Alexis Nakota Sioux First Nation
The Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation no. 437 is a Nakoda First Nation which reserves near Edmonton and Whitecourt, in the Canadian province of Alberta, headquartered at 54° N and 114°, about 85 kilometres west of Edmonton. The Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation is a member of Treaty 6; as of March, 2019, the total registered population of the Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation is 2036 persons. There are 508 registered males, 459 females living on their own reserve. Members of the Alexis First Nation are of the "Stoney" or "Nakoda" ethnic group; the Stoney are sometimes considered part of the Assiniboine. Both of the terms "Stoney" and "Assiniboine" stem from outsider's descriptions of how those peoples cooked by using heated stones, their traditional language is Nakoda/Stoney, known natively. Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation has a custom electoral system based on section 10 of the Indian Act. Current chief and council were elected on June 18, 2018, will hold their positions until June 17, 2022; the Alexis Annual Pow-wow Celebrations and Fastpitch Tournament is held on the Alexis reserve each summer in July.
The Fastpitch tournament draws prizes of about $14,000 depending on the number of teams entered. The Pow-wow is divided into various categories, such as a drum contest and dance contests based on ages and/or styles. Competitors from many different First Nations participate; the main townsite is located on the shores of Lac Ste. Anne, which the Nakota Sioux call Wakâmne, or God's lake; every summer there is a pilgrimage to the lake, attended by up to 40,000 over four days, most of First Nations and Métis descent. List of Indian reserves in Alberta Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation homepage Stoney Language Department of the Alexis Nation. Seasons Stoney Language Department of the Alexis Nation. Family
Montana is a landlocked state in the Northwestern United States. Montana has several nicknames, although none are official, including "Big Sky Country" and "The Treasure State", slogans that include "Land of the Shining Mountains" and more "The Last Best Place". Montana is the 4th largest in area, the 8th least populous, the 3rd least densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. The western half of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller island ranges are found throughout the state. In all, 77 named; the eastern half of Montana is characterized by badlands. Montana is bordered by Idaho to the west, Wyoming to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan to the north; the economy is based on agriculture, including ranching and cereal grain farming. Other significant economic resources include oil, coal, hard rock mining, lumber; the health care and government sectors are significant to the state's economy. The state's fastest-growing sector is tourism.
Nearly 13 million tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, Yellowstone National Park, the Beartooth Highway, Flathead Lake, Big Sky Resort, other attractions. The name Montana comes from the Spanish word Montaña, which in turn comes from the Latin word Montanea, meaning "mountain", or more broadly, "mountainous country". Montaña del Norte was the name given by early Spanish explorers to the entire mountainous region of the west; the name Montana was added to a bill by the United States House Committee on Territories, chaired at the time by Rep. James Ashley of Ohio, for the territory that would become Idaho Territory; the name was changed by Representatives Henry Wilson and Benjamin F. Harding, who complained Montana had "no meaning"; when Ashley presented a bill to establish a temporary government in 1864 for a new territory to be carved out of Idaho, he again chose Montana Territory. This time Rep. Samuel Cox of Ohio, objected to the name. Cox complained the name was a misnomer given most of the territory was not mountainous and that a Native American name would be more appropriate than a Spanish one.
Other names such as Shoshone were suggested, but it was decided the Committee on Territories could name it whatever they wanted, so the original name of Montana was adopted. Montana is one of the nine Mountain States, located in the north of the region known as the Western United States, it borders North South Dakota to the east. Wyoming is to the south, Idaho is to the west and southwest, three Canadian provinces, British Columbia and Saskatchewan, are to the north. With an area of 147,040 square miles, Montana is larger than Japan, it is the fourth largest state in the United States after Alaska and California. S. state. The state's topography is defined by the Continental Divide, which splits much of the state into distinct eastern and western regions. Most of Montana's 100 or more named mountain ranges are in the state's western half, most of, geologically and geographically part of the Northern Rocky Mountains; the Absaroka and Beartooth ranges in the state's south-central part are technically part of the Central Rocky Mountains.
The Rocky Mountain Front is a significant feature in the state's north-central portion, isolated island ranges that interrupt the prairie landscape common in the central and eastern parts of the state. About 60 percent of the state is part of the northern Great Plains; the Bitterroot Mountains—one of the longest continuous ranges in the Rocky Mountain chain from Alaska to Mexico—along with smaller ranges, including the Coeur d'Alene Mountains and the Cabinet Mountains, divide the state from Idaho. The southern third of the Bitterroot range blends into the Continental Divide. Other major mountain ranges west of the Divide include the Cabinet Mountains, the Anaconda Range, the Missions, the Garnet Range, Sapphire Mountains, Flint Creek Range; the Divide's northern section, where the mountains give way to prairie, is part of the Rocky Mountain Front. The front is most pronounced in the Lewis Range, located in Glacier National Park. Due to the configuration of mountain ranges in Glacier National Park, the Northern Divide crosses this region and turns east in Montana at Triple Divide Peak.
It causes the Waterton River and Saint Mary rivers to flow north into Alberta, Canada. There they join the Saskatchewan River, which empties into Hudson Bay. East of the divide, several parallel ranges cover the state's southern part, including the Gravelly Range, the Madison Range, Gallatin Range, Absaroka Mountains and the Beartooth Mountains; the Beartooth Plateau is the largest continuous land mass over 10,000 feet high in the continental United States. It contains Granite Peak, 12,799 feet high. North of these ranges are the Big Belt Mountains, Bridger Mountains, Tobacco Roots, several island ranges, including the Crazy Mountains and Little Belt Mountains. Between many mountain ranges are rich river valleys; the Big Hole Valley, Bitterroot Valley, Gallatin Valley, Flathead Valley, Paradise Valley have extensive agricultural resources and multiple opportunities for tourism and recreation. East and north of this transition zone are the expansive and sparsely populated Northern Plains, with tableland prairies, smaller island mountain ranges, badlands.
The isolated island ranges east of the Divide include the Bear Paw Mountains, Bull Mountains, Castle Mountains, Crazy Mountains, Highwood Mountains, Judi
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize or perform ministries of service, such as education, social justice, health care, economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem, meaning "act of sending" or mittere, meaning "to send"; the word was used in light of its biblical usage. The term is most used for Christian missions, but can be used for any creed or ideology. A Christian missionary can be defined as "one, to witness across cultures"; the Lausanne Congress of 1974, defined the term, related to Christian mission as, "to form a viable indigenous church-planting movement". Missionaries can be found in many countries around the world. In the Bible, Jesus is recorded as instructing the apostles to make disciples of all nations; this verse is referred to by Christian missionaries as the Great Commission and inspires missionary work. The Christian Church expanded throughout the Roman Empire in New Testament times and is said by tradition to have reached further, to Persia and to India.
During the Middle Ages, the Christian monasteries and missionaries such as Saint Patrick, Adalbert of Prague propagated learning and religion beyond the European boundaries of the old Roman Empire. In 596, Pope Gregory the Great sent the Gregorian Mission into England. In their turn, Christians from Ireland and from Britain became prominent in converting the inhabitants of central Europe. During the Age of Discovery, the Catholic Church established a number of missions in the Americas and in other Western colonies through the Augustinians and Dominicans to spread Christianity in the New World and to convert the Native Americans and other indigenous people. About the same time, missionaries such as Francis Xavier as well as other Jesuits, Augustinians and Dominicans reached Asia and the Far East, the Portuguese sent missions into Africa. Emblematic in many respects is Matteo Ricci's Jesuit mission to China from 1582, peaceful and non-violent; these missionary movements should be distinguished from others, such as the Baltic Crusades of the 12th and 13th centuries, which were arguably compromised in their motivation by designs of military conquest.
Much contemporary Catholic missionary work has undergone profound change since the Second Vatican Council of 1962-1965, with an increased push for indigenization and inculturation, along with social justice issues as a constitutive part of preaching the Gospel. As the Catholic Church organizes itself along territorial lines and had the human and material resources, religious orders, some specializing in it, undertook most missionary work in the era after the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West. Over time, the Holy See established a normalized Church structure in the mission areas starting with special jurisdictions known as apostolic prefectures and apostolic vicariates. At a stage of development these foundations are raised to regular diocesan status with a local bishops appointed. On a global front, these processes were accelerated in the 1960s, in part accompanying political decolonization. In some regions, they are still in course. Just as the Bishop of Rome had jurisdiction in territories considered to be in the Eastern sphere, so the missionary efforts of the two 9th-century saints Cyril and Methodius were conducted in relation to the West rather than the East, though the field of activity was central Europe.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, under the Orthodox Church of Constantinople undertook vigorous missionary work under the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire. This had lasting effects and in some sense is at the origin of the present relations of Constantinople with some sixteen Orthodox national churches including the Romanian Orthodox Church, the Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church; the Byzantines expanded their missionary work in Ukraine after the mass baptism in Kiev in 988. The Serbian Orthodox Church had its origins in the conversion by Byzantine missionaries of the Serb tribes when they arrived in the Balkans in the 7th century. Orthodox missionaries worked among the Estonians from the 10th to the 12th centuries, founding the Estonian Orthodox Church. Under the Russian Empire of the 19th century, missionaries such as Nicholas Ilminsky moved into the subject lands and propagated Orthodoxy, including through Belarus, Moldova, Estonia and China.
The Russian St. Nicholas of Japan took Eastern Orthodoxy to Japan in the 19th century; the Russian Orthodox Church sent missionaries to Alaska beginning in the 18th century, including Saint Herman of Alaska, to minister to the Native Americans. The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia continued missionary work outside Russia after the 1917 Russian Revolution, resulting in the establishment of many new dioceses in the diaspora, from which numerous converts have been made in Eastern Europe, North America, Oceania. Early Protestant missionaries included John Eliot and contemporary ministers
The Lakota are a Native American tribe. Known as the Teton Sioux, they are one of the three Sioux tribes of Plains, their current lands are in South Dakota. They speak Lakȟótiyapi—the Lakota language, the westernmost of three related languages that belong to the Siouan language family; the seven bands or "sub-tribes" of the Lakota are: Sičháŋǧu Oglála Itázipčho Húŋkpapȟa Mnikȟówožu Sihásapa Oóhenuŋpa Notable Lakota persons include Tȟatȟáŋka Íyotake from the Húnkpapȟa band. Siouan languages speakers may have originated in the lower Mississippi River region and migrated to or originated in the Ohio Valley, they were agriculturalists and may have been part of the Mound Builder civilization during the 9th–12th centuries CE. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Dakota-Lakota speakers lived in the upper Mississippi Region in present-day Minnesota, Wisconsin and the Dakotas. Conflicts with Anishnaabe and Cree peoples pushed the Lakota west onto the Great Plains in the mid- to late-17th century.
Early Lakota history is recorded in their Winter counts, pictorial calendars painted on hides or recorded on paper. The Battiste Good winter count records Lakota history back to 900 CE, when White Buffalo Calf Woman gave the Lakota people the White Buffalo Calf Pipe. Around 1730, Cheyenne people introduced the Lakota to horses, called šuŋkawakaŋ. After their adoption of horse culture, Lakota society centered on the buffalo hunt on horseback; the total population of the Sioux was estimated at 28,000 by French explorers in 1660. The Lakota population was first estimated at 8,500 in 1805, growing and reaching 16,110 in 1881; the Lakota were, one of the few Native American tribes to increase in population in the 19th century. The number of Lakota has now increased to more than 170,000, of whom about 2,000 still speak the Lakota language. After 1720, the Lakota branch of the Seven Council Fires split into two major sects, the Saône who moved to the Lake Traverse area on the South Dakota–North Dakota–Minnesota border, the Oglála-Sičháŋǧu who occupied the James River valley.
However, by about 1750 the Saône had moved to the east bank of the Missouri River, followed 10 years by the Oglála and Brulé. The large and powerful Arikara and Hidatsa villages had long prevented the Lakota from crossing the Missouri. However, the great smallpox epidemic of 1772–1780 destroyed three-quarters of these tribes; the Lakota crossed the river into short-grass prairies of the High Plains. These newcomers were the Saône, well-mounted and confident, who spread out quickly. In 1765, a Saône exploring and raiding party led by Chief Standing Bear discovered the Black Hills the territory of the Cheyenne. Ten years the Oglála and Brulé crossed the river. In 1776, the Lakota defeated the Cheyenne; the Cheyenne moved west to the Powder River country, the Lakota made the Black Hills their home. Initial United States contact with the Lakota during the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804–1806 was marked by a standoff. Lakota bands refused to allow the explorers to continue upstream, the expedition prepared for battle, which never came.
Some bands of Lakotas became the first Indians to help the United States Army in an Indian war west of the Missouri during the Arikara War in 1823. In 1843, the southern Lakotas attacked Pawnee Chief Blue Coat's village near the Loup in Nebraska, killing many and burning half of the earth lodges. Next time the Lakotas inflicted a blow so severe on the Pawnee would be in 1873, during the Massacre Canyon battle near Republican River. Nearly half a century after Fort Laramie had been built without permission on Lakota land, the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 was negotiated to protect travelers on the Oregon Trail; the Cheyenne and Lakota had attacked emigrant parties in a competition for resources, because some settlers had encroached on their lands. The Fort Laramie Treaty acknowledged Lakota sovereignty over the Great Plains in exchange for free passage on the Oregon Trail for "as long as the river flows and the eagle flies"; the United States government did not enforce the treaty restriction against unauthorized settlement.
Lakota and other bands attacked settlers and emigrant trains, causing public pressure on the U. S. Army to punish the hostiles. On September 3, 1855, 700 soldiers under American General William S. Harney avenged the Grattan Massacre by attacking a Lakota village in Nebraska, killing about 100 men and children. A series of short "wars" followed, in 1862–1864, as refugees from the "Dakota War of 1862" in Minnesota fled west to their allies in Montana and Dakota Territory. Increasing illegal settlement after the American Civil War caused war once again; the Black Hills were considered sacred by the Lakota, they objected to mining. Between 1866 and 1868 the U. S. Army fought the Lakota and their allies along the Bozeman Trail over U. S. Forts built to protect miners traveling along the trail. Oglala Chief Red Cloud led his people to victory in Red Cloud's War. In 1868, the United States signed the Fort Laramie
The Assiniboine or Assiniboin people known as the Hohe and known by the endonym Nakota, are a First Nations/Native American people from the Northern Great Plains of North America. Today, they are centered in present-day Saskatchewan, they have populated parts of Alberta and southwestern Manitoba in Canada, northern Montana and western North Dakota in the United States. They were well known throughout much of the late 18th and early 19th century, were members of the Iron Confederacy with the Cree. Images of Assiniboine people were painted by such 19th-century artists as Karl Bodmer and George Catlin; the Europeans and Americans adopted names. In Siouan, they traditionally called themselves the Hohe Nakota. With the widespread adoption of English, many now use the name that became common in English; the English adopted Assiniboine, used by the Canadian French colonists. It was a transliteration into French phonetics of what they heard the Ojibwe use as a term for these western people; the Ojibwe name was asinii-bwaan.
The Cree called them asinîpwâta. In the same way, Assnipwan comes from the word asinîpwâta in the western Cree dialects, from asiniy ᐊᓯᓂᐩ NA – "rock, stone" – and pwâta ᐹᐧᑕ NA – "enemy, Sioux". Early French traders in the west were familiar with Algonquian languages, they transliterated many Cree or Ojibwe exonyms for other western Canadian indigenous peoples during the early colonial era. The English referred to the Assiniboine by adopting terms from the French spelled using English phonetics. Other tribes associated "stone" with the Assiniboine because they cooked with heated stones, they dropped hot stones into water to heat it to boiling for cooking meat. Some writers believed that the name was derived from the Ojibway term Assin and the French bouillir, to boil, but such an etymology is unlikely. Assiniboine is a Mississippi Valley Siouan language, in the Western Siouan language family. In the early 21st century, about 150 people speak most are more than 40 years old; the majority of the Assiniboine today speak only American English.
The 2000 census showed 3,946 tribal members. Assiniboine are linked by language to the Stoney First Nations people of Alberta; the latter two tribes speak varieties of Nakota, a distant, but not mutually intelligible, variant of the Sioux language. The Assiniboine, along with the Stoney of Alberta, share a common ancestry with the Sioux nation. While it was believed that the Assiniboine originated among the Yanktonai division of the Dakota Sioux, linguistic analysis indicates that the Assiniboine and Stoney together form a group coordinate with that of the Santee and Yankon-Yanktonai, that they are no more related to one of these subdivisions than another; the separation of the Assiniboine from the Sioux must have occurred at some time prior to 1640, as Paul Le Jeune names them along with the "Naduessi" in his Jesuit Relations of that year. The Assiniboine and Sioux were both pushed westward onto the plains from the woodlands of Minnesota by the Ojibwe, who had acquired firearms from their French allies.
The Assiniboine acquired horses via raiding and trading with neighboring tribes of Plains Indians such as the Crow and the Sioux on their south. The Assiniboine developed into a large and powerful people with a horse and warrior culture. At the height of their power, the Assiniboine dominated territory ranging from the North Saskatchewan River in the north to the Missouri River in the south, including portions of modern-day Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada; the first person of European descent to describe the Assiniboine was an employee of the Hudson's Bay Company named Henry Kelsey in the 1690s. Explorers and traders Jean Baptiste de La Vérendrye and his sons, Anthony Henday, Alexander Henry the younger confirmed that the Assiniboine held a vast territory across the northern plains, including into the United States The Assiniboine became reliable and important trading partners and middlemen for fur traders and other Indians the British Hudson's Bay Company and North West Company, operating in western Canada in a vast area known as Rupert's Land.
During the 18th century and early 19th century, south of the border in what became Montana and the Dakota territories, the Assiniboine traded with the American Fur Company and the competing Rocky Mountain Fur Company. The Assiniboine obtained guns, metal tomahawks, metal pots, wool blankets, wool coats, wool leggings, glass beads, as well as other goods from the fur traders in exchange for furs. Beaver furs and bison hides were the most traded furs. Increased contact with Europeans resulted in Native Americans contracting Eurasian infectious diseases that were endemic among the Europeans, they suffered epidemics with high mortality, most notably smallpox among the Assiniboine. The Assiniboine population crashed from around 10,000 people in the late 18th century to around 2600 by 1890; the Lewis and Clark Expedition was mounted by the United States in 1804–1806 to explore the Louisiana Territory, newly acquired from France. The expedit
Ella Cara Deloria
Ella Cara Deloria called Aŋpétu Wašté Wiŋ, was an educator, ethnographer and novelist of European American and Native American ancestry. She recorded Native American oral history and legends, she contributed to the study of Native American languages. In the 1940s, Deloria wrote a novel titled Waterlily, published in 1988, republished in 2009. Deloria was born in 1889 in the White Swan district of South Dakota, her parents were Mary Bordeaux Deloria and Philip Joseph Deloria, the family having Yankton Dakota, English and German roots. Her father was one of the first Sioux to be ordained as an Episcopal priest, her mother was the daughter of Alfred Sully, a general in the US Army, a Métis Yankton Sioux. Ella was the first child to the couple, her full siblings were sister Susan and brother Vine Deloria Sr. who became an Episcopal priest like their father. Deloria was brought up on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, at Wakpala, was educated first at her father's mission school, St. Elizabeth’s. and All Saints Boarding School She went to a boarding school in Sioux Falls.
After graduation, she attended Ohio, to which she had won a scholarship. After two years at Oberlin, Deloria transferred to Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, graduated with a B. Sc. in 1915. She went on to become "one of the first bilingual, bicultural figures in American anthropology, an extraordinary scholar and spirit who pursued her own work and commitments under notoriously adverse conditions. At one point she lived out of a car while collecting material for Franz Boas." Throughout her professional life, she suffered from not having the money or the free time necessary to take an advanced degree. She was committed to the support of her family, her father and step-mother were elderly, her sister Susan depended on her financially. In addition to her work in anthropology, Deloria had a number of jobs, including teaching and giving demonstrations, working for the Camp Fire Girls and for the YWCA, she held positions at the Sioux Indian Museum in Rapid City, South Dakota, as assistant director at the W.
H. Over Museum in Vermillion, her brother, Vine V. Deloria, Sr. was an Episcopal priest, noted for his charisma and superb storytelling. He became disillusioned with racism within the Episcopal Church, her nephew was Vine Deloria, Jr. who became a firebrand writer and intellectual. Deloria had a series of strokes in 1970. Deloria met Franz Boas while at Teachers College, began a professional association with him that lasted until his death in 1942. Boas recruited her as a student, engaged her to work with him on the linguistics of Native American languages, she worked with Margaret Mead and Ruth Benedict, prominent anthropologists, graduate students of Boas. For her work on American Indian cultures, she had the advantage of fluency in the Dakota, Lakota dialects of Sioux, in addition to English and Latin, her linguistic abilities and her intimate knowledge of traditional and Christianized Sioux culture, together with her deep commitment both to American Indian cultures and to scholarship, allowed Deloria to carry out important ground-breaking work in anthropology and ethnology.
She translated into English several Sioux historical and scholarly texts, such as the Lakota texts of George Bushotter, the first Sioux ethnographer. In 1938-39, Deloria was one of a small group of researchers commissioned to do a socioeconomic study on the Navajo Reservation for the Bureau of Indian Affairs, they published their report, entitled The Navajo Indian Problem. This project opened the door for Deloria to receive more speaking engagements, as well as funding to support her continued important work on native languages. In 1940, she and her sister Susan went to Pembroke, North Carolina to conduct some research among the self-identified Lumbee of Robeson County; the project was supported by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the federal Farm Security Administration. Since the late 19th century, these mixed-race people, free before the Civil War as free people of color had been recognized as an Indian tribe by the state of North Carolina, which allowed them to have their own schools, rather than requiring them to send their children to schools with the children of freedmen.
They were seeking federal recognition as a Native American tribe. Deloria believed she could make an important contribution to their effort for recognition by studying their distinctive culture and what remained of an Indian language. In her study, she conducted interviews with a range of people in the group, including women about their use of plants, food and animal names, she came close to completing a dictionary of what may have been their original language before they adopted English. She assembled a successful pageant with and about the Robeson County Indians in 1940 that depicted their origin account. At that time they claimed to be descended from English colonists of the Lost Colony of the Outer Banks region in North Carolina and Croatan Indians. A scheduled 1941 performance was cancelled. Deloria received grants for
Frederick Webb Hodge
Frederick Webb Hodge was an editor, anthropologist and historian. He was born in England to Edwin and Emily Hodge, his parents moved to Washington, D. C. United States when Frederick was seven years old. In Washington, he attended Cambridge College, he was awarded the honorary degree of Sc. D. by Pomona College in 1933, LL. D. by the University of New Mexico in 1934, Litt. D. by the University of Southern California in 1943. He was associated with Columbia University and the U. S. Geological Survey. During the Hemenway Southwestern Archaeological Expedition, he met and married Margaret Magill, sister of Emily Tennison Magill Cushing, wife of the expeditionary leader, Frank Hamilton Cushing, he was the director of the Southwest Museum of the American Indian in Los Angeles. He served as executive officer at the Smithsonian Institution, chairman of the Committee of Editorial Management and the Committee dealing with the Linguistic Families North of Mexico, he was a member of the Committee on Archaeological Nomenclature, the Committee of Policy, the National Research Council, the Laboratory of Anthropology, School of American Research, Journal of Physical Anthropology, the Museum of the American Indian in New York City.
Hodge was employed by the Smithsonian Institution in 1901 as executive assistant in charge of International Exchanges, but transferred to the Bureau of American Ethnology in 1905, where he worked until February 28, 1918. Hodge was the editor for The North American Indian. After leaving the Bureau, he moved to New York City and became editor and assistant director at the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. In 1915, accompanied by the museum’s director George Gustav Heye and staff member George H. Pepper, Hodge undertook excavations at the Nacoochee Mound near Helen, Georgia. Hodge directed the excavations of the ruins of Hawikuh, near Zuni Pueblo, during the period 1917-23, he researched and reported on the interactions of these aborigines with the Spanish conquerors and priests since 1540. Handbook on American Indians, 1906, http://www.snowwowl.com/swolfAIHhandbook.html Judd, Neil M. with M. R. Harrington, S. K. Lothrop, Gene Meany. 1957. Frederick Webb Hodge, 1864-1956. American Antiquity.
22:401-404. Works by Frederick W. Hodge at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Frederick Webb Hodge at Internet Archive Guide to the Frederick Webb Hodge Papers, 1888-1931. Collection Number: 9065. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections. Cornell University Library Provides INFO on the Huntington Free Library Native Collection, transferred from The Bronx, New York, to Cornell University, in 2004 Edward_S._Curtis. The North American Indian