Heian-kyō was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto. It was the official capital of Japan for over one thousand years, from 794 to 1868 with an interruption in 1180. Emperor Kanmu established it as the capital in 794, moving the Imperial Court there from nearby Nagaoka-kyō at the recommendation of his advisor Wake no Kiyomaro and marking the beginning of the Heian period of Japanese history; the city was modelled after the Tang dynasty Chinese capital of Chang'an. It remained the chief political center until 1185, when the samurai Minamoto clan defeated the Taira clan in the Genpei War, moving administration of national affairs to Kamakura and establishing the Kamakura shogunate. Though political power would be wielded by the samurai class over the course of three different shogunates, Heian remained the site of the Imperial Court and seat of Imperial power, thus remained the official capital. In fact after the seat of Imperial power was moved to Tokyo in 1868, since there is no law which makes Tokyo the capital, there is a view that Kyoto or remains the capital today.
In 1994, Kyoto City held various events commemorating the 1200th anniversary. Heian-kyō was built in what is now the central part of Kyoto city covering an area spanning the Kadono and Otagi Districts of Yamashiro Province; the city boundaries formed a rectangle measuring 4.5 km from east to west and 5.2 km from north to south. The city layout followed Heijō-kyō with the Imperial palace, placed in the centre of the northern city limits and the Suzaku Avenue, the main thoroughfare extending from the palace down through the centre of the city, dividing it into the Right and Left Capitals The design followed Sui and Tang dynasty Changan with the exception that Heian-kyō had no city walls, it is thought that the site for the city was selected according to the principles of Shijinsōō based on Chinese Feng shui and relating to the Four Symbols of Chinese astrology. The boundaries of Heian-kyō were smaller than those of modern Kyoto, with Ichijō-ōji at the northern limit corresponding to present-day Ichijō-dōri, between Imadegawa-dōri and Marutamachi-dōri, Kyūjō-ōji in the south corresponding to Kujō-dōri to the south of the present-day JR Kyōto Station and Higashi-kyōgoku-ōji in the east corresponding to present-day Teramachi Street.
The location of Nishi-kyōgoku-ōji at the western limit is estimated as a line running north to south from Hanazono Station on the JR San'in Main Line to Nishi-Kyōgoku Station on the Hankyu Kyoto Line. The layout of Heian-kyō was plotted in accordance with the principles of geomancy as a square city. Jō was the basic unit of measurement. 40 sq. jō made a chō. The city was further divided by major streets called ōji and minor streets called koji. Four lines of chō running east to west were together called a jō and four lines of chō running from north to south were called a bō The Cho which shared the same Jo and Bo were each given a number from 1 to 16. In this way addresses could be identified as follows: "Right Capital, Jō Five, Bō Two, Chō Fourteen"; the width of the minor streets was 4 Jō and for the major streets over 8 Jō. All of the streets in present-day Kyoto have become narrower. Suzaku-ōji for example was 28 Jō wide. In addition a river ran alongside Nishi Horikawa-koji. In 784 AD emperor Kammu constructed Nagaoka-kyō, moving the capital from Heijō-kyō.
It is thought that he wished to build a new, Emperor Tenji faction capital far from Yamato Province, the power base for the temples and aristocrats who supported the Emperor Tenmu faction. However, only 9 years in January 793 AD, Emperor Kammu assembled his retainers and announced another relocation of the capital The location for the new capital was to be Kadono located between two rivers in the north of Yamashiro, ten kilometres to the northeast of Nagaoka-kyō, it is said that the Emperor Kammu had looked out on Kadono from the Shōgun Tsuka in Higashiyama Ward of Kyoto City, deciding that it was a suitable location for the capital. Emperor Kammu's words are recorded in the Nihon Kiryaku as follows: "Kadono has beautiful mountains and rivers as well as good transport links by sea and land making it convenient for people to assemble there from all four corners of the country." It is thought that the construction of Heian-kyō began from the palace, with the construction of the remainder of the city following afterwards.
