Indian astronomy has a long history stretching from pre-historic to modern times. Some of the earliest roots of Indian astronomy can be dated to the period of Indus Valley Civilization or earlier. Astronomy developed as a discipline of Vedanga or one of the "auxiliary disciplines" associated with the study of the Vedas, dating 1500 BCE or older; the oldest known text is the Vedanga Jyotisha, dated to 1400–1200 BCE. Greek astronomy was influenced by Indian astronomy and vice versa beginning in the 4th century BCE and through the early centuries of the Common Era, for example by the Yavanajataka and the Romaka Siddhanta, a Sanskrit translation of a Greek text disseminated from the 2nd century. Indian astronomy flowered in the 5th–6th century, with Aryabhata, whose Aryabhatiya represented the pinnacle of astronomical knowledge at the time; the Indian astronomy influenced Muslim astronomy, Chinese astronomy, European astronomy, others. Other astronomers of the classical era who further elaborated on Aryabhata's work include Brahmagupta and Lalla.
An identifiable native Indian astronomical tradition remained active throughout the medieval period and into the 16th or 17th century within the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. Some of the earliest forms of astronomy can be dated to the period of Indus Valley Civilization, or earlier; some cosmological concepts are present in the Vedas, as are notions of the movement of heavenly bodies and the course of the year. As in other traditions, there is a close association of astronomy and religion during the early history of the science, astronomical observation being necessitated by spatial and temporal requirements of correct performance of religious ritual. Thus, the Shulba Sutras, texts dedicated to altar construction, discusses advanced mathematics and basic astronomy. Vedanga Jyotisha is another of the earliest known Indian texts on astronomy, it includes the details about the Sun, nakshatras, lunisolar calendar. Greek astronomical ideas began to enter India in the 4th century BCE following the conquests of Alexander the Great.
By the early centuries of the Common Era, Indo-Greek influence on the astronomical tradition is visible, with texts such as the Yavanajataka and Romaka Siddhanta. Astronomers mention the existence of various siddhantas during this period, among them a text known as the Surya Siddhanta; these were not fixed texts but rather an oral tradition of knowledge, their content is not extant. The text today known as Surya Siddhanta was received by Aryabhata; the classical era of Indian astronomy begins in the 5th to 6th centuries. The Pañcasiddhāntikā by Varāhamihira approximates the method for determination of the meridian direction from any three positions of the shadow using a gnomon. By the time of Aryabhata the motion of planets was treated to be elliptical rather than circular. Other topics included definitions of different units of time, eccentric models of planetary motion, epicyclic models of planetary motion, planetary longitude corrections for various terrestrial locations; the divisions of the year were on the basis of religious seasons.
The duration from mid March—Mid May was taken to be spring, mid May—mid July: summer, mid July—mid September: rains, mid September—mid November: autumn, mid November—mid January: winter, mid January—mid March: dew. In the Vedānga Jyotiṣa, the year begins with the winter solstice. Hindu calendars have several eras: The Hindu calendar, counting from the start of the Kali Yuga, has its epoch on 18 February 3102 BCE Julian; the Vikrama Samvat calendar, introduced about the 12th century, counts from 56–57 BCE. The "Saka Era", used in some Hindu calendars and in the Indian national calendar, has its epoch near the vernal equinox of year 78; the Saptarshi calendar traditionally has its epoch at 3076 BCE. J. A. B. Van Buitenen reports on the calendars in India: The oldest system, in many respects the basis of the classical one, is known from texts of about 1000 BCE, it divides an approximate solar year of 360 days into 12 lunar months of 28 days. The resulting discrepancy was resolved by the intercalation of a leap month every 60 months.
Time was reckoned by the position marked off in constellations on the ecliptic in which the Moon rises daily in the course of one lunation and the Sun rises monthly in the course of one year. These constellations each measure an arc of 13° 20′ of the ecliptic circle; the positions of the Moon were directly observable, those of the Sun inferred from the Moon's position at Full Moon, when the Sun is on the opposite side of the Moon. The position of the Sun at midnight was calculated from the nakṣatra that culminated on the meridian at that time, the Sun being in opposition to that nakṣatra. Among the devices used for astronomy was gnomon, known as Sanku, in which the shadow of a vertical rod is applied on a horizontal plane in order to ascertain the cardinal directions, the latitude of the point of observation, the time of observation; this device finds mention in the works of Varāhamihira, Āryabhata, Bhāskara, among others. The Cross-staff, known as Yasti-yantra, was used by the time of Bhaskara II.
