Shelby County, Texas
Shelby County is a county located in the far eastern portion of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 25,448, its county seat is Center. The county was created in 1835 as a municipality of Mexico and organized as a county in 1837, it is named for Isaac Shelby, a soldier in the American Revolution who became the first governor of Kentucky. Shelby County was represented in the Texas House of Representatives by the Center businessman and conservative Republican Wayne Christian. In 2012, Christian was defeated for renomination by current Representative Chris Paddie. Shelby County was formed in 1837, it was named for Isaac Shelby, a soldier from Tennessee during the American Revolution, first Governor of Kentucky. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 835 square miles, of which 796 square miles is land and 39 square miles is water. Panola County De Soto Parish, Louisiana Sabine Parish, Louisiana Sabine County San Augustine County Nacogdoches County Rusk County Sabine National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 25,224 people, 9,595 households, 6,908 families residing in the county.
The population density was 32 people per square mile. There were 11,955 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 72.65% White, 19.44% Black or African American, 0.36% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 5.87% from other races, 1.44% from two or more races. 9.87% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 9,595 households out of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% were married couples living together, 12.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.00% were non-families. 25.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.08. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.60% under the age of 18, 8.80% from 18 to 24, 25.80% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, 16.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years.
For every 100 females there were 92.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,112, the median income for a family was $34,021. Males had a median income of $26,501 versus $20,280 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,186. About 14.90% of families and 19.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.70% of those under age 18 and 16.90% of those age 65 or over. The following school districts serve Shelby County: Center ISD Excelsior ISD Joaquin ISD San Augustine ISD Shelbyville ISD Tenaha ISD Timpson ISD The Light and Champion, a news and information company, marked its 140th year of operation in 2017, it serves Shelby County, as well as Louisiana. The Light and Champion produces a weekly print edition, a weekly free-distribution print product called The Merchandiser, operates a web site, www.lightandchampion.com, a Facebook page. The Light and Champion is owned based in Brenham, Texas.
U. S. Highway 59 Interstate 69 is under construction and will follow the current route of U. S. 59 in most places west of Tenaha. Interstate 369 is under construction and will follow the current route of U. S. 59 in most places north of Tenaha. U. S. Highway 84 Interstate 69 is under construction and will follow the current route of U. S. 84 in most places east of Tenaha to the Louisiana state line. U. S. Highway 96 State Highway 7 State Highway 87 State Highway 147 Farm to Market Road 139 Farm to Market Road 1970US 59 goes through Shelby County, it is planned to be upgraded to interstate standards as part of the planned Interstate 69 up to Tenaha, where the planned Interstate 369 will follow US 59 northward to both Interstate 30 and Interstate 49 in Texarkana. US 84 is planned to be upgraded to interstate standards as part of the planned Interstate 69 from Tenaha to the Louisiana state line. Greyhound Lines operates the Center Station at the Shelby County's Best Yogurt store in Center. Center Huxley Joaquin Timpson Tenaha Arcadia Brooklyn Dreka Patroon Possum Trot Shelbyville Weaver National Register of Historic Places listings in Shelby County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Shelby County Shelby County Sports Shelby County Today webpage Shelby County government's website Shelby County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas History of the regulators and moderators and the Shelby County war in 1841 and 1842, hosted by the Portal to Texas History Shelby County Chamber of Commerce website Shelby County Genealogy webpage Shelby County Community Links
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Coach USA, LLC is a holding company for various American transportation service providers providing scheduled intercity bus service and commuter bus transit, city sightseeing, yellow school bus, charter bus service. It is a subsidiary of the Stagecoach Group. Coach USA and sister company Coach Canada are the second-largest motorcoach operators in the US and Canada. Coach USA traces its history back to 1922 as Lackawanna Bus and Consolidated Bus Lines, a small outfit operating local service in Bergen County, New Jersey and along the Jersey Shore and throughout the New York metropolitan area founded by Jim and Denis Gallagher. Community Coach, today the headquarters of Coach USA, began operations in 1958 under Denis's brother, John; the latter took over the operations of Consolidated Bus Lines, using the operating authority of another company that the Gallagher family had purchased in Paramus, New Jersey three years prior. At its inception, Coach USA consisted of six companies: Suburban Trails, Community Coach, Leisure Line, Adventure Trails in New Jersey, Gray Line of San Francisco, Arrow Stage Line in Arizona.
