the Vintage Motor Cycle Club, that TR65, made on 1 June 1983, was the last 650 cc motorcycle and the second last motorcycle made at Meriden before the factory's closure that August. In 1975, an NVT prototype 870 cc triple, the T180 Triumph Thunderbird III, was developed; this was an enlarged capacity version of the Triumph T160. NVT passed on the prototype to the Meriden co-operative which chose not to proceed to production despite experimenting with installing the engine in their oil-bearing frame; the new Triumph company based at Hinckley introduced the Triumph Thunderbird 900 in late 1994. Coded T309RT, the new Thunderbird was instrumental in Triumph's successful re-entry into the US market. The'Thunderbird' name and retro styling recalls the original Triumph company's golden years of the 1960s.
It was the first "classic" Triumph. The engine, redesigned to give a period look and de-tuned for more torque at lower rpm, was a variant of the 885 cc triple engine. Peak power was down to 69 bhp from 98 bhp. Several variants of the Thunderbird were produced, Triumph T309TT Legend, Triumph T309RC Adventurer, the Triumph T309RD Thunderbird Sport, which produced a claimed 82 bhp; the Thunderbird was produced until 2003 and the Thunderbird Sport until 2004. Hinckley produced an accompanying clothing range consisting of sew-on patches, leather jacket and ankle boots, all featuring Edward Turner's original'paper-dart' Thunderbird logo. In July 2008, Triumph announced the new Thunderbird, a 1,597 cc liquid-cooled parallel-twin cruiser with six gears and belt drive; the Thunderbird went on sale in June 2009. For the 2009–2010 Thunderbird model, Triumph marketed an alternative chromed clutch cover accessory featuring Edward Turner's original'paper dart' Thunderbird logo and script which harked back to the chain case covers of the pre-unit Thunderbird as pictured.
The black-finished 2011 Thunderbird Storm model with the optional 1,700 cc engine fitted as standard carries the same Thunderbird'paper dart' logo as standard embossed above the word'Storm' on the clutch cover. List of motorcycles of the 1940s List of motorcycles of the 1950s List of motorcycles of the 1960s