This device could vary from a simple stick to V-shaped staffs designed for determining angles with the help of a calibrated scale. The clepsydra was used in India for astronomical purposes until recent times. Ōhashi notes that: "Se
The Pleiades known as the Seven Sisters and Messier 45, are an open star cluster containing middle-aged, hot B-type stars located in the constellation of Taurus. It is among the nearest star clusters to Earth and is the cluster most obvious to the naked eye in the night sky; the cluster is dominated by hot blue and luminous stars that have formed within the last 100 million years. Reflection nebulae around the brightest stars were once thought to be left over material from the formation of the cluster, but are now considered to be an unrelated dust cloud in the interstellar medium through which the stars are passing. Computer simulations have shown that the Pleiades were formed from a compact configuration that resembled the Orion Nebula. Astronomers estimate that the cluster will survive for about another 250 million years, after which it will disperse due to gravitational interactions with its galactic neighborhood; the name of the Pleiades comes from Ancient Greek. It derives from plein because of the cluster's importance in delimiting the sailing season in the Mediterranean Sea: "the season of navigation began with their heliacal rising".
However, in mythology the name was used for the Pleiades, seven divine sisters, the name deriving from that of their mother Pleione and meaning "daughters of Pleione". In reality, the name of the star cluster certainly came first, Pleione was invented to explain it; the Pleiades are a prominent sight in winter in the Northern Hemisphere, are visible out to mid-Southern latitudes. They have been known since antiquity to cultures all around the world, including the Celts, Hawaiians, Māori, Aboriginal Australians, the Persians, the Arabs, the Chinese, the Quechua, the Japanese, the Maya, the Aztec, the Sioux, the Kiowa, the Cherokee. In Hinduism, the Pleiades are associated with the war-god Kartikeya, they are mentioned three times in the Bible. The earliest known depiction of the Pleiades is a Northern German bronze age artifact known as the Nebra sky disk, dated to 1600 BC; the Babylonian star catalogues name the Pleiades MULMUL, meaning "stars", they head the list of stars along the ecliptic, reflecting the fact that they were close to the point of vernal equinox around the 23rd century BC.
The Ancient Egyptians may have used the names "Followers" and "Ennead" in the prognosis texts of the Calendar of Lucky and Unlucky Days of papyrus Cairo 86637. Some Greek astronomers considered them to be a distinct constellation, they are mentioned by Hesiod's Works and Days, Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, the Geoponica; some scholars of Islam suggested that the Pleiades are the "star" mentioned in Sura An-Najm of the Quran. In Japan, the constellation is mentioned under the name Mutsuraboshi in the 8th century Kojiki; the constellation is now known in Japan as Subaru. It was chosen as the brand name of Subaru automobiles to reflect the origins of the firm as the joining of five companies, is depicted in the firm's six-star logo. Galileo Galilei was the first astronomer to view the Pleiades through a telescope, he thereby discovered. He published his observations, including a sketch of the Pleiades showing 36 stars, in his treatise Sidereus Nuncius in March 1610; the Pleiades have long been known to be a physically related group of stars rather than any chance alignment.
John Michell calculated in 1767 that the probability of a chance alignment of so many bright stars was only 1 in 500,000, so surmised that the Pleiades and many other clusters of stars must be physically related. When studies were first made of the stars' proper motions, it was found that they are all moving in the same direction across the sky, at the same rate, further demonstrating that they were related. Charles Messier measured the position of the cluster and included it as M45 in his catalogue of comet-like objects, published in 1771. Along with the Orion Nebula and the Praesepe cluster, Messier's inclusion of the Pleiades has been noted as curious, as most of Messier's objects were much fainter and more confused with comets—something that seems scarcely possible for the Pleiades. One possibility is that Messier wanted to have a larger catalogue than his scientific rival Lacaille, whose 1755 catalogue contained 42 objects, so he added some bright, well-known objects to boost his list.
