Brahmi is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE. Brahmi is an abugida that thrived in the Indian subcontinent and uses a system of marks to associate vowels with consonant symbols. It evolved into a host of other scripts that continue in use, Brahmi is related to the ancient Kharosthi script, which was used in what is now eastern Afghanistan and Pakistan. Kharosthi died out in ancient times, the best-known Brahmi inscriptions are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka in north-central India, dating to 250–232 BCE. The script was deciphered in 1837 by James Prinsep, an archaeologist, Brahmi was at one time referred to in English as the pin-man script, that is stick figure script. Thence the name was adopted in the work of Georg Bühler. The Gupta script of the 5th century is sometimes called Late Brahmi, the Brahmi script diversified into numerous local variants, classified together as the Brahmic scripts. Dozens of modern scripts used across South Asia have descended from Brahmi, one survey found 198 scripts that ultimately derive from it.
The script was associated with its own Brahmi numerals, which provided the graphic forms for the Hindu–Arabic numeral system now used through most of the world. The Brahmi script is mentioned in the ancient Indian texts of Hinduism and Buddhism, for example, the Lipisala samdarshana parivarta lists 64 lipi, with the Brahmi script starting the list. The Lalitavistara Sūtra states that young Siddhartha, the future Buddha, mastered philology and other scripts from Brahmin Lipikara, a shorter list of eighteen ancient scripts is found in the texts of Jainism, such as the Pannavana Sutra and the Samavayanga Sutra. These Jaina script lists include Brahmi at number 1 and Kharoshthi at number 4 but Javanaliya, while the contemporary Kharosthi script is widely accepted to be a derivation of the Aramaic alphabet, the genesis of the Brahmi script is less straightforward. Salomon reviewed existing theories in 1998, while Falk provided an overview in 1993, an origin in Semitic scripts has been proposed by some scholars since the publications by Albrecht Weber and Georg Bühlers On the origin of the Indian Brahma alphabet.
The most disputed point about the origin of the Brahmi script has long been whether it was an indigenous development or was borrowed or derived from scripts that originated outside India. Most scholars believe that Brahmi was likely derived from or influenced by a Semitic script model, the issue is not settled due to the lack of direct evidence and unexplained differences between Aramaic and Brahmi. Virtually all authors accept that regardless of the origins, the degree of Indian development of the Brahmi script in both the form and the structure has been extensive. It is accepted that theories of Vedic grammar probably had a strong influence on this development. In contrast, some reject the idea of foreign influence
Gulf of Kutch
The Gulf of Kutch is an inlet of the Arabian Sea along the west coast of India, in the state of Gujarat, which is renowned for extreme daily tides. The Gulf of Kutch is referred to in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea and it is a region with highest potential of tidal energy generation. It is about 99 miles in length, and divides Kutch, the Rukmavati River empties into the Arabian Sea nearby. Gulf of Khambhat lies in south and the Great Rann of Kutch is located in north of the gulf, the first coral garden will be set up near Mithapur in the Gulf of Kutch. The different species of corals will be set up and a garden will be developed for conservation. It will be developed by a joint venture of Gujarat forest department, Wildlife Trust of India, marine National Park, Gulf of Kutch Coral reefs in India Rann of Kutch Wildlife Sanctuary
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
The text has been ascribed to different dates between the 1st and 3rd centuries CE, but a mid-1st-century date is now the most commonly accepted. The Erythraean Sea, or in modern spelling, Eritrean Sea is presently a Greek name for the Red Sea, to the ancient Greeks it included the Indian Ocean, the work consists of 66 chapters, most of them about the length of a long paragraph in English. For instance, the short Chapter 9 reads in its entirety, the imports to this are as aforesaid, and from it likewise are exported the same goods, and fragrant gum called mokrotou. The inhabitants who trade here are more peaceful, in many cases, the description of places is sufficiently accurate to identify their present locations, for others, there is considerable debate. The description of the Indian coast mentions the Ganges River clearly, yet after that is somewhat garbled, the Periplus says that a direct sailing route from the Red Sea to the Indian peninsula across the open ocean was discovered by Hippalus.
Many trade goods are mentioned in the Periplus, but some of the words naming trade goods are seen nowhere else in ancient literature, for example, one trade good mentioned is lakkos chromatinos. The name lakkos appears nowhere else in ancient Greek or Roman literature, some other named trade goods remain obscure. In the 10th-century manuscript, the text is attributed to Arrian, the Periplus was edited by Sigmund Gelen and first published in a modern edition by Hieronymus Froben in 1533. One historical analysis, published by Schoff in 1912, narrowed the date of the text to 60 CE. Schoff additionally provides an analysis as to the texts original authorship, and arrives at the conclusion that the author must have been a Greek in Egypt. By Schoffs calculations, this would have been during the time of Tiberius Claudius Balbilus, john Hill maintains that the Periplus can now be confidently dated to between 40 and 70 AD and, between AD40 and 50. Because of the absence of any account of the journey up the Nile and across the desert from Coptos, ships from Himyar regularly traveled the East African coast.
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea describes the empire of Himyar and Saba, regrouped under a single ruler Charibael. The Frankincense kingdom is described further east along the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, the ruler of this kingdom is named Eleazus, or Eleazar, thought to correspond to King Iliazz Yalit I,27. Inland from this lies the metropolis Sabbatha, in which the King lives. All the frankincense produced in the country is brought by camels to that place to be stored, and to Cana on rafts held up by inflated skins after the manner of the country, and in boats. And this place has a trade with the ports, with Barygaza and Scythia and Ommana. Ras Hafun in northern Somalia is believed to be the location of the ancient trade center of Opone, Ancient Egyptian and Persian Gulf pottery has been recovered from the site by an archaeological team from the University of Michigan
Ujjain is the largest city in Ujjain district of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the fifth largest city in Madhya Pradesh by population and is the centre of Ujjain district. An ancient city situated on the bank of the Kshipra River. It emerged as the centre of central India around 600 BCE. It was the capital of the ancient Avanti kingdom, one of the sixteen mahajanapadas and it remained an important political and cultural centre of central India until the early 19th century, when the British administrators decided to develop Indore as an alternative to it. Ujjain continues to be an important place of pilgrimage for Shaivites, Ujjain has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modis flagship Smart Cities Mission. Excavations at Kayatha have revealed chalcolithic agricultural settlements dating to around 2000 BCE, chalcolithic sites have been discovered at other areas around Ujjain, including Nagda, but excavations at Ujjain itself have not revealed any chalcolithic settlements. H. D.
Sankalia theorized that the settlements at Ujjain were probably destroyed by the Iron Age settlers. According to Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, whose capital was Ujjain, was one of the earliest outposts in central India, around 600 BCE, Ujjain emerged as the political and cultural centre of Malwa plateau. The ancient walled city of Ujjain was located around the Garh Kalika hill on the bank of river Kshipra and this city covered an irregular pentagonal area of 0.875 km2. It was surrounded by a 12 m high mud rampart, the archaeological investigations have indicated the presence of a 45 m wide and 6.6 m deep moat around the city. According to F. R. Allchin and George Erdosy, these city defences were constructed between 6th and 4th centuries BCE, dieter Schlingloff believes that these were built before 600 BCE. This period is characterised by structures made of stone and burnt-brick and weapons made of iron, according to the Puranic texts, a branch of the legendary Haihaya dynasty ruled over Ujjain.
In the Mauryan period, Ujjain remained the centre of the region. From this period, Northern Black Polished Ware, copper coins, terracotta ring wells, during the reign of his father Bindusara, Ashoka served as the viceroy of Ujjain. Ujjain was subsequently controlled by a number of empires and dynasties, including the Shungas, the Western Satraps, the Satavahanas, the Guptas, the Paramaras shifted the regions capital from Ujjain to Dhar. Raja Bharthari wrote his epics, Virat Katha, Neeti Sataka. The writings of Bhasa are set in Ujjain, and he lived in the city
A chaitya is a Buddhist shrine or prayer hall with a stupa at one end. In modern texts on Indian architecture, the term chaitya-griha is often used to denote an assembly or prayer hall houses a stupa. Chaityas were probably constructed to hold large numbers of devotees and to shelter for them. An ancient practice, rock-cut architecture has had a tradition in Buddhism. Ancient Buddhist chaityas can be found in parts of Maharashtra. Over the course of time, the wall separating the stupa from the hall was removed to create a hall with a colonnade around the nave. The chaitya at Bhaja Caves was constructed in the first century BCE and it consisted of an apsidal hall with stupa. The columns sloped inwards in the imitation of wooden columns that would have been necessary to keep a roof up. The ceiling was vaulted with wooden ribs set into them. The walls were polished in the Mauryan style and it was faced by a substantial wooden facade. This created the appearance of an ancient Indian mansion, in Bhaja, as in other chaityas, the entrance acted as the demarcation between the sacred and the profane.
The stupa inside the hall was now removed from the sight of anyone outside. In this context, in the 1st century CE, the veneration of the stupa changed to the veneration of an image of Gautama Buddha. Chaityas were commonly part of a complex, the vihara. In Nepal, chaityas are constructed and worshiped by the Sherpas, Gurungs and Newars, the Newars in the Kathmandu Valley, mainly after the 12th century, started adding images of four Dhyani Buddhas on the chaityas four directions. They are constructed with carved stone and mud mortar. They are said to consist of the five basic elements — earth, fire, each is constructed in memory of a dead person by his or her family. On average, each is four to eight feet in height, chaityas show similarities to ancient Roman architectural concepts of column and arch
The British Museum is dedicated to human history and culture, and is located in the Bloomsbury area of London. The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of the physician, the museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759, in Montagu House, on the site of the current building. Although today principally a museum of art objects and antiquities. Its foundations lie in the will of the Irish-born British physician, on 7 June 1753, King George II gave his formal assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. They were joined in 1757 by the Old Royal Library, now the Royal manuscripts, together these four foundation collections included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving copy of Beowulf. The British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king, freely open to the public, sloanes collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests.
The addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary, the body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The Trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost. With the acquisition of Montagu House the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts. A list of donations to the Museum, dated 31 January 1784, in the early 19th century the foundations for the extensive collection of sculpture began to be laid and Greek and Egyptian artefacts dominated the antiquities displays. Gifts and purchases from Henry Salt, British consul general in Egypt, beginning with the Colossal bust of Ramesses II in 1818, many Greek sculptures followed, notably the first purpose-built exhibition space, the Charles Towneley collection, much of it Roman Sculpture, in 1805.
In 1816 these masterpieces of art, were acquired by The British Museum by Act of Parliament. The collections were supplemented by the Bassae frieze from Phigaleia, Greece in 1815, the Ancient Near Eastern collection had its beginnings in 1825 with the purchase of Assyrian and Babylonian antiquities from the widow of Claudius James Rich. The neoclassical architect, Sir Robert Smirke, was asked to draw up plans for an extension to the Museum. For the reception of the Royal Library, and a Picture Gallery over it, and put forward plans for todays quadrangular building, much of which can be seen today. The dilapidated Old Montagu House was demolished and work on the Kings Library Gallery began in 1823, the extension, the East Wing, was completed by 1831. The Museum became a site as Sir Robert Smirkes grand neo-classical building gradually arose
Indo-Scythians is a term used to refer to Scythians, who migrated into parts of central and western South Asia from the middle of the 2nd century BC to the 4th century AD. The first Saka king in south Asia was Maues who established Saka power in Gandhara, Indo-Scythian rule in northwestern India ended with the last Western Satrap Rudrasimha III in 395 CE who was defeated by the Indian Emperor Chandragupta II of the Gupta Empire. The power of the Saka rulers started to decline in the 2nd century CE after the Indo-Scythians were defeated by the south Indian Emperor Gautamiputra Satakarni of the Satavahana dynasty, the Saka kingdom was completely destroyed by Chandragupta II of the Gupta Empire in the 4th century. The invasion of India by Scythian tribes from Central Asia, often referred to as the Indo-Scythian invasion, ancient Roman historians including Arrian and Claudius Ptolemy have mentioned that the ancient Sakas were basically nomads. However, Italo Ronca, in his study of Ptolemys chapter vi, marks the statement, The land of the Sakai belongs to nomads, they have no towns but dwell in forests.
The ancestors of the Indo-Scythians are thought to be Sakas tribes, one group of Indo-European speakers that makes an early appearance on the Xinjiang stage is the Saka. According to these ancient sources Modu Shanyu of the Xiongnu tribe of Mongolia attacked the Yuezhi, leaving behind a remnant of their number, most of the population moved westwards. Around 175 BC, the Yuezhi tribes, were defeated by the Xiongnu tribes, they displaced the Sakas, who migrated south into Ferghana and Sogdiana. According to the Chinese historical chronicles, The Yuezhi attacked the king of the Sai who moved a distance to the south. The Sakas seem to have entered the territory of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom around 145 BC, the Sakas called home, an area of Southern Afghanistan, called after them Sistan. From there, they expanded into present day Iran as well as northern India, where they established various kingdoms. The region is known as Seistan. The presence of the Sakas in Sakastan in the 1st century BC is mentioned by Isidore of Charax in his Parthian stations, the first Indo-Scythian kingdom in south western Asia was located in Pakistan in the areas from Abiria to Surastrene, from around 110 to 80 BC.
They progressively further moved north into Indo-Greek territory until the conquests of Maues, before it there lies a small island, and inland behind it is the metropolis of Scythia, Minnagara. The Indo-Scythians ultimately established a kingdom in the northwest, based in Taxila, in the southeast, the Indo-Scythians invaded the area of Ujjain, but were subsequently repelled in 57 BC by the Malwa king Vikramaditya. To commemorate the event Vikramaditya established the Vikrama era, a specific Indian calendar starting in 57 BC, more than a century later, in AD78 the Sakas would again invade Ujjain and establish the Saka era, marking the beginning of the long-lived Saka Western Satraps kingdom. Maues first conquered Gandhara and Taxila around 80 BCE, but his kingdom disintegrated after his death, in the east, the Indian king Vikrama retook Ujjain from the Indo-Scythians, celebrating his victory by the creation of the Vikrama Era. Indo-Greek kings again ruled after Maues, and prospered, as indicated by the profusion of coins from Kings Apollodotus II, not until Azes I, in 55 BC, did the Indo-Scythians take final control of northwestern India, with his victory over Hippostratos
The Western Satraps, Western Kshatrapas, or Kshaharatas were Indo-Scythian rulers of the western and central part of India. They are so named in contrast to the Northern Satraps who ruled around East Punjab, the Western Satraps were contemporaneous with the Kushans who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent and were possibly their overlords, and the Satavahana who ruled in Central India. Although they called themselves Satraps on their coins, leading to their designation of Western Satraps. The power of the Saka rulers started to decline in the 2nd century CE after the Saka rulers were defeated by the south Indian Emperor Gautamiputra Satakarni of the Satavahana dynasty, the Saka kingdom was completely destroyed by Chandragupta II of the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. Altogether, there were 27 independent Western Satrap rulers during a period of about 350 years, the word Kshatrapa stands for satrap, itself descended from Old Persian and which means viceroy or governor of a province.
The Western Satraps are thought to have started with the rather short-lived Kshaharata dynasty, the term Kshaharata is known from the 6 CE Taxila copper plate inscription, in which it qualifies the Indo-Scythian ruler Liaka Kusulaka. The Nasik inscription of the 19th year of Sri Pulamavi mentions the Khakharatavasa, the earliest Kshaharata for whom there is evidence is Abhiraka, whose rare coins are known. He was succeeded by Bhumaka, father of Nahapana, who used on his coins the title of Satrap. Bhumaka was the father of the great ruler Nahapana, according to one of the latters coins and his coins bear Buddhist symbols, such as the eight-spoked wheel, or the lion seated on a capital, a representation of a pillar of Ashoka. Nahapana succeeded to him, and became a powerful ruler. He occupied portions of the Satavahana empire in western and central India, Nahapana held sway over Malwa, Southern Gujarat, and Northern Konkan, from Bharuch to Sopara and the Nasik and Poona districts. His son-in-law, the Saka Ushavadata, is known from inscriptions in Nasik and Karle to have been viceroy of Nahapana, Nahapana is mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea under the name Nambanus, as ruler of the area around Barigaza,41.
Beyond the gulf of Baraca is that of Barygaza and the coast of the country of Ariaca and that part of it lying inland and adjoining Scythia is called Abiria, but the coast is called Syrastrene. It is a country, yielding wheat and rice and sesame oil and clarified butter, cotton. Very many cattle are pastured there, and the men are of great stature, the metropolis of this country is Minnagara, from which much cotton cloth is brought down to Barygaza. Under the Western Satraps, Barigaza was one of the centers of Roman trade with India. The Periplus describes the many goods exchanged,49 and those bound for this market-town from Egypt make the voyage favorably about the month of July, that is Epiphi. Goods were brought down in quantity from Ujjain, the capital of the Western Satraps,48, some make the voyage especially to these market-towns, and others exchange their cargoes while sailing along the coast
The genus is widespread throughout the temperate and tropical regions of Africa and Europe. The word mallow is derived from Old English malwe, which was imported from Latin malva, cognate with Ancient Greek μαλάχη meaning mallow, a number of species, previously considered to belong to Lavatera, have been moved to Malva. The leaves are alternate, palmately lobed, the flowers are from 0. 5–5 cm diameter, with five pink or white petals. The colour mauve was in 1859 named after the French name for this plant, several species are widely grown as garden flowers, while some are invasive weeds, particularly in the Americas where they are not native. Many species are edible as leaf vegetables and commonly foraged in the West, known as ebegümeci in Turkish, it is used as vegetable in Turkey in various forms such as stuffing the leaves with bulgur or rice or using the boiled leaves as side dish. Malva verticillata is grown on a commercial scale in China. Very easily grown, short-lived perennials are grown as ornamental plants.
Mild tasting, young leaves can be a substitute for lettuce. The buds and flowers can be used in salads, cultivation is by sowing the seeds directly outdoors in early spring. The seed is easy to collect, and they will spread themselves by seed. In Catalonia they use the leaves to cure stinging nettles sting, bodos of Northeast India cultivate a sub-species of malva called lapha and use it extensively in their traditional cuisine, although its use is not much known among other people of India. Malva Leaves are a highly cherished vegetable dish in north Indian state of Kashmir, Malva sp. leaves have been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea or externally as baths for treatment of disorders of the skin, gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract. This plant is one of the earliest cited in recorded literature, the third century BC physician Diphilus of Siphnus wrote that juice lubricates the windpipe, and is easily digested. Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet, which he describes as simple, Me pascunt olivae.
Sources, Data related to Malva at Wikispecies
Mandsaur or Mandsour is a city in the Malwa region and district of Madhya Pradesh state of central India. It is the headquarters of Mandsaur District. Mandsaur is rich in archaeological and historical heritage But what makes it famous is the temple of Lord Pashupatinath located on the bank of Shivna river and its idol has parallel only in Nepal. The most common language is Malvi. It is famous for production of Opium around the world. The slate pencil industry is the industry of the district. The name Mandsaur evolved from Marhsaur, which originated from Marh and Saur, the city consists of ten puras, which gave it the name Dashpura. It is believed that place was once the maternal residence of Mandodari. In old city areas, people worship the idol of Ravana, a 35-feet ten headed sitting idol of Ravana can be seen in the Khanpura area of the city. The hero first assailed the mountainous country called Rohitaka that was dear unto Kartikeya, the encounter the son of Pandu had with the Mattamyurakas of that country was fierce.
And the illustrious Nakula after this, subjugated the whole of the desert country, and the hero had a fierce encounter with the royal sage Akrosa. Making circuitous journey that bull among men conquered the tribes called the Utsava-sanketas, epigraphical discoveries have brought to light two ancient royal houses, who call themselves as Aulikaras and ruled from Dashapura. The first dynasty, who ruled from Dashapura from the beginning comprised the kings in the order of succession. Bandhuvarma was contemporary of Kumaragupta I, there is an inscription about Bandhuvarma at Mandsaur. The silk workers had constructed a Sun temple here which was repaired by Bandhuvarma in Samvat 493 and this indicates that he was present there till 436 CE. After Parakshadharma, the ruler of Mandsaur was Yashodharma, who is identified with Vishnuvardhana, in all probabilities, he was the son and immediate successor of Prakashadharma. Yashodharma Vishnuvardhana assumed the title of Samrat after he occupied the territories of Bandhuvarma and it is mentioned that Yashodharma Vishnuvardhana had assumed the title of ‘Maharajadhiraja’ or Emperor.
Sondani is a village at a distance of about 4 km from Mandsaur situated on Mahu-Nimach Highway towards Mahu. Two monolith pillars were erected here by King Yasodharman in 528 AD with inscription which describe his exploits including victory over Hunas, excavations by the Indian Archaeology Department show that these pillars are lying at their original site
Chashtana was a ruler of the Saka Western Satraps in northwestern India during 78-130 CE. He was satrap of Ujjain during that period, among the modern scholars, the beginning of the Saka era is widely equated to the ascension of Chashtana in 78 CE. A statue found in Mathura together with statues of the Kushan king Kanishka and Vima Taktu, Chashtana is called Tisman by the bards, a spelling that matches the Greek rendition of his name more closely. According to Ptolemy, Chashtana directly ruled Ujjain, while Paithan continued to be ruled by Siristolemaios, a part of this region around the river mouth is Patalena, above which is Abiria. That which is about the mouth of the Indus and the Canthicolpus bay is called Syrastrena, in the island formed by this river are the cities Pantala, Barbaria. The Larica region of Indoscythia is located eastward from the swamp near the sea, on the east side of the river Ozena-Regia Tiastani Minagara. Chashtana was the grandfather of the great Western Satrap conqueror Rudradaman I, Chashtana was founder of one of the two major Saka Satrap dynasties in north-western India, the Bhadramukhas, the other, short-lived dynasty, the Kshaharatas, included Bhumaka and Nahapana.
The dynastic art of the Kushans, Rosenfield Burgess, James