Nāgārjuna, is considered one of the most important Buddhist philosophers. Along with his disciple Āryadeva, he is considered to be the founder of the Madhyamaka school of Mahāyāna Buddhism. Nāgārjuna is credited with developing the philosophy of the Prajñāpāramitā sūtras and, in some sources, with having revealed these scriptures in the world, having recovered them from the nāgas. Furthermore, he is traditionally supposed to have written several treatises on rasayana as well as serving a term as the head of Nālandā. Little is reliably known of the life of Nāgārjuna, since the surviving accounts were written in Chinese and Tibetan centuries after his death. According to some accounts, Nāgārjuna was from South India; some scholars believe. Archaeological evidence at Amarāvatī indicates that if this is true, the king may have been Yajña Śrī Śātakarṇi, who ruled between 167 and 196 CE. On the basis of this association, Nāgārjuna is conventionally placed at around 150–250 CE. According to a 4th/5th-century biography translated by Kumārajīva, Nāgārjuna was born into a Brahmin family in Vidarbha and became a Buddhist.
Some sources claim that in his years, Nāgārjuna lived on the mountain of Śrīparvata near the city that would be called Nāgārjunakoṇḍa. The ruins of Nāgārjunakoṇḍa are located in Andhra Pradesh; the Caitika and Bahuśrutīya nikāyas are known to have had monasteries in Nāgārjunakoṇḍa. The archaeological finds at Nagarjunakonda have not resulted in any evidence that the site was associated with Nagarjuna; the name "Nagarjunakonda" dates from the medieval period, the 3rd-4th century inscriptions found at the site make it clear that it was known as "Vijayapuri" in the ancient period. There exist a number of influential texts attributed to Nāgārjuna though, as there are many pseudepigrapha attributed to him, lively controversy exists over which are his authentic works; the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā is Nāgārjuna's best-known work. It is "not only a grand commentary on the Buddha's discourse to Kaccayana, the only discourse cited by name, but a detailed and careful analysis of most of the important discourses included in the Nikayas and the agamas those of the Atthakavagga of the Sutta-nipata.
Utilizing the Buddha's theory of "dependent arising", Nagarjuna demonstrated the futility of metaphysical speculations. His method of dealing with such metaphysics is referred to as "middle way", it is the middle way that avoided the substantialism of the Sarvastivadins as well as the nominalism of the Sautrantikas. In the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā, "ll experienced phenomena are empty; this did not mean that they are not experienced and, non-existent. Since these imaginary fictions are experienced, they are not mere names." According to David Seyfort Ruegg, the Madhyamakasastrastuti attributed to Candrakirti refers to eight texts by Nagarjuna:the karikas, the Yuktisastika, the Sunyatasaptati, the Vigrahavyavartani, the Vidala, the Ratnavali, the Sutrasamuccaya, Samstutis. This list covers not only much less than the grand total of works ascribed to Nagarjuna in the Chinese and Tibetan collections, but it does not include all such works that Candrakirti has himself cited in his writings. According to one view, that of Christian Lindtner, the works written by Nāgārjuna are:Mūlamadhyamaka-kārikā, available in three Sanskrit manuscripts and numerous translations.
Śūnyatāsaptati, accompanied by a prose commentary ascribed to Nagarjuna himself. Vigrahavyāvartanī Vaidalyaprakaraṇa, a prose work critiquing the categories used by Indian Nyaya philosophy. Vyavahārasiddhi Yuktiṣāṣṭika Catuḥstava: Lokātīta-stava, Niraupamya-stava, Acintya-stava, Paramārtha-stava. Ratnāvalī, subtitled, a discourse addressed to an Indian king. Pratītyasamutpādahṝdayakārika, along with a short commentary. Sūtrasamuccaya, an anthology of various sutra passages. Bodhicittavivaraṇa Suhṛllekha Bodhisaṃbhāraśāstra, a work the path of the Bodhisattva and paramitas, it is quoted by Candrakirti in his commentary on Aryadeva's four hundred. Now only extant in Chinese translation; the Tibetan historian Buston considers the first six to be the main treatises of Nāgārjuna, while according to Tāranātha only the first five are the works of Nāgārjuna. TRV Murti considers Ratnaavali, Pratitya Samutpaada Hridaya and Sutra Samuccaya to be works of Nāgārjuna as the first two are quoted profusely by Chandrakirti and the third by Shantideva.