Edme-Sébastien Jeaurat drew in 1782 a map of 64 stars of the Pleiades from his observations in 1779, which he published in 1786. The distance to the Pleiades can be used as an important first step to calibrate the cosmic distance ladder; as the cluster is so close to the Earth, its distance is easy to measure and has been estimated by many methods. Accurate knowledge of the distance allows astronomers to plot a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for the cluster, when compared to those plotted for clusters whose distance is not known, allows their distances to be estimated. Other methods can extend the distance scale from open clusters to galaxies and clusters of galaxies, a cosmic distance ladder can be constructed. Astronomers' understanding of the age and future evolution of the universe is influenced by their knowledge of the distance to the Pleiades, yet some authors argue that the controversy over the distance to the Pleiades discussed below is a red herring, since the cosmic distance ladder can rely on a suite of other nearby clusters where consensus exists regarding the distances as esta
An equinox is regarded as the instant of time when the plane of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun. This occurs 23 September. In other words, it is the moment at which the center of the visible Sun is directly above the Equator; the word is derived from aequus and nox. On the day of an equinox and nighttime are of equal duration all over the planet, they are not equal, due to the angular size of the Sun, atmospheric refraction, the changing duration of the length of day that occurs at most latitudes around the equinoxes. Long before conceiving this equality primitive cultures noted the day when the Sun rises due East and sets due West and indeed this happens on the day closest to the astronomically defined event. In the northern hemisphere, the equinox in March is called the Spring Equinox; the dates are variable, dependent as they are on the leap year cycle. Because the Moon cause the motion of the Earth to vary from a perfect ellipse, the equinox is now defined by the Sun's more regular ecliptic longitude rather than by its declination.
The instants of the equinoxes are defined to be when the longitude of the Sun is 0° and 180°. Systematically observing the sunrise, people discovered that it occurs between two extreme locations at the horizon and noted the midpoint between the two, it was realized that this happens on a day when the durations of the day and the night are equal and the word "equinox" comes from Latin Aequus, meaning "equal", Nox, meaning "night". In the northern hemisphere, the vernal equinox conventionally marks the beginning of spring in most cultures and is considered the start of the New Year in the Assyrian calendar and the Persian calendar or Iranian calendars as Nowruz, while the autumnal equinox marks the beginning of autumn; the equinoxes are the only times. As a result, the northern and southern hemispheres are illuminated. In other words, the equinoxes are the only times when the subsolar point is on the equator, meaning that the Sun is overhead at a point on the equatorial line; the subsolar point crosses the equator moving northward at the March equinox and southward at the September equinox.
When Julius Caesar established the Julian calendar in 45 BC, he set 25 March as the date of the spring equinox. Because the Julian year is longer than the tropical year by about 11.3 minutes on average, the calendar "drifted" with respect to the two equinoxes – so that in AD 300 the spring equinox occurred on about 21 March, by AD 1500 it had drifted backwards to 11 March. This drift induced Pope Gregory XIII to create the modern Gregorian calendar; the Pope wanted to continue to conform with the edicts of the Council of Nicaea in AD 325 concerning the date of Easter, which means he wanted to move the vernal equinox to the date on which it fell at that time, to maintain it at around that date in the future, which he achieved by reducing the number of leap years from 100 to 97 every 400 years. However, there remained a small residual variation in the date and time of the vernal equinox of about ±27 hours from its mean position all because the distribution of 24-hour centurial leap days causes large jumps.
This in turn raised the possibility that it could fall on 22 March, thus Easter Day might theoretically commence before the equinox. The astronomers chose the appropriate number of days to omit so that the equinox would swing from 19 to 21 March but never fall on 22 March; the dates of the equinoxes change progressively during the leap-year cycle, because the Gregorian calendar year is not commensurate with the period of the Earth's revolution about the Sun. It is only after a complete Gregorian leap-year cycle of 400 years that the seasons commence at the same time. In the 21st century the earliest March equinox will be 19 March 2096, while the latest was 21 March 2003; the earliest September equinox will be 21 September 2096 while the latest was 23 September 2003. Vernal equinox and autumnal equinox: these classical names are direct derivatives of Latin; these are the universal and still most used terms for the equinoxes, but are confusing because in the southern hemisphere the vernal equinox does not occur in spring and the autumnal equinox does not occur in autumn.
