Japanese National Railways
Japanese National Railways, abbreviated Kokutetsu or "JNR", was the business entity that operated Japan's national railway network from 1949 to 1987. As of June 1, 1949, the date of establishment of JNR, it operated 19,756.8 km of narrow gauge railways in all 46 prefectures of Japan. This figure expanded to 21,421.1 km in 1981, but reduced to 19,633.6 km as of March 31, 1987, the last day of JNR. JNR operated both freight services. Shinkansen, the world's first high-speed railway was debuted by JNR in 1964. By the end of JNR in 1987, four lines were constructed: Tōkaidō Shinkansen 515.4 km, completed in 1964 Sanyō Shinkansen 553.7 km, completed in 1975 Tōhoku Shinkansen 492.9 km, as of 1987 Jōetsu Shinkansen 269.5 km, completed in 1982 JNR operated bus lines as feeders, supplements or substitutions of railways. Unlike railway operation, JNR Bus was not superior to other local bus operators; the JR Bus companies are the successors of the bus operation of JNR. JNR operated ferries to connect railway networks separated by sea or to meet other local demands: Kanmon Ferry Shimonoseki Station – Mojikō Station Miyajima Ferry Miyajimaguchi Station – Miyajima Station Nihori Ferry Nigata Station – Horie Station Ōshima Ferry Ōbatake Station – Komatsukō Station Seikan Ferry Aomori Station – Hakodate Station Ukō Ferry Uno Station – Takamatsu Station Out of three routes assigned to JR companies in 1987, only the Miyajima Ferry remains active as of 2010.
A number of unions represented workers at JNR, including the National Railway Workers' Union, the National Railway Locomotive Engineers' Union, Doro-Chiba, a break-away group from Doro. The term Kokuyū Tetsudō "state-owned railway" referred to a network of railway lines operated by 17 private companies that were nationalized following the Railway Nationalization Act of 1906 and placed under the control of the Railway Institute; the Ministry of Railways and the Ministry of Transportation and Communications took over control of the network. The ministries used. During World War II, many JGR lines were dismantled to supply steel for the war effort. On June 1, 1949 by a directive of the U. S. General HQ in Tokyo, JGR was reorganized into Japanese National Railways, a state-owned public corporation. JNR enjoyed many successes, including the October 1, 1964 inauguration of high-speed Shinkansen service along the Tōkaidō Shinkansen line. However, JNR was not a state-run corporation. Rural sections without enough passengers began to press its management, pulling it further and further into debt.
In 1983, JNR started to close its unprofitable 83 local lines. By 1987, JNR's debt was over ¥27 trillion and the company was spending ¥147 for every ¥100 earned. By an act of the Diet of Japan, on April 1, 1987 JNR was privatized and divided into seven railway companies, six passenger and one freight, collectively called the Japan Railways Group or JR Group. Long-term liabilities of JNR were taken over by the JNR Settlement Corporation; that corporation was subsequently disbanded on October 22, 1998, its remaining debts were transferred to the national budget's general accounting. By this time the debt has risen to ¥30 trillion. Many lawsuits and labor commission cases were filed over the decades from the privatization in 1987. Kokuro and the National Railway Locomotive Engineers' Union, both prominent Japanese railway unions, represented a number of the JNR workers. Lists of workers to be employed by the new organizations were drawn up by JNR and given to the JR companies. There was substantial pressure on union members to leave their unions, within a year, the membership of the National Railway Workers' Union fell from 200,000 to 44,000.
Workers who had supported the privatization, or those who left Kokuro, were hired at higher rates than Kokuro members. There was a government pledge that no one would be "thrown out onto the street", so unhired workers were classified as "needing to be employed" and were transferred to the JNR Settlement Corporation, where they could be assigned for up to three years. Around 7,600 workers were transferred in this way, around 2,000 of them were hired by JR firms, 3,000 found work elsewhere. Mitomu Yamaguchi, a former JNR employee from Tosu in Saga prefecture, transferred to the JNR Settlement Corporation stated that their help in finding work consisted of giving him photocopies of recruitment ads from newspapers; this period ended in April 1990, 1,047 were dismissed. This included 966 Kokuro members. Twenty-three years after the original privatization, on June 28, 2010, the Supreme Court settled the dispute between the workers and the Japan Railway Construction and Technology Agency, the successor body to the JNR Settlement Corporation.
