Naihati

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Naihati
City
Sampreeti Bridge and Jubilee Bridge
Sampreeti Bridge and Jubilee Bridge
Naihati is located in West Bengal
Naihati
Naihati
Location in West Bengal, India
Naihati is located in India
Naihati
Naihati
Naihati (India)
Coordinates: 22°53′N 88°25′E / 22.89°N 88.42°E / 22.89; 88.42Coordinates: 22°53′N 88°25′E / 22.89°N 88.42°E / 22.89; 88.42
Country India
StateWest Bengal
DistrictNorth 24 Parganas
Government
 • Municipality ChairmanAshok Kumar Chatterjee[1]
Area
 • Total11.55 km2 (4.46 sq mi)
Elevation15 m (49 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total217,900
 • Density19,000/km2 (49,000/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialBengali, English
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN743165
Telephone code91 33
Lok Sabha constituencyBarrackpore
Vidhan Sabha constituencyNaihati
Websitenorth24parganas.nic.in

Naihati is a city with a municipality and an important railway junction station on the Indian Railways network, in Barrackpore subdivision in the district of North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. It is a part of Kolkata Urban Agglomeration.

Naihati municipality is one of the oldest in the whole country and was established in 1869. It is the birthplace of Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, the author of India's national song Vande Mataram; and of the political artist Chittaprosad.[2] It is also the birthplace of the famous Quantum Chemist Dr. Debashis Mukherjee, the developer of multireference coupled cluster theory.

Geography[edit]

Cities and towns in the northern portion of Barrackpore subdivision in North 24 Parganas district
M: municipal city/ town, CT: census town,
N: neighbourhood, OG: outgrowth
Owing to space constraints in the small map, the actual locations in a larger map may vary slightly

Location[edit]

Naihati is located at 22°54′N 88°25′E / 22.9°N 88.42°E / 22.9; 88.42.[3] It has an average elevation of 15 metres (49 feet).

Naihati is bounded by Halisahar and Balibhara on the north, Rampur, Rajendrapur, Mamudpur and Dogachhia on the east, Bhatpara and Madral on the south, and the Hooghly on the west. Although not specifically spelled out, it is evident that localities such as Garifa, Kultala, Bibeksarani, Bijaynagar, Nimbagan and Fingapara are neighbourhoods in Naihati, though some considers them to a part of Naihati. [4]

96% of the population of Barrackpore subdivision (partly presented in the map alongside; all places marked on the map are linked in the full-screen map) lives in urban areas. In 2011, it had a density of population of 10,967 per km2 The subdivision has 16 municipalities and 24 census towns.[5]

For most of the cities/ towns information regarding density of population is available in the Infobox. Population data is not available for neighbourhoods. It is available for the entire municipal area and thereafter ward-wise.

Police station[edit]

Naihati police station under Barrackpore Police Commissionerate has jurisdiction over Naihati municipal area and Barrackpore I CD Block, including Barrackpur Cantonment Board.[6][7]

Post Office[edit]

Naihati has a delivery sub post office, with PIN 743165 in the North Presidency Division of North 24 Parganas district in Calcutta region. Other post offices with the same PIN are Naihati Anandabazar and Puranandapally.[8]

Climate[edit]

Being situated in the tropics, the climate of Naihati is primarily hot and humid summers and cool and dry winters. The rain bearing clouds from the Bay of Bengal brings torrential rain in the monsoon. In the summer temperature goes as high as 40 degree Celsius and in the winter it may reach 8 degree Celsius.

Notable People[edit]

Bankim Chandra Chatterjee

Vidyadhar Bhattacharya - a Bengali Brahmin who designed the city of Jaipur hailed from Naihati.

Haraprasad Shastri- Noted historian and linguist, a descendant of Vidyadhar, was also born here nearly a century and half later.

Bankim Chandra Chatterjee - 'Sahitya samrat' one of the greatest Bengali novelist of all time, was also born in Naihati. He was a prolific author of novels, and authored Vande Mataram, which had great impact on the Indian revolutionaries and later became the national song of India.

