Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia
Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia was a son of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia and a grandson of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia. He was raised in the Caucasus, where he lived between 1862 and 1881 with his family, was educated by private tutors; as Romanov tradition demanded, he followed a military career. He became a Colonel and was adjutant at the Imperial court. In 1891 he contracted a morganatic marriage with Countess Sophie von Merenberg, a morganatic daughter of Prince Nicholas William of Nassau and a granddaughter of the Russian poet Alexander Pushkin. For contracting this marriage without permission, Emperor Alexander III of Russia, stripped him of his military titles and banished the couple from Russia. For some years he lived in Cannes, he settled permanently in England in 1900, leasing Keele Hall in Staffordshire and Kenwood House on the outskirts of London. He became a prominent member of British society, one of his daughters marrying into the British aristocracy and another marrying a great-grandson of Queen Victoria.
He lost his fortune with the fall of the Russian monarchy in 1918. Three of his brothers were killed by the Bolsheviks, but he escaped the Russian Revolution because he was living abroad, he spent his last years living under reduced circumstances with the financial help of his son-in-law Sir Harold Wernher. Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich was born at Peterhof Palace in St. Petersburg on 16 October 1861, the third child and second son of the seven children of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia and his wife, Grand Duchess Olga Feodorovna. Known in the family as Miche-Miche, he was a year old when, in 1862, the family moved to Tiflis, Georgia on the occasion of his father's being named Viceroy of the Caucasus. Grand Duke Michael spent his youth in the Caucasus, he had a spartan upbringing that included taking cold baths. He was educated at home by private tutors; the relationship with his parents was troublesome. His father, occupied in military and governmental endeavors, remained a distant figure.
His demanding mother was a strict disciplinarian. He was a disappointment to his mother, who compared him unfavorably with his more intelligent eldest brother, Grand Duke Nicholas. Michael was considered the least gifted of the seven children and his mother referred to him as "stupid". During the years in the Caucasus, the Grand Duke excelled at horsemanship and started his military career; as a young man, he became a colonel. He served in the Egersky Regiment of the guards. In 1882, when Grand Duke Michael was twenty years old, he returned with his family to St. Petersburg upon his father's appointment as chairman of the Council of Ministers. Michael was shallow and not bright, but he was tall and handsome, he became popular on the social circuit in the capital, spending a great deal of his time on endless parties and gambling. Tsar Alexander III referred to him as a ‘fool’. Grand Duke Michael lived in St. Petersburg's Mikhailovsky Palace with his parents, but he intended to marry soon, to house his expected family, he ordered the construction of a large residence in the imperial capital.
The palace was built between 1885 and 1891. It was designed by architect Maximilian Messmacher in Neo-Renaissance-style with its front entrance on the Admiralty Embankment 8; the building was innovative for the end of the 19th century, having gas pipelines, electricity and a telephone. However, the grand duke was not destined to live there. By the time the palace was finished. In the spring of 1886 the grand duke was in London in search of a wife, he made unsuccessful overtures for the hand of Princess Mary of Teck. While Mary's grandmother, the Duchess of Cambridge, was in favor of the marriage, both the Duke of Cambridge and Mary's father, the Duke of Teck were against it, considering the Romanovs to be "notoriously bad husbands"; the same year Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich proposed marriage to Princess Irene of Hesse Darmstadt. In love with her first cousin, Prince Henry of Prussia, she rejected him. In 1887 he proposed to the eldest daughter of the Prince of Wales, he admitted to Louise that he could never love her and he was turned down for a third time.
After that, he attempted to marry within the Russian nobility, which caused confrontations with his parents. In 1888, he had an affair with Princess Walewski, he fell in love with Countess Catherine Nikolaevna Ignatieva, the daughter of the former Minister of Interior, Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev. He tried to get permission to marry her and he went with his father to talk to Tsar Alexander III. However, his mother and the Empress Maria Feodorovna made it impossible. Olga Feodorovna opposed the misalliance vehemently. "He has so provoked me" she wrote of her son, mentioning his "lack of respect and attention". To break off the relationship, the parents decided to send him abroad. While in Nice, in 1891, Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich fell in love with Countess Sophie von Merenberg, daughter of Prince Nikolaus Wilhelm of Nassau and his morganatic wife, née Natalie Alexandrovna Pushkin, a member of the minor Russian nobility. Sophie's maternal grandfather was the renowned poet-author Alexander Pushkin.