The agency said it would pay 20 billion yen 22 million yen per worker, to 904 plaintiffs. However, as the workers were not reinstated, it was not a full
Tomizawa Station is a metro station on the Sendai Subway Nanboku Line in Taihaku-ku, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. Tomizawa Station is a terminal station on the Sendai Subway Nanboku Line and is located 14.8 rail kilometers from the opposing terminus of the line at Izumi-Chūō. Tomizawa Station is an elevated station with a single island platform serving two tracks; the station building is located underneath the tracks. In fiscal 2015, the station was used by an average of 6,635 passengers daily. Sendai Gymnasium Tomizawa Station was opened on 15 July 1987. Media related to Tomizawa Station at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Nagamachi-Itchōme Station is an underground metro station on the Sendai Subway Nanboku Line in Taihaku-ku, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. Nagamachi-Itchōme Station is on the Sendai Subway Nanboku Line and is located 11.7 rail kilometers from the terminus of the line at Izumi-Chūō. Nagamachi-Itchōme Station is an underground station with a single island platform serving two tracks. Nagamachi-Itchōme Station was opened on 15 July 1987. In fiscal 2015, the station was used by an average of 3,608 passengers daily. Sendai- Nagamachi Post Office Official website
Miyagi Prefecture is a prefecture in the Tōhoku region of Japan. The capital is Sendai. Miyagi Prefecture was part of the province of Mutsu. Mutsu Province, on northern Honshu, was one of the last provinces to be formed as land was taken from the indigenous Emishi, became the largest as it expanded northward; the ancient capital was at Taga-jō in modern Miyagi Prefecture. In the third month of the second year of the Wadō era, there was an uprising against governmental authority in Mutsu Province and in nearby Echigo Province. Troops were promptly dispatched to subdue the revolt. In Wadō 5, the land of Mutsu Province was administratively separated from Dewa Province. Empress Genmei's Daijō-kan continued to organize other cadastral changes in the provincial map of the Nara period, as in the following year when Mimasaka Province was divided from Bizen Province. During the Sengoku period various clans ruled different parts of the province; the Uesugi clan had a castle town at Wakamatsu in the south, the Nanbu clan at Morioka in the north, Date Masamune, a close ally of the Tokugawa, established Sendai, now the largest town of the Tōhoku region.
In the Meiji period, four new provinces were created from parts of Mutsu: Rikuchū, Rikuzen and Iwashiro. The area, now Aomori Prefecture continued to be part of Mutsu until the abolition of the han system and the nationwide conversion to the prefectural structure of modern Japan. Date Masamune built a castle at Sendai as his seat to rule Mutsu. In 1871, Sendai Prefecture was formed, it was renamed Miyagi prefecture the following year. On March 11, 2011, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake and a subsequent major tsunami hit Miyagi Prefecture, causing major damage to the area. The tsunami was estimated to be 10 meters high in Miyagi Prefecture. On April 7, 2011: 7.4-magnitude earthquake strikes off the coast of Miyagi, Japan's meteorological agency says. Workers were evacuated from the nearby troubled Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear facility once again, as a tsunami warning was issued for the coastline. Residents were told to flee for inner land at this time. Officials from the U. S. Geological Survey downgraded the magnitude to 7.1 from 7.4.
In 2013, Crown Prince Naruhito and Crown Princess Masako visited the prefecture to see the progress made since the tsunami. Miyagi Prefecture is in the central part of Tōhoku, facing the Pacific Ocean, contains Tōhoku's largest city, Sendai. There are high mountains on the west and along the northeast coast, but the central plain around Sendai is large. Matsushima is known as one of the three most scenic views of Japan, with a bay full of 260 small islands covered in pine groves. Oshika Peninsula projects from the northern coastline of the prefecture; as of 1 April 2012, 23% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely the Rikuchū Kaigan National Park. Fourteen cities are located in Miyagi Prefecture: Sendai - the largest and the capital city of the prefecture; these are the towns and villages in each district: Although Miyagi has a good deal of fishing and agriculture, producing a great deal of rice and livestock, it is dominated by the manufacturing industries around Sendai electronics and food processing.