Panchanan Ghoshal - criminologist, writer

Shyamal Mitra - singer

Samaresh Bose.- writer

Keshab Chandra Sen - social reformer


Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

Population of Naihati 
CensusPop.
190123,753
191118,219-23.3%
192123,28627.8%
193130,90832.7%
194142,20036.5%
195155,31331.1%
196158,4575.7%
197182,08040.4%
1981114,60739.6%
1991132,70115.8%
2001215,30362.2%
2011217,9001.2%
Source:[9]


As per the 2011 Census of India, Naihati had a total population of 217,900, of which 109,849 (50%) were males and 108,051 (50%) were females. Population below 6 years was 19,761. The total number of literates in Naihati was 173,397 (87.51% of the population over 6 years).[10]

As of 2001 India census,[11] Naihati had a population of 215,432. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Naihati has an average literacy rate of 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 79%, and female literacy is 70%. In Naihati, 9% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Migrants and refugees[edit]

The Jute Mills drew in a large labour force from the neighbouring states of Bihar and Odisha, as well as eastern Uttar Pradesh, quite often forming an overwhelming majority of the population in the area, living in shanty towns and bustees dotting the mill area.[12]

According to a study carried out by Vidyasagar University, "Most of these industrial units were located in riverine towns. A few of these were old towns inhabited previously by middle class Bengali 'babus' while others were new towns grown out of agricultural lands... Agriculture in Bengal was more remunerative than work in the jute mills but what the jute mills paid was enough to attract labour from Bihar, Orissa, U.P. first and then from C.P. or even Madras...The industrial 'mohallas' remained as 'ghettos'. There was little or no interconnection or social and cultural contact between local Bengali population and the mill hands. Both lived in their own worlds."[13]

With the partition of India there was a massive influx of refugees from East Pakistan into Kolkata and its peripheral areas. Of over a million refugees who entered West Bengal in 1950 alone settled mostly in squatter colonies between Naihati and Sonarpur on the east bank of the Hooghly and between Mogra and Uluberia on the west bank.[14]

Kolkata Urban Agglomeration[edit]

The following Municipalities, Census Towns and other locations in Barrackpore subdivision were part of Kolkata Urban Agglomeration in the 2011 census: Kanchrapara (M), Jetia (CT), Halisahar (M), Balibhara (CT), Naihati (M), Bhatpara (M), Kaugachhi (CT), Garshyamnagar (CT), Garulia (M), Ichhapur Defence Estate (CT), North Barrackpur (M), Barrackpur Cantonment (CB), Barrackpore (M), Jafarpur (CT), Ruiya (CT), Titagarh (M), Khardaha (M), Bandipur (CT), Panihati (M), Muragachha (CT) New Barrackpore (M), Chandpur (CT), Talbandha (CT), Patulia (CT), Kamarhati (M), Baranagar (M), South Dumdum (M), North Dumdum (M), Dum Dum (M), Noapara (CT), Babanpur (CT), Teghari (CT), Nanna (OG), Chakla (OG), Srotribati (OG) and Panpur (OG).[15]

Infrastructure[edit]

As per the District Census Handbook 2011, Naihati municipal city covered an area of 11.55 km2. Amongst the civic amenities it had 237.81 km of roads and open drains. Amongst the social, recreational and cultural facilities it had 1 stadium, 2 cinema/theatres and 5 public libraries. Amongst the commodities manufactured was bori. It had 8 bank branches.[16]

According to the Barrackpore administration, amongst the educational facilities at Naihati are 3 colleges and 10 high schools. Amongst the other facilities are 9 markets, 1 post office, 4 sub post offices, 2 ferry ghats, 3 cinema halls (Naihati cinema hall, Kalyani cinema hall and Ramakrishna cinema hall), 2 public halls (Oikatan auditorium and Railway Banquet Hall), 14 play grounds and 1 burning ghat (Senpara burning ghat).[17]

See also Cities and towns in Barrackpore subdivision

Economy[edit]

Industry[edit]

Naihati had a vibrant industrial area. “Once upon a time, mill sirens would keep the time in Naihati. Sirens at six o’clock, at nine o’clock, at eleven o’clock… Pulse of the factories would impart a collective sense of time, a sense of discipline, a united communal life. Even before the break of dawn tea shops in factory premises and even in far off places, would open shutters. Lines of pedestrians and cyclists would be seen going to work. Night shift workers would come out in hordes to make way for the morning shift.“ Most of the factories in Naihati-Garifa area have closed down. Workers and employees are in an unbearable state, and the socio-cultural environment of a much larger area has been vitiated.[18] A brief about the industries follows.