The grand duke met Sophie when he saved he
Peter the Great
Peter the Great, Peter I or Peter Alexeyevich ruled the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire from 7 May 1682 until his death in 1725, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V. Through a number of successful wars, he expanded the Tsardom into a much larger empire that became a major European power and laid the groundwork for the Russian navy after capturing ports at Azov and the Baltic Sea, he led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political systems with ones that were modern, scientific and based on the Enlightenment. Peter's reforms made a lasting impact on Russia, many institutions of Russian government trace their origins to his reign, he is known for founding and developing the city of Saint Petersburg, which remained the capital of Russia until 1917. The imperial title of Peter the Great was the following: By the grace of God, the most excellent and great sovereign prince Pyotr Alekseevich the ruler of all the Russias: of Moscow, of Kiev, of Vladimir, of Novgorod, Tsar of Kazan, Tsar of Astrakhan and Tsar of Siberia, sovereign of Pskov, great prince of Smolensk, Yugorsk, Vyatsky and others, sovereign and great prince of Novgorod Nizovsky lands, Chernigovsky, of Ryazan, of Rostov, Belozersky, Udorsky and the sovereign of all the northern lands, the sovereign of the Iverian lands, of the Kartlian and Georgian Kings, of the Kabardin lands, of the Circassian and Mountain princes and many other states and lands western and eastern here and there and the successor and sovereign and ruler.
Named after the apostle, described as a newborn as "with good health, his mother's black, vaguely Tatar eyes, a tuft of auburn hair", from an early age Peter's education was put in the hands of several tutors, most notably Nikita Zotov, Patrick Gordon, Paul Menesius. On 29 January 1676, Tsar Alexis died, leaving the sovereignty to Peter's elder half-brother, the weak and sickly Feodor III of Russia. Throughout this period, the government was run by Artamon Matveev, an enlightened friend of Alexis, the political head of the Naryshkin family and one of Peter's greatest childhood benefactors; this position changed when Feodor died in 1682. As Feodor did not leave any children, a dispute arose between the Miloslavsky family and Naryshkin family over who should inherit the throne. Peter's other half-brother, Ivan V of Russia, was next in line for the throne, but he was chronically ill and of infirm mind; the Boyar Duma chose the 10-year-old Peter to become Tsar with his mother as regent. This arrangement was brought before the people of Moscow, as ancient tradition demanded, was ratified.
Sophia Alekseyevna, one of Alexis' daughters from his first marriage, led a rebellion of the Streltsy in April–May 1682. In the subsequent conflict some of Peter's relatives and friends were murdered, including Matveev, Peter witnessed some of these acts of political violence; the Streltsy made it possible for Sophia, the Miloslavskys and their allies to insist that Peter and Ivan be proclaimed joint Tsars, with Ivan being acclaimed as the senior. Sophia exercised all power. For seven years, she ruled as an autocrat. A large hole was cut in the back of the dual-seated throne used by Peter. Sophia would sit behind the throne and listen as Peter conversed with nobles, while feeding him information and giving him responses to questions and problems; this throne can be seen in the Kremlin Armoury in Moscow. Peter was not concerned that others ruled in his name, he engaged in such pastimes as sailing, as well as mock battles with his toy army. Peter's mother sought to force him to adopt a more conventional approach and arranged his marriage to Eudoxia Lopukhina in 1689.
The marriage was a failure, ten years Peter forced his wife to become a nun and thus freed himself from the union. By the summer of 1689, Peter age 17, planned to take power from his half-sister Sophia, whose position had been weakened by two unsuccessful Crimean campaigns against the Crimean Khanate in an attempt to stop devastating Crimean Tatar raids into Russia's southern lands; when she learned of his designs, Sophia conspired with the leaders of the Streltsy, who continually aroused disorder and dissent. Peter, warned by the Streltsy, escaped in the middle of the night to the impenetrable monastery of Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra. Sophia was overthrown, with Peter I and Ivan V continuing to act as co-tsars. Foy de la Neuville records that Sophia requested influential members of Peter's family, notably her aunts Tatyana and Anna, to mediate with him. Peter forced Sophia to enter a convent, where she gave up her name and her position as a member of the royal family. Still, Peter could not acquire actual control over Russian affairs.