As of March 2011, the prefecture produced 4.7% of Japan's rice, 23% of oysters, 15.9% of sauries. In July 2011, the Japanese government decided to ban all shipments of beef cattle from northeast Miyagi Prefecture over fears of radioactive contamination; this has since been rescinded. Miyagi University Miyagi University of Education Miyagi Gakuin Women's University Sendai University Sendai Shirayuri Women's College Tohoku University Tohoku Gakuin University Tohoku Bunka Gakuen University Tohoku Institute of Technology Tohoku Fukushi University Tohoku Seikatsu Bunka College Tohoku Pharmaceutical University Shokei Gakuin University Ishinomaki Senshu University JR East Tōhoku Shinkansen Tohoku Line Jōban Line Senseki Line Senzan Line Ishinomaki Line Rikuu East Line Kesennuma Line Ōfunato Line Sendai Municipal Subway Nanboku Line Tōzai Line Abukuma Express Sendai Airport Line Tōhoku Expressway Yamagata Expressway Sanriku Expressway Sendai East Road Sendai North Road Sendai South Road National Route 4 National Route 6 National Route 45 National Route 47 National Route 48 National Route 108 National Route 113 National Route 286 National Route 342 National Route 346 National Route 347 National Route 349 National Route 398 National Route 399 National Route 456 National Route 457 Sendai Port – Ferry route to Tomakomai and Nagoya, container hub port Ishinomaki Port – Ferry route to Mount Kinka, Tashiro Island and Tashiro Island.
Matsushima Bay Sendai Airport The sports teams listed below are based in Miyagi Prefecture. Baseball Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles Tohoku Reia Football Vegalta Sendai Sony Sendai F. C. Vegalta Sendai Ladies Basketball Sendai 89ERS Volleyball Sendai Bellefille Futsal Voscuore Sendai Professional wrestling Sendai Girls' Pro WrestlingAlso, the Sendai Hi-Land Raceway hosts motorspo
Haranomachi Station is a railway station on the Joban Line in the city of Minamisōma, Japan, operated by East Japan Railway Company. Haranomachi Station is served by the Joban Line, is located 286.9 km from the official starting point of the line at Nippori. However, due to damage to the line caused by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami in March 2011, trains from Haranomachi were able to travel only as far as Sōma Station to the north. Full services resumed in December 2016. Services south towards Odaka station resumed in July 2016. Haranomachi Station has a side platform and an island platform connected to the station building by a footbridge; the station has a Midori. Haranomachi Station opened on 3 April 1898. With the privatization of Japanese National Railways on 1 April 1987, the station came under the control of JR East. Train services from the station were suspended following the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. From 21 December 2011, limited services were restored on the section of the Joban Line between Haranomachi and Sōma.
In March 2016, the two trains, a four-car 651 series EMU and a 415-1500 series EMU, stranded at the station since the March 2011 tsunami, were removed by road for scrapping. The section of the Joban Line between Odaka and Haranomachi reopened on 12 July 2016. In fiscal 2016, the station was used by an average of 672 passengers daily; the passenger figures for previous years are as shown below. Former Haramachi City Hall Haramachi Post Office National Route 6 Road Station Minamisoma List of railway stations in Japan Official website
Matsushima Station is a railway station on the Tōhoku Main Line in the town of Matsushima, Japan, operated by East Japan Railway Company. This station is about 1 km from Takagimachi Station and about 2 km away from Matsushima-Kaigan Station on the Senseki Line. Of the three, Matsushima-Kaigan is the station closest to most tourist destinations. Matsushima Station is served by the Tōhoku Main Line, is located 375.2 rail kilometers from the official starting point of the line at Tokyo Station. Matsushima Station has one island platform connected by a footbridge; the station has a "Midori no Madoguchi" staffed ticket office. Matsushima Station opened on July 9, 1956 as Shin-Matsushima Station, having been elevated from a signal stop established on November 15, 1944, when the routing of the Tohoku Main Line was moved away from the coastline due to security concerns in World War II; the station was renamed to its present name on July 1, 1962. The station was absorbed into the JR East network upon the privatization of the Japanese National Railways on April 1, 1987.