As a display of the emperor's authority the Daigokuden was constructed at the far north of the central thoroughfare, Suzaku-oji, making the building visible from anywhere in the city. Ports such as Yodonotsu and Ōitsu were set up along the river next to the city; these ports acted as a transit base for collecting in goods from all over the country and for forwarding them on to the city. The goods which arrived in Heian-kyō reached the people by way of one of the two large markets This arrangement provided a stable supply of food and goods which encouraged population growth. Measures were taken to guard against the flooding which had plagued the residents of Nagaoka-kyō. Although there was no natural river in th
Kyoto Kyoto City, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan. It is best known in Japanese history for being the former Imperial capital of Japan for more than one thousand years, as well as a major part of the Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area. In Japanese, Kyoto was called Kyō, Miyako, or Kyō no Miyako. In the 11th century, the city was renamed Kyoto, from the Chinese calligraphic, jingdu. After the city of Edo was renamed Tokyo in 1868, the seat of the Emperor was moved there, Kyoto was for a short time known as Saikyō. Kyoto is sometimes called the thousand-year capital; the National Diet never passed any law designating a capital. Foreign spellings for the city's name have included Kioto and Meaco, utilised by Dutch cartographers. Another term used to refer to the city in the pre-modern period was Keishi, meaning "urba" or "capital". Ample archaeological evidence suggests human settlement in Kyoto began as early as the Paleolithic period, although not much published material is retained about human activity in the area before the 6th century, around which time the Shimogamo Shrine is believed to have been established.
During the 8th century, when powerful Buddhist clergy became involved in the affairs of the Imperial government, Emperor Kanmu chose to relocate the capital in order to distance it from the clerical establishment in Nara. His last choice for the site was the village of Uda, in the Kadono district of Yamashiro Province; the new city, Heian-kyō, a scaled replica of the Tang capital Chang'an, became the seat of Japan's imperial court in 794, beginning the Heian period of Japanese history. Although military rulers established their governments either in Kyoto or in other cities such as Kamakura and Edo, Kyoto remained Japan's capital until the transfer of the imperial court to Tokyo in 1869 at the time of the Imperial Restoration; the city suffered extensive destruction in the Ōnin War of 1467–1477, did not recover until the mid-16th century. During the Ōnin War, the shugo collapsed, power was divided among the military families. Battles between samurai factions spilled into the streets, came to involve the court nobility and religious factions as well.
Nobles' mansions were transformed into fortresses, deep trenches dug throughout the city for defense and as firebreaks, numerous buildings burned. The city has not seen such widespread destruction since. In the late 16th century, Toyotomi Hideyoshi reconstructed the city by building new streets to double the number of north-south streets in central Kyoto, creating rectangle blocks superseding ancient square blocks. Hideyoshi built earthwork walls called odoi encircling the city. Teramachi Street in central Kyoto is a Buddhist temple quarter where Hideyoshi gathered temples in the city. Throughout the Edo period, the economy of the city flourished as one of three major cities in Japan, the others being Osaka and Edo; the Hamaguri rebellion of 1864 burnt down 28,000 houses in the city which showed the rebels' dissatisfaction towards the Tokugawa Shogunate. The subsequent move of the Emperor to Tokyo in 1869 weakened the economy; the modern city of Kyoto was formed on April 1, 1889. The construction of Lake Biwa Canal in 1890 was one measure taken to revive the city.
The population of the city exceeded one million in 1932. There was some consideration by the United States of targeting Kyoto with an atomic bomb at the end of World War II because, as an intellectual center of Japan, it had a population large enough to persuade the emperor to surrender. In the end, at the insistence of Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of War in the Roosevelt and Truman administrations, the city was removed from the list of targets and replaced by Nagasaki; the city was spared from conventional bombing as well, although small-scale air raids did result in casualties. As a result, the Imperial City of Kyoto is one of the few Japanese cities that still have an abundance of prewar buildings, such as the traditional townhouses known as machiya. However, modernization is continually breaking down the traditional Kyoto in favor of newer architecture, such as the Kyōto Station complex. Kyoto became a city designated by government ordinance on September 1, 1956. In 1997, Kyoto hosted the conference.