Power was instead exercised by Natalya Naryshkina. It was only. Formally, Ivan V remained a co-ruler with Peter. Peter became the sole ruler when Ivan died in 1696. Peter was 24 years old. Peter grew to be tall as an a
Louise Caroline of Hochberg
Louise Caroline von Hochberg, born Geyer von Geyersberg, from 1787 Baroness von Hochberg, from 1796 Countess of Hochberg was the morganatic second wife of the Margrave and Grand Duke Charles Frederick of Baden. Her descendants ascended the grand ducal throne and reigned until 1918. Louise Caroline Geyer von Geyersberg was the daughter of Lieutenant Colonel Ludwig Heinrich Philip Geyer von Geyersberg and his wife, Countess Maximiliana Hedwiger von Sponeck; the latter was the niece-in-law of Duke of Württemberg-Montbéliard. Louise Caroline descends from a family of Lower Austria surnamed Geiger. In 1625 Emperor Ferdinand II authorised them to add the noble suffix "von Geyersberg". Sometime after 1675 Louise Caroline's great-grandfather, Christophe Ferdinand, substituted a more aristocratic version of the surname, "Geyer von Geyersberg". While in the service of Eberhard Louis, Duke of Württemberg his son, Christian Heinrich, self-assumed the title of baron in 1729, having married Christiane von Thummel the previous year.
Nonetheless, prior to Louise Caroline's marriage, written references to her at the court of Baden omit any baronial title. Louise Caroline attended a private school in Colmar, she attended the court of Baden-Durlach as a lady in waiting to the Hereditary Princess Amalie. Although referred to at the wedding on 24 November 1787 by the title "Baroness Geyer von Geyersberg" by her fiance, her marriage to the Margrave Charles Frederick, widowed since 1783, was at the time deemed morganatic because she was regarded as of unequal rank to the prince. Following the wedding, the Margrave declared that his wife would bear the title of Baroness von Hochberg. In the same proclamation, co-signed by the three sons of his first marriage, he reserved decision on the title and succession rights of sons to be born of the marriage. In July 1799 letters patent were issued by the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, of retroactive effect to 12 May 1796, elevating her to the Imperial title Countess of Hochberg, she never obtained the rank of an Imperial princess, nor that of Margravine, the title borne by Charles Frederick's first wife.
Although Louise Caroline's children were not legally recognised as of dynastic rank, on 20 February 1796 their father clarified in writing that the couple's sons were eligible to succeed to the margravial throne in order of male primogeniture after extinction of the male issue of his first marriage, who were by the only remaining dynasts of the House of Baden. The Margrave further declared that his marriage to their mother must "in no way be seen as morganatic, but rather as a true equal marriage", although the daughters remained baronesses and the sons were only assigned the title Count von Hochberg at that time, but in 1799 Louise's sons were granted the title of Imperial Counts von Hochberg. On 10 September 1806, after the abolition of the Holy Roman Empire and assumption of the sovereign title Grand Duke of Baden, Charles Frederick confirmed the dynastic status of the sons of his second marriage; this act was, yet again, was not promulgated. Charles Frederick died in 1811 and was succeeded by his grandson, Grand Duke of Baden.
On 4 October 1817, as neither he nor the other sons from his grandfather's first marriage had surviving male descendants, Charles confirmed the succession rights of his half-uncles, granting each the title and Margrave of Baden, the style of Highness. He asked the princely congress in Aachen on 20 November 1818, just weeks before his death, to confirm the succession rights of the sons of Louise Caroline, but this proclamation of Baden's succession evoked international challenges. The Congress of Vienna had, in 1815, recognised the eventual claims of Austria and Bavaria to parts of Baden which it allocated to Charles Frederick in the Upper Palatinate and the Breisgau, anticipating that upon his imminent demise those lands would cease to be part of the Grand Duchy; the disputes were resolved by the Treaty of Frankfurt, 1819, under which Baden ceded a portion of Wertheim enclaved within Bavaria, to that Kingdom, whereupon the succession as settled in 1817 was recognized by Bavaria and Austria.
In 1830, ten years after Louise Caroline's death, following the death of Louis I, her son Leopold ascended the throne as Grand Duke. Louise's descendants ruled the Grand Duchy of Baden until its abolition in 1918; the current pretenders are descendants of Louise Caroline. It was alleged that Louise Caroline conspired to substitute a dead infant for the first-born son of Grand Duke Charles and Grand Duchess Stephanie, in order to secure the throne for her own sons; when Kaspar Hauser was found, rumour had it that he was this first-born prince of Baden spirited away at birth and raised without knowledge of his royal ancestry. Modern historians consider this legend as refuted. By her marriage to Charles Frederick she had the following children: Leopold William Frederick Alexander Amalie, married on 19 April 1818 Charles Egon II, Prince of Fürstenberg Maximilian. Line of succession to the former throne of Baden Entry in the Deutsche Biographische Enzyklopädie
Paul I of Russia
Paul I reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. He was the only son of Peter III and Catherine the Great, though Catherine hinted that he was fathered by her lover Sergei Saltykov, who had Romanov blood, being a descendant of the first Romanov tsar's sister, Tatiana Feodorovna Romanova. Paul remained overshadowed by his mother for most of his life, his reign lasted four years. He adopted the laws of succession to the Russian throne—rules that lasted until the end of the Romanov dynasty and of the Russian Empire, he intervened in the French Revolutionary Wars and, toward the end of his reign, added Kartli and Kakheti in Eastern Georgia into the empire, confirmed by his son and successor Alexander I. He was de facto Grand Master of the Order of Hospitallers from 1799 to 1801, ordered the construction of a number of Maltese thrones. Paul was born in the Palace of Saint Petersburg, his father, the future Emperor Peter III, was the heir apparent of the Empress. His mother, born the daughter of a minor German prince, was to depose her own husband and reign in her own right as Catherine II, known to history as Catherine the Great.
Paul was taken immediately after birth from his mother by the Empress Elizabeth, whose overwhelming attention may have done him more harm than good. Some claim that his mother, hated him and was restrained from putting him to death. Robert K. Massie is more compassionate towards Catherine. In all events, the Russian Imperial court, first of Elizabeth and of Catherine, was not an ideal home for a lonely and sickly boy; as a boy, he was reported to be good-looking. His pug-nosed facial features in life are attributed to an attack of typhus, from which he suffered in 1771. Paul was put in the charge of a trustworthy governor, Nikita Ivanovich Panin, of competent tutors. Panin's nephew went on to become one of Paul's assassins. One of Paul's tutors, complained that he was "always in a hurry", acting and speaking without reflection. Empress Elizabeth died in 1762, when Paul was 8 years old, he became crown prince with the accession of his father to the throne as Peter III. However, within a matter of months, Paul's mother engineered a coup and not only deposed her husband but, for a long time, was believed to have gotten him killed by her supporters.
It was found that Peter III died due to a fit of apoplexy when exerting himself in a dispute with Prince Feodor, one of his jailers. Some historians believe. After the death of Peter III, Catherine placed herself on the throne in a surpassingly grand and ostentatious coronation ceremony, for which event the Russian Imperial Crown was crafted by court jewellers; the 8-year-old Paul retained his position as crown prince. In 1772, her son and heir, turned eighteen. Paul and his adviser, believed he was the rightful tsar of Russia, as the only son of Peter III, his adviser had taught him that the rule of women endangered good leadership, why he was so interested in gaining the throne. Distracting him, Catherine took trouble to find Paul a wife among the minor princesses of the Holy Roman Empire, she chose Princess Wilhelmina of Hesse-Darmstad, who acquired the Russian name "Natalia Alexeievna"), a daughter of Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. The bride's older sister, Frederika Louisa, was married to the Crown Prince of Prussia.
Around this time, Catherine allowed Paul to attend the Council in order that he might be trained for his work as Emperor. Wilhelmina died in childbirth on 15 April three years after the wedding, it soon became clearer to Catherine that Paul wanted power, including his separate court. There was talk of having both Paul and his mother co-rule Russia. A fierce rivalry began between them, as Catherine knew she could never trust him and Paul wanted his mother's power. After her daughter-in-law's death, Catherine began work forthwith on the project of finding another wife for Paul, on 7 October 1776, less than six months after the death of his first wife, Paul married again; the bride was the beautiful Sophia Dorothea of Württemberg, who received the new Orthodox name Maria Feodorovna. Their first child, was born in 1777, within a year of the wedding, on this occasion the Empress gave Paul an estate, Pavlovsk. Paul and his wife gained leave to travel through western Europe in 1781–1782. In 1783, the Empress granted him another estate at Gatchina, where he was allowed to maintain a brigade of soldiers whom he drilled on the Prussian model, an unpopular stance at the time.