  • Jenson & Nicholson was established in India in 1922 by its parent company Berger-Jenson & Nicholson, UK. The first factory of Jenson & Nicholson at Naihati went into production in 1925. The company produces paints, pigments, varnishes and allied products. The foreign holdings in the company were bought over by S.P.Sinha in 1964. The Naihati paint factory was modernised in the late 1980s. Bijay Chandra Srivastava has been managing director from 2014.[19][20][21]
  • Gouripore Jute Mill at Naihati was once upon a time considered by many as the best jute mill in the World. The fairy-tale jute mill environment of the colonial era has been succinctly described by Soumitra Das in The Telegraph, "The mill had its own train and its engine was a museum piece. It carried coal to the power house. The Gouripur mill had its own water filter plant and captive electricity and water supply system...The mill opened in 1862...Gouripore Jute Mills originally belonged to the Inchcape Group under Barry & Co. Later, in 1948, following amalgamation in 1948, MacNeill & Barry owned three jute mills — Gouripore, Nuddea and Ganges Manufacturing at Bansberia. Naihati bustled with activity owing to the presence of Jenson Nicholson, Gouripur Electric Supply and Containers and Closures alongside what was the largest and best jute mill of those times." The Scottish owners left, Gouripore Jute Mill changed hands and was closed in 1998.[22][23][24]
  • Nuddea Jute Mills at Naihati became a part of the MacNeill & Barry group in 1948.[23] It has been going through a lot of turmoil from the 1980s and was also referred to BIFR.[18][25] The mill seems to be out of operation, but the picture is hazy.[26][27]

For Naihati Jute Mill at Hazinagar see Halisahar

Amongst the other closed factories are Gouripore Thermal Power Station, Containers and Closures Limited and Indian Paper Pulp (IPP or more popular as kagaj kal).[18]

Fish culture[edit]

Naihati, Battala area is also notable for fish farming, rearing of sweet water fish seeds of various genus like Rohu, Katla, Koi, Magur, Pabda, Silver Carp, Common Carp and many more. It was started under a training programme by Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (CIFRI), now known as Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA), located at Kalyani. It is an initiative of the Indian Government, handled by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR).

This initiative by the then Indian government, and numerous renowned scientists and under their supervision, it was possible to bring a control over the production and preservation of various breeds of sweet water fishes.

The season starts from end of April, and continues till the monsoon lasts.

KMDA[edit]

Madhyamgramgram municipality is included in the Kolkata Metropolitan Area for which the KMDA is the statutory planning and development authority.[28][29]

Naihati Railway Station

Transport[edit]

Railway service[edit]

Naihati Junction railway station is 38 km from Sealdah on the Sealdah-Ranaghat Line and 16 km from Barrackpore. It is part of the Kolkata Suburban Railway system. It is connected to Bandel on the Howrah-Bardhaman main line. The journey takes about 20 minutes. There is a station at Garifa also.[30][31][32]

Jubilee Bridge

In 1857, the Eastern Bengal Railway (EBR) was formed to lay the tracks along the east bank of the Hooghly River to Kushtia and then extended to Goalundo Ghat. The Jubilee Bridge linking Bandel and Naihati was opened on 21 February 1887, so that up country freight traffic could run through to Kolkata port.[33]Sampreeti Bridge has replaced the Jubilee Bridge in 2017.[34]

Commuters[edit]

Around a total of 32 lakh people from all around the city commute to Kolkata daily for work. In the Sealdah-Krishnanagar section there are 34 trains that carry commuters from 30 railway stations. In the Sealdah-Shantipur section 32 trains carry commuters from 29 stations.[35]