The equivalent common language English terms spring equinox and autumn equinox are more ambiguous. It has become common for people to refer to the September equinox in the southern hemisphere as the Vernal equinox. March equinox and September equinox: names referring to the months of the year in which they occur, with no ambiguity as to which hemisphere is the context, they are still not universal, however, as not all cultures use a solar-based calendar where the equinoxes occur every year in the same month. Although the terms have become common in the 21st century, they were sometimes used at least as long ago as the mid-20th century. Northward equinox and southward equinox: names referring to the appare
Chandra is a lunar deity and is one of the nine planets in Hinduism. Chandra is synonymous to as Soma. Other names include Indu, Sachin, Tārādhipa and Nishakara. Chandra is described two-armed and carrying a club and a lotus. In Hindu mythology, Chandra is the father of Budha. Chandra, known as Soma and Indu, is the basis of Somvaar, Hindi, Induvaasaram, Sanskrit, for Monday in the Hindu calendar. In Hindu mythology, there are multiple legends surrounding Chandra. In one, Chandra meets they both fall in love. From their union, Tara became pregnant giving birth to Budha. Brihaspati declares a war; the Devas intervene and Tara returns to Brihaspati. Budha's son was Pururavas. After Tara returned to her husband Brihaspati, Chandra had an emotional breakdown because he couldn't satisfy his feelings by having infinite children's with Tara and so He was overcomed by lust, he pursued Daksha's 27 daughters to get married to curb his ever-growing desires for sexual union. According to Chandra, He favors only Rohini among all of His 27 wives.
The 26 other wives become upset and decided to complain to Daksha and he places a curse on Chandra for His terrible sins. The curse is only overcome after Chandra devotes himself to Shiva, who releases him from the curse. According to another legend, Ganesha was returning home on his mount Krauncha late on a full moon night after a mighty feast given by Kubera. On the journey back, A snake crossed their path and frightened by it, his mount ran away dislodging Ganesha in the process. An overstuffed Ganesha fell to the ground on his stomach, vomiting out all the Modak's. On observing this, Chandra laughed at Ganesha. Ganesha lost his temper and broke off one of his tusks and flung it straight at the moon hurting him and cursed him so that he would never be whole again. Therefore, It is forbidden to behold Chandra on Ganesh Chaturthi; this legend accounts for the Moon's waxing and waning including a big crater on the moon, a dark spot, visible from earth. Chandra means the "Moon" in Sanskrit and other Indian languages.
The word "Chandra" is a common Indian name and surname. Both male and female name variations exists in many South East Asian languages that originate from Sanskrit. Indu, one of the other names for Chandra, is the name of the first chakra of Melakarta ragas in Carnatic music; the names of chakras are based on the numbers associated with each name. In this case, there is one, the Moon and hence the first chakra is Indu. Chandra plays an important role in one of the first novel-length mystery stories in English, The Moonstone; the Sanskrit word Chandrayāna is used to refer to India's lunar orbiters. Chandra is the first name of a popular character, Chandra Nalaar, in the collectible card game, Magic: The Gathering. Navagraha Soma Media related to Chandra at Wikimedia Commons
Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a history going back about 3,500 years. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions. Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language; as one of the oldest documented members of the Indo-European family of languages, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. It is related to Greek and Latin, as well as Hittite, Old Avestan and many other extinct languages with historical significance to Europe, West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, it traces its linguistic ancestry to the Proto-Indo-Aryan language, Proto-Indo-Iranian and the Proto-Indo-European languages.
Sanskrit is traceable to the 2nd millennium BCE in a form known as the Vedic Sanskrit, with the Rigveda as the earliest known composition. A more refined and standardized grammatical form called the Classical Sanskrit emerged in mid-1st millennium BCE with the Aṣṭādhyāyī treatise of Pāṇini. Sanskrit, though not Classical Sanskrit, is the root language of many Prakrit languages. Examples include numerous modern daughter Northern Indian subcontinental languages such as Hindi, Bengali and Nepali; the body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of philosophical and religious texts, as well as poetry, drama, scientific and other texts. In the ancient era, Sanskrit compositions were orally transmitted by methods of memorisation of exceptional complexity and fidelity; the earliest known inscriptions in Sanskrit are from the 1st-century BCE, such as the few discovered in Ayodhya and Ghosundi-Hathibada. Sanskrit texts dated to the 1st millennium CE were written in the Brahmi script, the Nāgarī script, the historic South Indian scripts and their derivative scripts.
Sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. It continues to be used as a ceremonial and ritual language in Hinduism and some Buddhist practices such as hymns and chants; the Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- is a compound word consisting of sam and krta-. It connotes a work, "well prepared and perfect, sacred". According to Biderman, the perfection contextually being referred to in the etymological origins of the word is its tonal qualities, rather than semantic. Sound and oral transmission were valued quality in ancient India, its sages refined the alphabet, the structure of words and its exacting grammar into a "collection of sounds, a kind of sublime musical mold", states Biderman, as an integral language they called Sanskrit. From late Vedic period onwards, state Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus, resonating sound and its musical foundations attracted an "exceptionally large amount of linguistic and religious literature" in India; the sound was visualized as "pervading all creation", another representation of the world itself, the "mysterious magnum" of the Hindu thought.
The search for perfection in thought and of salvation was one of the dimensions of sacred sound, the common thread to weave all ideas and inspirations became the quest for what the ancient Indians believed to be a perfect language, the "phonocentric episteme" of Sanskrit. Sanskrit as a language competed with numerous less exact vernacular Indian languages called Prakritic languages; the term prakrta means "original, normal, artless", states Franklin Southworth. The relationship between Prakrit and Sanskrit is found in the Indian texts dated to the 1st millennium CE. Patanjali acknowledged that Prakrit is the first language, one instinctively adopted by every child with all its imperfections and leads to the problems of interpretation and misunderstanding; the purifying structure of the Sanskrit language removes these imperfections. The early Sanskrit grammarian Dandin states, for example, that much in the Prakrit languages is etymologically rooted in Sanskrit but involve "loss of sounds" and corruptions that result from a "disregard of the grammar".
Dandin acknowledged that there are words and confusing structures in Prakrit that thrive independent of Sanskrit. This view is found in the writing of the author of the ancient Natyasastra text; the early Jain scholar Namisadhu acknowledged the difference, but disagreed that the Prakrit language was a corruption of Sanskrit. Namisadhu stated that the Prakrit language was the purvam and they came to women and children, that Sanskrit was a refinement of the Prakrit through a "purification by grammar". Sanskrit belongs to the Indo-European family of languages, it is one of the three ancient documented languages that arose from a common root language now referred to as the Proto-Indo-European language: Vedic Sanskrit. Mycenaean Greek and Ancient Greek. Mycenaean Greek is the older recorded form of Greek, but the limited material that has survived has a ambiguous writing system. More important to Indo-European studies is Ancient Greek, documented extensively beginning with the two Homeric poems. Hittite.
This is the earliest-recorded of all Indo-European languages, distinguishable into Old Hittite, Middle Hittite and Neo-Hittite. I
The Harivamsa is an important work of Sanskrit literature, containing 16,374 shlokas in the anustubh metre. The text is known as the Harivamsa Purana; this text is traditionally ascribed to Vyasa. The most celebrated commentary of the Mahabharata by Neelakantha Chaturdhara, the Bharata Bhava Deepa covers the Harivamsha. According to a traditional version of the Mahabharata, the Harivamsha is divided into two parvas and 12,000 verses; the manuscripts found in the 19th century in different parts of India included three portions known as parvas: the Adi Parva, the Vishnu Parva and the Bhavishya Parva. These are included with the eighteen parvas of the Mahabharata; the Critical Edition has 5,965 verses. The Adi Parva of describes the creation of the cosmos and the legendary history of the kings of the Solar and Lunar dynasties leading up to the birth of Krishna. Vishnu Parva recounts the history of Krishna up to the events prior to the Mahabharata. Bhavishya Parva, the third book, includes two alternate creation theories, hymns to Shiva and Vishnu and provides a description of the Kali Yuga.
While the Harivamsha has been regarded as an important source of information on the origin of Vishnu's incarnation Krishna, there has been speculation as to whether this text was derived from an earlier text and what its relationship is to the Brahma Purana, another text that deals with the origins of Krishna. The bulk of the text is derived from two traditions, the pañcalakṣaṇa tradition, that is, the five marks of the Purana corpus one of, the vaṃśa genealogy, stories about the life of Krishna as a herdsman; the text is complex, containing layers that go back to the 1st or 2nd centuries BCE. The origin of this appendix is not known but it is apparent that it was a part of the Mahabharata by the 1st century CE because "the poet Ashvaghosha quotes a couple of verses, attributing them to the Mahabharata, which are now only found in the Harivamsa". Edward Washburn Hopkins considers the Harivamsa the latest parva of the Mahabharata. Hazra has dated the Purana to the 4th century CE on the basis of the description of the rasa lila in it.