Catherine the Great and her son and heir, the future Paul I, maintained a distant relationship throughout Catherine's reign. The aunt of Catherine's husband, Empress Elizabeth, took up the child as a passing fancy. Elizabeth proved an incapable caretaker, as she had raised no children of her own. Paul was supervised by a variety of caregivers. Roderick McGrew relates the neglect to which the infant heir was sometimes subject: "On one occasion he fell out of his crib and slept the night away unnoticed on the floor." After Elizabeth's death, relations with Catherine hardly improved. Paul was jealous of the favours she would shower upon her lovers. In one instance
Bray Bray on Thames, is a large suburban village and civil parish in the English county of Berkshire. It sits to the southeast of Maidenhead of which it is a suburb; the civil parish of Bray is far larger than the village itself and includes a number of other villages and hamlets over an area of 2,498 hectares 24.98 km2. It had a population of 8,425 at the 2001 census; the village is mentioned in the comedic song "The Vicar of Bray". Bray contains two of the five three-Michelin-starred restaurants in the United Kingdom and has several large business premises including Bray Studios, where the first series of Hammer Horror films were produced. Bray sits on the banks of the River Thames, one and a half miles south of Maidenhead town centre and 5 miles north-west of Windsor; the B3028 road runs through the centre of Bray, the A308 runs between Bray and the adjoining suburban village of Holyport. The M4 motorway junction 8/9 is 1 mile from Bray, Maidenhead railway station is 1.5 miles away in Maidenhead town centre.
Bray is a large parish, although its area has shrunk since Maidenhead was detached. As well as the village, the parish contains a large number of villages and hamlets greens, which were scattered amongst the remains of the dense woodland of Windsor Forest that once covered the area; these include: Bray Wick, Water Oakley, Oakley Green, Moneyrow Green, Stud Green, Foxley Green, Touchen End, Hawthorn Hill and Fifield. Exclusive houses on the river between Bray and Maidenhead Bridge have been referred to as Berkshire's'Millionaires' row' in the national press; the flood risk of these houses has been decreased by the Jubilee River, a large drainage ditch dug between north Maidenhead and Datchet. Monkey Island, in the Thames, is associated with the 3rd Duke of Marlborough, houses two structures that he built and furnished with paintings of monkeys, the architecturally Grade I Monkey Island Hotel. See St Michael's Church, Bray; the Church of England parish church of St Michael was built in 1293 to replace a Saxon church at Water Oakley.
It has a number of sculptures which may have come from the earlier church, including a damaged Sheela na Gig. It is best known to brass rubbers for housing the superb memorial brass of 1378 to Sir John Foxley, the Constable of Southampton Castle, his two wives. One of the local cottages has a tunnel which it is believed leads to the church and served as an escape route for clergymen; the current Vicar of Bray is the Reverend Ainsley Swift. The ecclesiastical parish shares the wide parish boundaries and is named Bray St Michael with Braywoodside; the Jesus Hospital is a red-brick group of almhouses, founded in 1609 by William Goddard to house thirty-four of the aged poor of Bray and six of the Worshipful Company of Fishmongers, to which he belonged. A full-size effigy of Goddard stands over the entrance, Jesus Hospital is now run by The Donnington Hospital Trust having been transferred from the Fishmongers Company in 2010. Bray contains two of the five three-Michelin-starred restaurants in the United Kingdom:The Fat Duck is a restaurant run by chef Heston Blumenthal in the centre of Bray.
The restaurant opened in 1995, has held a three-star Michelin Guide rating since 2004. In 2005, it was named as the best restaurant in the world by Restaurant magazine and in 2008, 2009 and 2010, Best Restaurant in the UK, scoring a maximum 10 out of 10 in the Good Food Guide; the Waterside Inn was founded in 1972 by the brothers Michel and Albert Roux after their success with Le Gavroche. It is run by Michel's son and Cavaliere Diego Masciaga; the restaurant has three Michelin stars and in 2010 became the first restaurant outside France to retain all three stars for 25 years. Edward Lear makes reference to Bray in More Nonsense Pictures, Botany, etc:"There was an old person of Bray, Who sang through the whole of the day To his ducks and his pigs, Whom he fed upon figs, That valuable person of Bray." Since the redistribution of parliamentary boundaries which took effect at the 2010 general election, Bray has been in Maidenhead, the constituency of Prime Minister Theresa May. In terms of local government, it is in the Bray electoral ward of the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead.