Listing on the NASDAQ in 1996 under ticker TOUR, switching to the New York Stock Exchange under stock ticker CUI, Coach USA, under the leadership of Richard Kristinik, would expand acquiring Progressive Transportation Services Inc. a contractor of municipal transit systems in Upstate N. Y. Coach USA acquired additional companies throughout the United States in the next three years to expand to over 5,000 buses and many more taxicabs, as its acquisitions included yellow cab firms throughout the United States. During this time, the Gallagher family would start another company, Student Transportation of America, based in the area of its Coast Cities operation. In 1998, Kristinik retired, Larry King succeeded him. Stagecoach Group would purchase Coach USA in mid-1999 for $1.88 billion. Under Stagecoach ownership and the helm of Frank Gallagher, the owner of its predecessors, Coach USA sought to continue expansion, but the company, hit hard by the loss of charter business after the September 11, 2001 attacks, caused Stagecoach to crash to a loss of over ₤524 million, at which point Stagecoach, having lost over 70 percent of its investment and now under the leadership of its founder, Brian Souter, after the downturn cost the previous CEO of Stagecoach his job, announced that all of the taxicab operations and most of Coach USA's subsidiaries were for sale, as Stagecoach sought to focus on operations in the northeast, where Coach USA today maintains subsidized transit operations and scheduled service.
Retrenching, Stagecoach sold its companies in New England to Peter Pan Bus Lines. Companies in the Southwest and Rocky Mountain regions were sold to Kohlberg Kravis Roberts to form Coach America, companies in the southeastern United States were sold to Lincolnshire Management, rebranded as American Coach Lines, all at heavy losses; the contract transit division was flipped to competitor First Transit. As a result of the sale of most of Coach USA's operations, the company's headquarters were relocated from Texas to the Community Coach garage in Paramus, New Jersey. Eight of the sold companies would be reacquired when Coach America declared bankruptcy in 2012, along with Lakefront/Hopkins in Ohio, with the intent of expanding the Megabus brand. Coach USA's operations today consist of scheduled services in New York metropolitan area and Chicago metropolitan area, with a number of charter operations near Pittsburgh and scheduled operations in the Southern Tier of New York and southern Wisconsin, along with its Megabus operations throughout the eastern and central United States.
In December 2018 Stagecoach announced it had agreed to sell all of its North American operations to Variant Equity Advisors subsidiary Project Kenwood Acquisition with the deal to be concluded by April 2019. As of October 2016, Coach USA includes the following local operating companies, along with intercity operator Megabus: American Coach Lines of Atlanta All West Coachlines Butler Motor Transit Central Cab Company Chicago Trolley & Double Decker Co. Coach Canada Coach Erie Coach USA Elko Community Coach Country Road Tours Dillon's Bus Service Gad-About Tours Gray Line Montreal Gray Line New York Sightseeing Kerrville Bus Company Lakefront Lines Lenzner Coach Lines Mountaineer Coach Olympia Trails Park Tours Powder River Transportion Rockland Coaches Short Line Bus Pacific Coast Sightseeing Tour and Charters Suburban Transit Tri State Coach / United Limo Van Galder Bus Company Wisconsin Coach Lines Megabus is an intercity bus service providing discount travel services since 2006, operating throughout the eastern, southern and western United States and in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec.