Ferry service[edit]

Naihati Ferry Service Jetty Ghat links to Mechuabazar Ferry Service Jetty Ghat across the Hooghly at Chinsurah and the Hooghly Garifa Boat Service links Ram Ghat to Hooghly Ghat at Hooghly.[32]

Public bus service[edit]

While State Highway 1 passes through the heart of the city, Kalyani Expressway touches the outskirts. The Naihati-Habra Road is an important local road.[32]

The road transport is chiefly via the well known 85 route (name of the bus route) which operates between Barrackpore and Kanchrapara. There are also some other bus routes like Naihati to Habra, Naihati to Barasat(87A/DN5), Naihati to Technopolis. A new state and also a private bus has started from Naihati to Digha, from Kanthalpara railway bridge.

West Bengal Transport Corporation Bus
  • D2 - Habra — Naihati [Frequent] via Ashoknagar, Chowrangee, Awalsiddhi, Saheb Colony, Mamudpur [First Car - 5.00AM & Last Car - 7.30AM]
  • D7 Naihati – Bongaon
Privately operated
DN Series
JM series

Education[edit]

Rishi Bankim Chandra College was established at Naihati in 1947.[36][37]

Rishi Bankim Chandra College for Women was initially started as the morning section for women in Rishi Bankim Chandra College. The college was rechristened in 1984 as Rishi Bankim Chandra College for Women.[38][39]

Rishi Bankim Chandra Evening College was set up initially as the evening section of Rishi Bankim Chandra College and was rechristened as Rishi Bankim Chandra Evening College in 1984.[40][41]

There are many Bengali medium schools as well as English medium schools in Naihati. Prominent Bengali medium schools include Naihati Narendra Vidyaniketan,Garifa High School, Naihati Mahendra High School, Naihati Katyayani Girls' High School, Naihati Adarsha Vidyaniketan, Nahati Prafulla Sen's Girls High School, Bijaynagar High School (Boys' High), Hindi medium school Gauripur Hindi High school, Vidya Vikash High School, Sarswati Balika Vidyalay. St. Luke's Day School is the only English medium co-ed ICSE/ISC school in Naihati, affiliated to Indian School Certificate Examinations, New Delhi.

A dramatic moment from Totakahini.

Organizations, health services[edit]

Naihati has a large number of cultural and social organizations. Bankim Bhavan Gaveshana Kendra was founded by Prof. Satyajit Chaudhury in the year 1999 at the ancestral house of Bankim Chandra Chattopadhya and the center is maintained by the Dept. of Higher Education, Govt. of West Bengal. Amra Kajan Club is famous for its annual blood donation camp and the Mini Mime Mime Club is famous for Drama & Mime Play. National Park Unnayini Sangsad is an old and reputed non political organization run mainly by the residents of National Park area of Naihati. It looks after the social welfare of the area as well as promotes the cultural practice.Naihati has a legacy of science club movement. The early science club movement was started here by Lekhar Chestai, NISC etc.

The central health facility is called Naihati State General Hospital. It is supplemented by a number of private clinics and nursing homes, run by highly qualified medical practitioners.

Festivals[edit]

A large idol of the goddess Kali, locally known as Boro Maa, is in Naihati

Naihati is famous for its Kali Puja & Durga puja, chhat puja etc. Although, family-based pujas were more dominant a few decades ago, today it has become a community-centric affair.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Naihati Municipality
  2. ^ Sen, Arup Kumar (March 5, 2016). "Chittaprosad Bhattacharya (1915–78)". Economic & Political Weekly. Vol. LI no. 10.
  3. ^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Naihati, India". www.fallingrain.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  4. ^ "District Census Handbook North Twenty Four Parganas, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Map of Barrackpore I CD Block on Page 365. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  5. ^ "District Statistical Handbook". North 24 Parganas 2013, Tables 2.1, 2.2, 2.4b. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  6. ^ "District Statistical Handbook". North 24 Parganas 2013, Tables 2.1, 2.2, 2.4b. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
  7. ^ "Barrackpore Police Commissionerate". List of Police Stations with telephone numbers. West Bengal Police. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
  8. ^ "Dogachia PIN Code". pincodezip.in. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
  9. ^ "District Census Handbook North Twenty Four Parganas, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Section II Town Directory, Pages 781-783 Statement I: Growth History, Pages 799-803. Directorate of Census Operations V, West Bengal. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
  10. ^ "2011 Census – Primary Census Abstract Data Tables". West Bengal – District-wise. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  11. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  12. ^ Goswami, Onkar, Calcutta’s Economy 1918-1970 The fall from Grace in Calcutta, the Living City, Vol II, edited by Sukanta Chaudhuri, p 90, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-563697-X
  13. ^ Basu, Nirban. "Industrialisation and Emergence of Labour Force in Bengal during The Colonial Period: Its Socio-Economic Impact" (PDF). Vidyasagar University Journal of History, Vol 1, 2012-13. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
  14. ^ Chatterjee, Nilanjana, The East Bengal Refugees – A Lesson in Survival, in Calcutta, the Living City, Vol II
  15. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011" (PDF). Constituents of Urban Agglomeration Having Population Above 1 Lakh. Census of India 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  16. ^ "District Census Handbook North Twenty Four Parganas, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Section II Town Directory, Pages 781-783 Statement I: Growth History, Pages 799-803; Statement II: Physical Aspects and Location of Towns, Pages 791-794; Statement III: Civic and other Amenities, Pages 795-796; Statement IV: Medical Facilities 2009, Pages 803-805 Section: Educational, Recreational and Cultural Facilities. Directorate of Census Operations V, West Bengal. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  17. ^ "Naihati Municipality". Barrackpore administration. Retrieved 24 June 2018.
  18. ^ a b c "Save Naihati Industrial Area Forum". Sanhati. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  19. ^ "Jenson & Nicholson (India) Ltd". Company Profile. Scribd. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  20. ^ "Jenson & Nicholson (India) Ltd". Company history and Growth Details. Good Returns. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  21. ^ "Jenson & Nicholson (India) Ltd". Zauba Corp. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  22. ^ Das, Soumitra. "Golden fibre days". The Telegraph, 11 January 2008. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  23. ^ a b Das, Soumitra. "A little bit of Scotland". The Telegraph, 1 August 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  24. ^ "Mills under suspension of work as on 26 June 2009". Jute Comissioner, Government of India. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  25. ^ "BIFR referred sick jute mills". Jute Commissioners, Minsitry of Textiles. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  26. ^ "Over 21k workers affected in jute and tea mill closure". Business Standard, 24 January 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  27. ^ "Another jute mill bites the dust post demonetisation". The Hindu 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  28. ^ "Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authoity, Annual Report 2010-11". 1/1 Kolkata Metropolitan Area Map. KMDA. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  29. ^ "Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority, Annual Report 2010-11". 1 / 2 Role of KMDA. KMDA. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  30. ^ "31311 Sealdah-Kalyani Simanta Local". Time Table. indiarailinfo. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  31. ^ "37521 Naihati-Bandel Local". Time Table. indiarailinfo. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  32. ^ a b c Google maps
  33. ^ Chaudhuri, Sukanta, The Railway Comes to Calcutta, in Calcutta, the Living City, Vol. I, edited by Sukanta Chaudhuri, p. 239, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-563696-3.
  34. ^ "Sampreeti Bridge". Structureae. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  35. ^ Dey, Teesta. "The Suburban Railway Network of Kolkata: A Geographical Apprisal" (PDF). eTraverse, the Indian journal of spatial science, 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
  36. ^ "Rishi Bankim Chandra College". RBCC. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  37. ^ "Rishi Bankim Chandra College". College Admission. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  38. ^ "Rishi Bankim Chandra College for Women". RBCCW. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  39. ^ "Rishi Bankim Chandra College for Women". College Admission. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  40. ^ "Rishi Bankim Chandra Evening College". RBCEC. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  41. ^ "Rishi Bankim Chandra Evening College". College Admission. Retrieved 13 July 2018.

External links[edit]

Kolkata/Northern fringes travel guide from Wikivoyage