Kyoto is located in a valley, part of the Yamashiro Basin, in the eastern part of the mountainous region known as the Tamba highlands. The Yamashiro Basin is surrounded on three sides by mountains known as Higashiyama and Nishiyama, with a height just above 1,000 metres above sea level; this interior positioning results in cold winters. There are three rivers in the basin, the Ujigawa to the south, the Katsuragawa to the west, the Kamogawa to the east. Kyoto City takes up 17.9% of the land in the prefecture with an area of 827.9 square kilometres. The original city was arranged in accordance with traditional Chinese feng shui following the model of the ancient Chinese capital of Chang'an; the Imperial Palace faced south. The streets in the modern-day wards of Nakagyō, Shimogyō, Kamigyō-ku still follow a grid pattern. Today, the main business district is located to the south of the old Imperial Palace, with the less-populated northern area retaining a fa
Daikaku-ji is a Shingon Buddhist temple in Ukyō-ku, a western ward in the city of Kyoto, Japan. The site was a residence of Emperor Saga, various emperor conducted their cloistered rule from here; the Saga Go-ryū school of ikebana has its headquarters in the temple. The artificial lake of the temple, Ōsawa Pond, is one of the oldest Japanese garden ponds to survive from the Heian period; the origins of the temple dates back to the Heian period in the year 814 CE, when Emperor Saga had a palace, known as the Saga-in, constructed on the site. The palace became his seat of retirement, known as Saga Rikyu imperial villa. According to tradition, when Japan suffered a serious epidemic, the Buddhist monk Kobo Daishi, the founder of Shingon Buddhism, suggested that the Emperor Saga copy an important Buddhist religious document called the Heart Sutra; the emperor made a handwritten copy, the epidemic is said to have ended. The handwritten sutra is kept at the Shingyōden hall of the temple, is displayed to the public once every sixty years, the next time being in 2018.
Pilgrims still come to the temple to make copies of the sutra, which are kept in the temple with the original. In 876, thirty-four years after the death of Emperor Saga, his daughter Princess Masako, consort of Emperor Junna, turned the complex into a temple and gave it the name Daikaku-ji, it was a monzeki temple, which means by tradition that only imperial princes were appointed abbot of the temple. Over the years, it became the retirement home of several emperors. In the 13th and 14th centuries the temple became the residence of retired emperors such as Emperor Go-Saga, Emperor Kameyama and Emperor Go-Uda, who could be ordained as monks, but continued to wield power in what became known as cloistered rule. In 1336, during the upheaval between the Kamakura period and the Muromachi period, the temple burned down, but was rebuilt. During the Edo period, Emperor Go-Mizunoo brought in Momoyama period buildings from the Kyoto Imperial Palace; the temple was placed in a graveled courtyard next to the pond.
The hondō, or main hall, the Founder's Hall were moved from the Kyoto Imperial Palace. The main images are of the Five Wisdom Kings, centered on Fudō; the sliding door painting in the Okanmuri-no-ma room of the Shōshinden were painted by Kanō Sanraku and Shikō Watanabe. They feature red and white plum blossoms; the hawk painted with Indian ink is a unique motif. The wooden beam above the doors has a painting of a hare. All these works of art are designated as Important Cultural Properties; the Ōsawa Pond is older than the temple itself. It is an artificial lake of 2.4 hectares, created by Emperor Saga, either during his reign or between his retirement from power and his death in 842. The pond is supposed to reflect the outlines of Dongting Lake in China, which has a special significance in Chinese culture, it was an imperial garden of the style known as chisen-shuyu: a garden meant to be seen from a boat, similar to the Imperial Chinese garden of the period. The lake was created by damming a stream.