In fiscal 2016, the station was used by an average of 889 passengers daily. Matsushima Town Hall Matsushima Post Office National Route 45 List of Railway Stations in Japan Official website
Tokyo Station is a railway station in the Chiyoda City, Japan. The original station is located in Chiyoda's Marunouchi business district near the Imperial Palace grounds; the newer Eastern extension is not far from the Ginza commercial district. Due to its large area covered, the station is divided into Marunouchi and Yaesu sides in its directional signage. Served by Shinkansen high-speed rail lines, Tokyo Station is the main intercity rail terminal in Tokyo, it is the busiest station in Japan in terms of number of trains per day, the fifth-busiest in Eastern Japan in terms of passenger throughput. It is served by many regional commuter lines of Japan Railways, as well as the Tokyo Metro network. Trains on the following lines are available at Tokyo Station: JR East Tohoku Shinkansen Yamagata Shinkansen Akita Shinkansen Joetsu Shinkansen Hokuriku Shinkansen Hokkaido Shinkansen Tokaido Main Line Ueno–Tokyo Line Keihin-Tohoku Line Yamanote Line Chūō Main Line Sōbu Main Line Yokosuka Line Keiyo Line JR Central Tokaido Shinkansen Tokyo Metro Marunouchi LineThe station is linked by underground passageways to the Ōtemachi underground station complex served by the Tōzai, Hanzōmon, Mita subway lines.
It is possible to walk to the Nijūbashimae, Hibiya, Yūrakuchō, Higashi-ginza Stations underground, but these stations can be reached more by train. Tokyo Station is a major intercity bus terminal, with regular midday service to several cities in the Kantō region and overnight service to the Kansai and Tōhoku regions; the main station façade on the western side of the station is brick-built, surviving from the time when the station opened in 1914. The main station consists of 10 island platforms serving 20 tracks, raised above street level running in a north-south direction; the main concourse runs east-west below the platforms. The Shinkansen lines are on the east side of the station, along with a multi-storey Daimaru department store. Underground are the two Sōbu/Yokosuka line platforms serving four tracks to the west of the station; the whole complex is linked by an extensive system of underground passageways which merge with surrounding commercial buildings and shopping centres. Lines 3 through 10 were numbered as lines 1 through 8 and additional lines were numbered sequentially from west to east through the opening of the Tokaido Shinkansen in 1964.
Lines 9 through 13 were used for the Tokaido Main Line and Yokosuka Line but were removed in 1988, line numbers 12 and 13 were used for the new Tohoku Shinkansen platform from 1991 to 1997. The current Chuo Main Line platform opened in 1995 as lines 1 and 2, other lines were renumbered accordingly, leaving lines 10 and 11 unused; the current line numbering became effective in 1997, when one of the Tokaido Main Line platforms was repurposed for the Joetsu Shinkansen as lines 20 and 21. The existing Tohoku Shinkansen platforms were renumbered as 22 and 23. In 1889, a Tokyo municipal committee drew up plans for an elevated railway line connecting the Tōkaidō Main Line terminal at Shinbashi to the Nippon Railway terminal at Ueno; the Imperial Diet resolved in 1896 to construct a new station on this line called Central Station, located directly in front of the gardens of the Imperial Palace. Construction was delayed due to the outbreak of the First Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War, but commenced in 1908.
The three-story station building was designed by architect Tatsuno Kingo as a restrained celebration of Japan's costly victory in the Russo-Japanese War. The building is rumoured to be fashioned after Amsterdam Centraal railway station in the Netherlands, although there is little evidence to support the opinion. Terunobu Fujimori, a scholar of Western architecture, denies the rumor, having studied Tatsuno's styles as well as the building itself. Tokyo Station opened on December 1914 with four platforms; the Chūō Main Line extension to the station was completed in 1919 and stopped at the platform now used by northbound Yamanote/Keihin-Tōhoku trains. During this early era, the station only had gates on the Marunouchi side, with the north side serving as an exit and the south side serving as an entrance. In 1921, Prime Minister Hara Takashi was assassinated at the south gates; the Yaesu side of the station opened in 1929. Much of the station was destroyed in B-29 firebombing on May 25, 1945; the bombing shattered the impressive rooftop domes.
The station was rebuilt within the year, but simple angular roofs were built in place of the domes, the restored building was only two stories tall instead of three. These postwar alterations are blamed for creating the mistaken impression that the building is based on the central station in Amsterdam. Plans in the 1980s to demolish the building and to replace it with a larger structure were derailed by a preservation movement; the Yaesu side was rebuilt following the war, but the rebuilt structure was damaged by fire in 1949, the Yaes