In addition to works mentioned above, several others are attributed to Nāgārjuna. There is an lively controversy over which of those works are authentic. Contemporary research suggest that some these works belong to a later period, either to late 8th or early 9th century CE, hence can not be authentic works of Nāgārjuna. Several works conside
Chauncy Hare Townshend, whose surname was spelt by his parents as Townsend, was a 19th-century English poet, mesmerist, collector and hypochondriac. He is remembered for bequeathing his collections to the South Kensington Museum and the Wisbech & Fenland Museum in Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, he added an ` h' to his surname upon inheriting. Townshend was the only son of Henry Hare Townsend, whose maternal grandfather was Henry Hare, 3rd Baron Coleraine, whose father was James Townsend, Lord Mayor of London from 1772 – 1773 and a member of parliament, it was a rich family, with properties in Norfolk and Switzerland, the young Chauncy was educated at Eton College and Trinity Hall, Cambridge. He graduated BA in 1821 and MA in 1824, won the Chancellor's Gold Medal in 1817 for his poem Jerusalem, he played one game of first-class cricket for a Kent side in 1827. Townshend met the poet Robert Southey in 1815, through him met the Wordsworths and Coleridges. Two volumes of his poetry were published in 1820, he had a famous encounter with the poet John Clare: During the summer of 1821, Clare gave up his agricultural labours entirely.
The greater part of the time he spent in roaming through woods and fields, planning new poems, correcting those made. Visits to Stamford were frequent and of some duration, he not unfrequently stayed three or four days together at the house of Mr. Gilchrist, or of Mr. Drury; the stream of visitors to Helpston had ceased, to a great extent, the few that dropped in now and were of the better class, or at least not belonging to the vulgar-curious element. Among the number was Mr. Chauncey Hare Townsend, a dandyfied poet of some note gifted in madrigals and pastorals, he came all the way from London to see Clare, having taken a guide from Stamford to Helpston, was utterly amazed, on his arrival, to find that the cottage, beautifully depicted in the'Village Minstrel', was not visible anywhere. His romantic scheme had been to seek Clare in his home, which he thought easy with the picture in his pocket. However, the scheme threatened to be frustrated, for though the village could be surveyed at a glance, such a cottage as that delineated in the'Minstrel', with more regard to the ideal than the real, was nowhere to be seen.
In his perplexity, Mr. Chauncey Hare Townsend inquired of a passer-by the way to Clare's house; the individual whom he addressed was a short, thick-set man, and, as Mr. Hare Townsend thought, decidedly ferocious-looking. To the intense surprise of Mr. Chauncey Hare Townsend, this vulgar person, when addressed, declared that he himself was John Clare, offered to show the way to his house. Of course, the gentleman from London was too shrewd to be taken in by such a palpable device for being robbed; the landlord's little girl was ready to show the way to Clare's cottage, did so, leaving the stranger at the door. Mr. Townsend, now prepared to fall into the arms of the brother poet, though not liking the look of his residence, cautiously opened the door. There seemed a horrible conspiracy for the destruction of a literary gentleman from London in this Northamptonshire village. Mrs. Clare intervened at the nick of time to keep Mr. Townsend from fainting. Patty, always neatly dressed, approached the visitor.
He wiped his hot brow with his scented handkerchief, not without emotion, introduced himself to the owner of the house and the neat little wife. The conversation which followed was short, somewhat unsatisfactory on both sides, the London poet, in the course of a short half an hour, quitted the Helpston minstrel, leaving a sonnet, wrapped- in a one-pound note, behind him. Clare frowned. In the 1830s Townshend studied mesmerism, was the chief British exponent of the art after Dr. John Elliotson. Elliotson introduced Townshend to Charles Dickens, who had an interest in mesmerism, the two became lifelong friends. Townshend's volume of poetry The Three Gates was dedicated to Dickens, who in turn dedicated Great Expectations to Townshend. Townshend married Eliza Frances Norcott in 1826, but in 1843 they separated due to "unhappy differences", he spent much of his life thereafter travelling abroad, collecting things as he went, at his villa in Lausanne. Three further volumes of poetry emerged: Sermons in Sonnets, 1851, The Burning of the Amazon, 1856, The Three gates, 1859.
He died on 25 February 1868 at 21 Norfolk Street, Park Lane, is buried in the new cemetery in Godalming. Nowadays Townshend is chiefly remembered for his bequests. Attached to his will of 1863 is an inventory of h
The onager known as hemione or Asiatic wild ass, is a species of the family Equidae native to Asia. A member of the subgenus Asinus, the onager was described and given its binomial name by German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas in 1775. Five subspecies have been recognized, one of, extinct; the Asiatic wild ass is larger than the African wild ass at about 290 kg and 2.1 m. They are reddish-brown or yellowish-brown in color and have broad dorsal stripe on the middle of the back. Unlike most horses and donkeys, onagers have never been domesticated, they are among the fastest mammals. The onager is related to the African wild ass, as they both shared the same ancestor; the kiang considered a subspecies of Equus hemionus, diverged from the Asiatic wild ass and has been acknowledged as a distinct species. The onager had a wider range from southwest and central to northern Asian countries, such as Israel, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Afghanistan and Siberia. During early 20th century, the species lost most of its ranges in the Middle Eastern Asia.
Today, onagers live in deserts and other arid regions of Iran, Pakistan and Mongolia, including in Central Asian hot and cold deserts of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and China. Other than deserts, it lives in grasslands, plains and savannahs. Like many other large grazing animals, the onager's range has contracted under the pressures of poaching and habitat loss. Listed as Endangered, onagers have been classified as Near Threatened by IUCN in 2015. Of the five subspecies, one is extinct, two are endangered, two are near threatened. Persian onagers are being reintroduced in the Middle East as replacements for the extinct Syrian wild ass in the Arabian Peninsula and Jordan; the specific name is Ancient Greek ἡμίονος, from ἡμι-, ὄνος, donkey. The term onager comes from the ancient Greek ὄναγρος, again from ὄνος, ἄγριος, wild; the species was known as Asian wild ass, in which case the term onager was reserved for the E. h. onager subspecies, more known as the Persian onager. Until this day, the species share onager.
The onager is a member of the subgenus Asinus, belonging to the genus Equus and is classified under the family Equidae. The species was described and given its binomial name Equus hemionus by German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas in 1775; the Asiatic wild ass, among Old World equids, existed for more than 4 million years. The oldest divergence of Equus was the onager followed by the onwards. A new species called the kiang, a Tibetan relative, was considered to be a subspecies of the onager as E. hemionus kiang, but recent molecular studies indicate it to be a distinct species, having diverged from the closest relative of the Mongolian wild ass's ancestor less than 500,000 years ago. Five recognized subspecies of the onager include: A sixth possible subspecies, the Gobi khulan has been proposed, but may be synonymous with E. h. hemionus. Debates over the taxonomic identity of the onager occurred until 1980; as of today, four living subspecies and one extinct subspecies of the Asiatic wild ass have been recognized.
The Persian onager was known as Equus onager, as it was thought to be a distinct species. Onagers are the most horse-like of wild asses, they are short-legged compared to horses, their coloring varies depending on the season. They are reddish-brown in color during the summer, becoming yellowish-brown or grayish-brown in the winter, they have a black stripe bordered in white. The belly, the rump, the muzzle are white in most onagers, except for the Mongolian wild ass that has a broad black dorsal stripe bordered with white. Onagers are larger than donkeys at 2.1 to 2.5 m in head-body length. Male onagers are larger than females; the genus Equus, which includes all extant equines, is believed to have evolved from Dinohippus via the intermediate form Plesippus. One of the oldest species is Equus simplicidens, described as zebra-like with a donkey-shaped head; the oldest fossil to date is about 3.5 million years old from Idaho, USA. The genus appears to have spread into the Old World, with the aged Equus livenzovensis documented from western Europe and Russia.
Molecular phylogenies indicate the most recent common ancestor of all modern equids lived around 5.6 million years ago. Direct paleogenomic sequencing of a 700,000-year-old middle Pleistocene horse metapodial bone from Canada implies a more recent 4.07 Mya for the most recent common ancestor within the range of 4.0 to 4.5 Mya. The oldest divergencies are the Asian hemiones, followed by the African zebras. All other modern forms including the domesticated horse belong to the subgenus E. which diverged about 4.8 Mya. The onagers' favored habitats consist of desert plains, oases, arid grasslands, shrublands, mountainous steppes, mountain ranges; the Turkmenian kulan and Mongolian wild asses are known to live in colder deserts. The IUCN estimates. During the late Pleistocene era around 4
Algernon James Pollock was an evangelist and writer from the Plymouth Brethren movement. Pollock was born in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, he made a profession of faith in Christ at the age of 11, was introduced to John Nelson Darby at the age of 15. Pollock married Elsie Madeleine May 8, 1901. Together, they had one daughter, he left his occupation as a banker to become a full-time evangelist and apologist, contributing articles to the Scripture Truth magazine and writing more than fifty pamphlets and several books to defend against ideas contrary to what he perceived as orthodox Christianity. Pollock was editor of the "Gospel Tidings" hymnbook and The Gospel Messenger magazine, his essay on "Modern Spiritualism" was condensed for inclusion in The Fundamentals, he had his pamphlet on Christadelphianism condensed for inclusion in the well known Apologetical work Heresies Exposed, edited by William C. Irvine Heresies Exposed The Journey and Its End Seventh-day Adventism: Briefly Tested by Scripture The British–Israel theory: Briefly Tested by Scripture Christian Science: Briefly Tested by Scripture Christadelphianism: Briefly Tested by Scripture Millennial Dawnism: Briefly Tested by Scripture Things Which Must Shortly Come to Pass The Oxford Group Movement: Its Doctrines, Its Practices, Its Founder, Conclusions Modern Pentecostalism, Foursquare Gospel, "Healings" and "Tongues": Are They of God?
Baptismal Regeneration: Is It Scriptural? The Amazing Jew The Tabernacle's Typical Teaching ISBN 0-901860-65-4 Reasons Why A Christian Should Not Be A Freemason
Lee is an unincorporated community in Monon Township, White County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. Lee once possessed a post office, built in 1880, operated until it was discontinued in 1933; the post office served the rural districts northwest of Indiana. The first postmaster of this office was Calvin Anderson. Lee was once known by the name Oakdale, which it was platted as in August 1886 by Benjamin A. Linville and Noble J. York, it is noted to exist within a "rich district of drained lands, admirably adapted to live stock" drained "by Pinkamink Creek, a branch of the Iroquois River". Lee was an important stop on the Monon railroad, it was known for exporting hay and on, grain. It contained a general store which received shipments on the railroad; the top attraction in the county is Monon Connection Museum, a railroad and train museum with antiques and artifacts. Popular restaurants in the area include Whistle Stop, Casey's, Sycamore. Lee is located at 40°53′47″N 86°58′05″W. Https://openlibrary.org/books/OL23662738M/A_standard_history_of_White_County_Indiana
Samanta Poļakova, better known as Samanta Tīna, is a Latvian singer. After having attempted to represent her country in the Eurovision Song Contest five times earlier, she won the national preselection Supernova in 2020 and will represent Latvia in the Eurovision Song Contest 2020 held in Rotterdam, the Netherlands with the song "Still Breathing", she competed in the Lithuanian preselection twice, in the Lithuanian version of The Voice. In 2010, Tīna won the Latvian music show O! Kartes akadēmija, winning the chance to attend the Tech Music School in England. In 2011, she won the Moldovan Cup. In 2012, she competed in the Slavianski Bazaar in Vitebsk along with 20 other competitors. On Day 1, she earned 93 points. On the second day she performed the song "Где то далеко", was awarded 104 points, she finished in second place with 197 points, behind only Bobi Mojsoski of Macedonia. On 1 December 2011, Tīna was announced as one of the singers for Eirodziesma 2012, performing the song "I Want You Back" along with Dāvids Kalandija.
The two of them advanced from semi-final one on 7 January 2012 to the final. In the second semi-final held on 18 February 2012, Tīna performed the song "For Father". However, she did not make it to the final and placed 7th; the final was held on 18 February 2012 in Ventspils. In the final, Tīna and Kalandija performed second, they placed second in the final, advancing to the superfinal, placing second again only behind the winner Anmary and her song "Beautiful Song". On 15 January 2013, it was revealed Tīna would be taking part in Dziesma, the new title for the Latvian national final, performing the song "I Need a Hero". Tīna placed first in the first semi-final held on 8 February 2013, advancing to the final on 16 February 2013. Tīna was considered the heavy favourite to win the competition. In the final, Tīna placed second. In the final, she reached second place, behind the band PeR and their song "Here We Go". Tīna placed second behind PeR once again; that year, She took part in the national Lituanian selection for Eurovision in duet with Vudis, with the song "Hey Chiki - Mama".
The duet get eliminated. Tīna took place in the first semi-final of Dziesma 2014 with her song "Stay", on 1 February 2014 in Riga, she advanced to the final in a three-way tie for second place. In the final, held on 22 February 2014, Tīna performed fifth, she placed third and as a part of the top three, advanced to the superfinal. In the superfinal, Tīna placed third once again, behind Dons and his song "Pēdējā vēstule" and the winners Aarzemnieki and their song "Cake to Bake". Tīna competed on the third season of the Lithuanian version of The Voice. Since she is not Lithuanian, she communicated to the judges in Russian. For her audition, Samanta performed the song "I Wanna Dance With Somebody". For her battle Samanta performed the song "I'm Every Woman" against Monika & Kristina, Samanta won the battle. Tīna finished the contest in the top eight, just missing out on reaching the final four to Agnė Juškenaitė. On 31 January 2016, Tīna was announced as one of the participants in Supernova 2016 with two songs, "We Live for Love" and "The Love Is Forever".
"We Live for Love" competed in the first heat on 7 February, did not advance to the semi-finals. "The Love Is Forever" competed in the second heat on 14 February, where it advanced to the semi-final after being saved by the jury. After performing in the semi-final, she decided to withdraw from the competition. In 2016, it was confirmed that she would compete in Lithuania's national selection for the Eurovision Song Contest 2017, she performed the song "Tavo oda" in a duet with Lithuanian singer Tadas Rimgaila. The act was eliminated in the first heat of the contest. In late 2019, Tīna submitted the song "Still Breathing" to Supernova, the Latvian preselection for the Eurovision Song Contest. In January 2020, it was announced that she and 25 other acts had been shortlisted from the 126 entries received by the Latvian broadcaster LTV, she survived a second elimination round and proceeded to the final on 8 February 2020. She went on to win the competition and will represent Latvia in the Eurovision Song Contest 2020 held in Rotterdam, the Netherlands in May 2020.
"I Want You Back" "I Need a Hero" "Hey Chiki - Mama" "Stay" "We Live for Love" "The Love Is Forever" "Kāds trakais mani uzgleznos" "Tavo oda" "Vējš bungo klavieres" "Pietiks" "Cutting the Wire" "Still Breathing" "Pirmais sniegs"