According to him, the Visnu Purana and the Bhagavata Purana belong to the 5th century CE and 6th century CE respectively. According to Dikshit, the date of the Matsya Purana is 3rd century CE; when we compare the biography of Krishna, the account of Raji, some other episodes as depicted in the Harivaṃśa, it appears to be anterior to the former. Therefore, the Viṣṇu parva and the Bhaviṣya parva can be dated to at least the 3rd century CE. By its style and contents, the Harivaṃśa parva appears to be anterior to the Viṣṇu parva and Bhaviṣya parva; the verses quoted by Asvaghosa belong to this parva. On this basis, we can safely assume the Harivaṃśa parva to be at least as old as the 1st century CE; the Hariva śa is available in two editions. The vulgate text of the Hariva śa has total 271 adhyāyas, divided into three parvas, Harivaṃśa parva, Viṣṇu parva and Bhaviṣya parva; the Critical Edition or CE is around a third of this vulgate edition. Like the vulgate, the chapters in the CE are divided into three parvas, Harivaṃśa parva, Viṣṇu parva and Bhaviṣya parva.
Vaidya suggests that the CE represents an expanded text and proposes that the oldest form of Hariva śa began with chapter 20 and must have ended with chapter 98 of his text. The last chapter of the text gives a brief description of the subjects narrated in it as follows: † These pieces appear to be interpolations into the text. † This suggests. The Harivamsa has been translated in many Indian vernacular languages. First book of Mahabharata: Adi Parva Previous book of Mahabharata: Svargarohana Parva Bowker, The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, New York, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 410 Winternitz, Maurice History of Indian Literature Vol. I. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. Ruben, Walter "The Krsnacarita in the Harivamsa and Certain Puranas.” Journal of the American Oriental Society. Vol. 61, No.3. Pp. 115–127. Lorenz, Ekkehard The Harivamsa: The Dynasty of Krishna, in Edwin F. Bryant, Krishna, A Source Book, Oxford University Press. Shastri, Rajendra Muni, Jaina Sahitya mein Sri Krishna Charita, Prakrit Bharati Akademi, 1991.
Original Sanskrit text online with English translation Manmatha Nath Dutt, Vishnu Purana, English Translation of Book 2 of Harivamsa Alexandre Langlois, Harivansa: ou histoire de la famille de Hari, French Translation of Harivamsa Discourse on Harvamsha by Dr Vyasanakere Prabhanjanacharya
Nakshatram is a 2017 Telugu action film, written and directed by Krishna Vamsi. Jointly produced by K. Srinivasulu, S. Venugopal and Sajju, it features an ensemble cast of Sundeep Kishan, Regina Cassandra, Sai Dharam Tej, Pragya Jaiswal, Prakash Raj, J. D. Chakravarthy. Principal photography commenced in April 2016, it was released on 4 August 2017. Rama Rao is an aspiring cop, he dreams of serving the society. Following a bomb blast that claims many innocent lives, the honest police commissioner of Hyderabad, vows to rid the city of terrorist activities and forms a crack team led by dynamic cop Alexander for the purpose. Meanwhile, Rama Rao gets into a tiff with the wayward son of Parabrahmam. How does this quarrel affect his aspirations of joining the force? Is Rama Rao able to realise his ambition or does he get bogged down by circumstances? How does he get connected to the larger picture of Alexander and his investigation? Is Parabrahmam the honest cop that he appears to be? Sundeep Kishan as Rama Rao Pragya Jaiswal as Kiran Reddy IPS Sai Dharam Tej as Alexander IPS Tanish as Rahul Regina Cassandra as Jamuna Prakash Raj as Parasuramaiah IPS, the Cyberabad City Police Commissioner Viva Harsha Raghu Babu Thulasi Sivaji Raja as Constable Sitharam J. D. Chakravarthy Brahmaji Shriya Saran as an item number "Time Ledu Guru" The music was composed by Bheems Ceciroleo and released by Aditya Music