At the north end of the pond are two islands, one large and one small - the small island being known as Chrysanthmum Island. Between the two islands are several small rocky islets, meant to resemble Chinese junks at anchor. On a hillside north of the lake is what appears to be a dry cascade, a kind of Japanese rock garden or zen garden, where a real waterfall is suggested by a composition of stones; the garden was celebrated in the poetry of the period. A poem by Ki no Tomonori in an anthology from the period, the Kokinshū, described the Kiku-shima, or island of chrysanthemums, found in the Ōsawa pond. I had thought. Who therefore has planted the other in the depths of the pond of Ōsawa? Another poem of the Heian period, in the Hyakunin isshu, described a cascade of rocks, which simulated a waterfall, in the same garden: The cascade long ago ceased to roar, But we continue to hear The murmur of its name; the pond and the flowers are therefore by tradition to said to be the birthplace of the Saga school of ikebana, named in honour of the emperor.
The lake was created as a good place for viewing the rising of the moon from boats. It became, remains, a popular place for viewing the cherry trees in bloom around the lake. A moon-viewing party is held in the garden every autumn for three days, around the date of the harvest moon. Today the lake is a popular park for the city's residents. In addition to the garden around the lake, there is a large courtyard garden between the buildings of the temple. Rokkaku-dō List of Buddhist temples in Kyoto List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan For an explanation of terms concerning Japanese Buddhism, Japanese Buddhist art, Japanese Buddhist temple architecture, see the Glossary of Japanese Buddhism. David and Michiko Young, The Art of the Japanese Garden, Tuttle publishers, Nitschke, Gunter, Le Jardin japonais - Angle droit et forme naturelle, Taschen publishers, Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon.. Kyoto: The Old Capital of Japan, 794-1869. Kyoto: The Ponsonby Memorial Society.
旧嵯峨御所 大覚寺 門跡 Kyū Sagano Gosho Dakaku-ji Monzeki Saga Goryū school of ikebana Kyoto National Museum -- "Treasures of Daikaku-ji," including portrait of Go-Uda and the former-emperor's will
Sentō Imperial Palace
The Sentō Imperial Palace 22 acres ) is a large garden in Kyoto, Japan the grounds of a palace for retired emperors. It may be visited by appointment. Sento Imperial Palace was completed in 1630 for Emperor Go-Mizunoo's retirement, along with the corresponding Ōmiya Palace for the Empress Dowager Nyoin. Both palaces were destroyed by fire and reconstructed until a blaze in 1854, after which the Sento palace was never rebuilt.. Today the Seika-tei and Yushin-tei teahouses, remain; the excellent gardens, laid out in 1630 by renowned artist Kobori Masakazu, are now its main attractions. The palace grounds are located within the southeast corner of the Kyoto Imperial Palace, entered via a stately wooden gate within its surrounding earthen wall. A carriage house with graceful triple gables sits just within, but still outside the garden's unadorned inner wall, whose gate leads directly to a fine view opening westward across the garden pond; the garden's primary feature is a large pond with islands and walkways, whose north and south segments were linked by a short canal in 1747.
The north pond was extended and reworked from 1684-1688. The ponds contain a variety of picturesque islands and six bridges in a varied styles, including one with an impressive wisteria trellis. Two teahouses complete the garden: Seika-tei, single-roofed and spare, at the southern end of the south pond. Media related to Sento Imperial Palace at Wikimedia Commons Imperial Household Agency | Sento Imperial Palace Kyoto Travel Guide article Imperial Household Agency, Sento-Gosho, undated booklet. David Young, Michiko Young, The Art of the Japanese Garden, Tuttle Publishing, 2005, page 132. ISBN 0-8048-3598-5. List of stone lanterns in the garden of Sentō Imperial Palace
Hakone Imperial Villa
Hakone Imperial Villa, located in the town of Hakone, Japan is a residence owned by the Japanese Imperial household. It was constructed in 1886
Fujiwara-kyō was the Imperial capital of Japan for sixteen years, between 694 and 710. It was located in Yamato Province. However, the name Fujiwara-kyō was never used in the Nihon Shoki. During those times it was recorded as Aramashi-kyō; as of 2006, ongoing excavations have revealed construction on the site of Fujiwara-kyō as early as 682, near the end of the reign of Emperor Tenmu. With a brief halt upon Emperor Tenmu's death, construction resumed under Empress Jitō, who moved the capital in 694. Fujiwara-kyō remained the capital for the reigns of Emperor Monmu and Empress Genmei, but in 710 the Imperial court moved to the Heijō Palace in Nara, beginning the Nara period. Fujiwara was Japan's first capital built in a grid pattern on the Chinese model; the palace occupied a plot measuring about 1 km², was surrounded by walls 5 m high. Each of the four walls had three gates; the Daigokuden and other palace buildings were the first palace structures in Japan to have a tile roof in the Chinese style.
The area had been the domain of the Nakatomi clan, who oversaw the observation of Shintō rituals and ceremonies on behalf of the Imperial court. The city burnt down in 711, one year after the move to Nara, was not rebuilt. Archaeological excavations began in 1934, some portions of the palace were reconstructed. Close to 10,000 wooden tablets, known as mokkan, have been inscribed with Chinese characters; this waka, written by the Empress Jitō, describing Fujiwara in the summer, is part of the famous poem anthology, the Hyakunin Isshu: Which translates as Spring has passed, it seems, now summer has arrived. Fujiwara clan Frederic, Louis. "Japan Encyclopedia." Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Exhibition Room of Fujiwara Imperial Site Media related to Fujiwara-kyō at Wikimedia Commons
Fukuhara-kyō was the seat of Japan's Imperial Court, therefore the capital of the country, for six months in 1180. It was the center of Taira no Kiyomori's power and the site of his retirement palace. Fukuhara, in or near what is today Hyōgo Ward in the city of Kobe, was made the official residence of Taira no Kiyomori in 1160, following the Heiji Rebellion in which his Taira clan crushed the rival Minamoto clan. From this time until his death in 1181, Kiyomori was the de facto political chief of state, he was appointed Daijō Daijin in 1167, married his daughter into the Imperial family, gaining greater influence at Court. A palace was built for him at Fukuhara, Kiyomori oversaw considerable improvements to the harbor there, to further his wider goals of expanding trade within the Inland Sea. Following the Shishigatani Incident of 1177–1178, Kiyomori retired to Fukuhara, distancing himself from politics, from the social and ceremonial entanglements of the capital. In June 1180, the Genpei War began as the Minamoto clan was called to arms by Prince Mochihito to oppose Kiyomori and his clan.
Following the battle of Uji, in which Minamoto no Yorimasa head of the clan, was killed, Kiyomori arranged that the Imperial Court be moved from Heian-kyō to Fukuhara. In doing this, he sought to ensure his claim to power, to allow himself to keep a closer eye on the Court and to involve himself directly once again in administrative affairs; this move helped to shelter the Emperors and the Court from the dangers posed by Kiyomori's enemies, the Minamoto and their monastic allies. On the third day of the lunar month following the battle, Kiyomori led a huge procession of nobles and court officials, along with Emperor Antoku and Cloistered Emperors Takakura and Go-Shirakawa to Fukuhara. Government offices were re-established in lavish residences constructed for members of the Taira clan. Elements of the governmental administration were upset with this move and the disruption it caused, many of the nobles complained of the wet weather of the port city and the distance from Heian. Within about six months, the Court was returned to Kyoto, Kiyomori followed.
According to the Tale of Heike, in the autumn of 1183, spent a night in Fukuhara during their retreat. On departure, the Heike set fire to the imperial palace. "Even though their departure was not as painful as that when they left the capital, it filled them with regret."Site monuments mark the supposed sites of Kiyomori's palace, those of the Emperors, Kiyomori's tomb. Kamo no Chōmei