Sylvia Anderson – Co creator of the Thunderbird Puppet Series and voice of Lady Penelope. Heston Blumenthal – The TV chef runs The Fat Duck and The Hinds Head Hotel restaurants in Bray Rolf Harris – Australian artist, musician, TV presenter, convicted of indecent assault against children and sentenced to 5 years and 9 months in prison George Mountbatten, 2nd Marquess of Milford Haven – buried in Bray Cemetery Sir Michael Parkinson – journalist and TV presenter Tony Prince – DJ Royal Berkshire History: Bray
Prince Paul of Württemberg
Prince Paul of Württemberg was the fourth child and second son of King Frederick I and his wife, Duchess Augusta of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Paul was born in St. Petersburg during a period when his father, not yet the ruler of Württemberg, was made governor of Old Finland by Catherine the Great in Russia; the couple had traveled to Russia to visit Frederick's sister Sophie, married to the heir to the Russian throne, the Tsesarevich Paul. Prince Paul's parents separated shortly after his birth; the marriage was unhappy, there were allegations of abusive treatment of his mother. His mother was never returned to Württemberg, she died in exile in Koluvere, Estonia, in 1788. In 1797, Frederick married Charlotte, Princess Royal, eldest daughter of King George III of the United Kingdom, who supervised the education of Paul and his two surviving siblings and Catharina. Charlotte regarded Paul as "a comical boy and, in my partial eyes, his manners are like Adolphus."As Paul grew up, her opinion changed.
During the visit of the Allied sovereigns to London in 1814, along with many other princes, was taken to visit the Ascot races by the Prince Regent. He got the Prince of Orange blind drunk. "For thirteen years he has done nothing but offend his father with the improprieties of his conduct", his stepmother wrote. On 28 September 1805 in Ludwigsburg, Paul married Princess Charlotte of Saxe-Hildburghausen, second daughter of Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen, they had five children: Friederike Charlotte Marie. Paul Friedrich Pauline Friederike Marie. Through Pauline, Paul is an ancestor of the present Belgian, Dutch, Luxembourg and Swedish royal families. August. In 1815 Paul moved from his home in Stuttgart to Paris, leaving his wife and two sons, but taking his daughters with him. There he led a modest life, but was in the company of intellectuals such as Georges Cuvier. Paul's family did not approve of this and ordered him to return to Württemberg. While in Paris, he fathered two illegitimate daughters by mistresses.
Shortly after the death of his wife in 1847, Paul went to England with his long-term mistress Magdalena Fausta Angela de Creus y Ximenes or Madeleine Creux, the widow of Sir Sandford Whittingham KCB, they were married in the Parish Church of St Nicholas, Sussex, on 26 April 1848. She died in Paris, 27 December 1852, their daughter Pauline Madeleine Ximenes, born in Paris 3 March 1825, was created Countess von Helfenstein in 1841. She married Count Gustave de Monttessuy in Paris on 24 August 1843 and died in Paris on 24 February 1905. Paul died in Paris aged 67. Shortly before his marriage, Paul had an actress named Friederike Margrethe Porth. Friederike was the daughter of his wife Caroline. Paul and Friederike had a daughter named Adhelaide Paulina, alias Karoline, von Rothenburg. On 16 February 1836, in Augsburg, Karoline married Karl, Baron von Pfeffel. Karoline and Karl had at least one son Hubert, Baron von Pfeffel, born in Munich on 8 December 1843, who married Hélène Arnous-Rivière, born on 14 January 1862.
Hubert and Hélène had one daughter, Marie Louise, Baroness von Pfeffel, born in Paris on 15 August 1882, married Stanley F. Williams of Bromley, Kent. Marie and Stanley's daughter Irene Williams married Osman Wilfred Kemal, alias Wilfred Johnson, born in 1909 at Bournemouth, Dorset. Osman was the son of Ali Kemal Bey, sometime Interior Minister of Turkey, by his first wife Winifred Brun. Irene and Wilfred's son, Stanley Patrick Johnson, married firstly Charlotte Fawcett, daughter of Sir James Fawcett, they had four children. Wilfred married Jennifer Kidd and had two further children. Charlotte married American academic Nicholas Wahl; the four children born to Stanley and Charlotte are: Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson, former Mayor of London and Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs Rachel Johnson, a journalist, married to Ivo Dawnay, the communications director of the National Trust, has three children.