Megabus is notable for using curbside bus stops instead of traditional stations, low fares starting at $1, in recent years, operating a point-to-point network of routes with buses making few stops en route to their destinat
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Cherokee County, Texas
Cherokee County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 50,845; the county seat is Rusk. The county was named for the Cherokee, who lived in the area before being expelled in 1839. Rusk, the county seat, is 130 miles southeast of Dallas and 160 miles north of Houston. Cherokee County comprises the Jacksonville, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Tyler-Jacksonville, TX Combined Statistical Area; the Hasinai group of the Caddo tribe built a village in the area about AD 800 and continued to live in the area until the 1830s, when they migrated to the Brazos River. The federal government moved them to the Brazos Indian Reservation in 1855 and to Oklahoma; the Cherokee, Delaware and Kickapoo Native American peoples began settling in the area circa 1820. The Texas Cherokee tried unsuccessfully to gain a grant to their own land from the Mexican government. Sam Houston, adopted son of Chief Oolooteka of the Cherokee, negotiated the January 14, 1836, treaty between Chief Bowl of the Cherokee and the Republic of Texas.
On December 16, 1837, the Texas Senate declared the treaty null and void, encroachment of Cherokee lands continued. On October 5, 1838, Indians massacred members of the Isaac Killough family at their farm northwest of the site of present Jacksonville, leading to the Cherokee War of 1839 and the expulsion of some to Oklahoma, some went to Monclova and some over into Rusk/Gregg counties. In 1844 President Polk issues an executive order known as "The Right to return" allowing many Cherokee to return to Texas. Indians from the land, to become the county of Cherokee. Domingo Terán de los Ríos and Father Damián Massanet explored the area on behalf of Spain in 1691. Louis Juchereau de St. Denis began trading with the Hasinais in 1705. Nuestro Padre San Francisco de los Tejas Mission was established in 1690, but was re-established in 1716 by Captain Domingo Ramon, it was abandoned again because of French incursions and re-established in 1721 by the Marques de San Miguel de Aguyao. In 1826, empresario David G. Burnet received a grant from the Coahuila y Tejas legislature to settle 300 families.
The settlers were from the southern states and brought with that lifestyle with them. By contracting how many families each grantee could settle, the government sought to have some control over colonization. Cherokee County was formed from land given by Nacogdoches County in 1846, it was organized the same year. The town of Rusk became the county seat. Cherokee County voted in favor of secession during the build-up to the Civil War. In 1872, the International – Great Northern Railroad caused Jacksonville to relocate two miles east, to be near the tracks; the Kansas and Gulf Short Line Railway was built north-to-south through the county between 1882 and 1885. The Texas and New Orleans Railroad in 1905, the Texas State Railroad in 1910, each gave rise to new county towns along their tracks. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,062 square miles, of which 1,053 square miles is land and 9.3 square miles is covered by water. U. S. Highway 69 U. S. Highway 79 U. S. Highway 84 U.
S. Highway 175 State Highway 21 State Highway 110 State Highway 135 State Highway 204 State Highway 294 Smith County Rusk County Nacogdoches County Angelina County Houston County Anderson County Henderson County Neches River National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, 46,659 people, 16,651 households, 12,105 families resided in the county; the population density was 44 people per square mile. The 19,173 housing units averaged 18 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 74.34% White, 15.96% Black or African American, 0.47% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 7.43% from other races, 1.34% from two or more races. About 13.24% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 16,651 households, 33.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.70% were married couples living together, 12.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.30% were not families. Around 24.20% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.63, the average family size was 3.11. In the county, the population was distributed as 26.30% under the age of 18, 9.30% from 18 to 24, 27.40% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 15.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,313, for a family was $34,750. Males had a median income of $26,410 versus $19,788 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,980. About 13.70% of families and 17.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.30% of those under age 18 and 15.10% of those age 65 or over. Cherokee County is part of the Tyler/Longview/Jacksonville DMA. Local media outlets are: KLTV, KTRE-TV, KYTX-TV, KFXK-TV, KCEB-TV, KETK-TV. Newspapers in the county include the Jacksonville Progress, which publishes three editions a week in Jacksonville, the weekly Cherokeean Herald in Rusk.
Alto Bullard Cuney Wells Shadybrook Etna Knoxville National Register of Historic Places listings in Cherokee County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Cherokee County Travis Clardy, Texas state representative from Cherokee County Cherokee County in Handbook of Texas O
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti