Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
Ōta is a special ward located in Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. In English, it calls itself Ōta City; as of June 1, 2016, the ward has an estimated population of 716,413, with 379,199 households and a population density of 12,048.65 persons per km². The total area is the largest of the special wards. Ōta's hub is situated around the two stations Kamata and Keikyū Kamata, where the Ōta Ward Office and central Post Office can be found. The ward was founded on March 1947 merging the old wards of Ōmori and Kamata. Haneda Airport, now the main domestic airport for the Greater Tokyo Area, was first established as Haneda Airfield in 1931 in the town of Haneda, Ebara District of Tokyo Prefecture. In 1945, it became Haneda Army Air Base under the control of the United States Army. In the same year, the Occupation ordered the expansion of the airport, evicting people from the surroundings on 48 hours' notice. With the end of the occupation, the Americans returned part of the facility to Japanese control in 1952, completing the return in 1958.
Haneda Airport in Ōta was the major international airport for Tokyo, handled traffic for the 1964 Tokyo Olympics. The city is run by a city assembly of 50 elected members; the current mayor is Tadayoshi Matsubara. Ōta local election, 2007 The southernmost of the 23 special wards, Ōta borders the special wards of Shinagawa and Setagaya to the north, Kōtō to the east. Across the Tama River in Kanagawa Prefecture is the city of Kawasaki, forming the boundaries to the south and west. Ikegami Honmon-ji, a Buddhist temple of the Nichiren Shū. Ōmori Shell Mound site Senzoku Pond, where Nichiren is said to have washed his feet. The grave of Katsu Kaishū is nearby. Tamagawadai Park Tokyo Wild Bird Park Haneda Airport JR East Keihin-Tōhoku Line: Ōmori, Kamata Stations Keikyū Main Line: Heiwajima, Ōmorimachi, Ume Yashiki, Keikyū-Kamata, Rokugo-dote Stations Airport Line: Keikyū-Kamata, Otorii, Anamori Inari, Haneda Kuko Stations Tokyu Corporation Tōkyū Tōyoko Line: Den-en-chōfu, Tamagawa Stations Tōkyū Ikegami Line: ten stations Tōkyū Tamagawa Line: Tamagawa, Unoki, Shimo-Maruko, Musashi-Nitta, Yaguchi no Watashi, Kamata Stations Tōkyū Ōimachi Line: Kita-Senzoku Station, Ookayama Station Tokyo Monorail: Ryutsu Center, Seibijo, Shin Seibijo, Haneda Kuko Dai 1 Biru, Haneda Kuko Dai 2 Biru Stations Toei Asakusa Line: Magome, Nishi-Magome Stations Shuto Expressway No. 1 Haneda Route B Bayshore Route National highways Route 1 Route 15 Route 133 Route 357 The following companies have their headquarters in Ōta.
ANA Wings Alps Electric Canon Disco Corporation, manufacturer of semiconductor production equipment Ebara Ikegami Tsushinki, manufacturer of broadcast equipment Sega Skymark Airlines, at Tokyo International Airport Toyoko Inn, in the Kamata district of Ōta Prior to the merger with Japan Airlines, Japan Air System had its headquarters by Tokyo International Airport in Ōta. In 2000 All Nippon Airways was headquartered by Tokyo International Airport in Ōta. In 2002 Air Nippon was headquartered on the 5th floor of the Utility Center Building by Tokyo International Airport in Ōta; the ANA subsidiary Air Nippon Network was based at the airport. Before its dissolution, Galaxy Airlines was headquartered in the ARC Building on the airport grounds. Aeronautical Safety College Toho University Omori Campus Tokyo Institute of Technology: the Ōokayama Campus straddles the boundary with Meguro The following public high schools are located in Ōta, operated by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education.
Den Enchofu High School Kamata High School Mihara High School Omori High School Ota Shingaku High School Rokugoh Technical High School Tsubasa High School Yukigaya High SchoolPrivate high schools include Tokyo High School and Tokyo Jitsugyo High School. Public elementary and junior high schools are operated by Ōta Ward. Tokyo Korean 6th Elementary School - North Korean schoolPreviously the Deutsche Schule Tokyo was in the ward; the school is now in Yokohama. The city operates several libraries, including: Ōta has a sister city relationship with Salem, Massachusetts; the discovery of a shell mound in Ōmori, one of the forerunners of Ōta, by Edward S. Morse, director of the museum in Salem, occasioned the tie. Ōta has a friendship link with Chaoyang District, China. Ōta City Official Website Ōta City Tourism Website
Bandai Co. Ltd. is a Japanese toy maker and a producer of a large number of plastic model kits as well as a former video game company. It was the world's third-largest producer of toys in 2008 after Hasbro; some ex-Bandai group companies produce tokusatsu programs. Its headquarters is located in Tokyo. In 1947, Naoharu Yamashina was working for the company of a textile wholesaler; as that segment of the market was going weak at the time, he realized about the potential of the toy industry. He convinced his brother-in-law to dedicate a portion of the company's activities in that industry and to be in charge of it. Step by step, Yamashina developed a toy distribution empire within the company. On July 1950, Yamashina took full control of the toy distribution business, renamed it and founded the company Bandai-ya whose name was shortened to Bandai in 1961. In its first year, Bandai produced its first internal game, the Rhythm Ball, its first metallic toy, a reproduction of the B-26, it began the exportation of toys.
As the company expanded, Bandai increased its exportations by building up in 1953 a new warehouse outside of Komagata. Several services were created within the company such as quality control, an R&D department and a transport division. In early 1955, Bandai founded the a manufacturing facility. During the summer, Bandai moved to new headquarters in Taito-ku, not far from Komagata; the first company logo was created using the initials "BC" based on the first letters of Bandai Company. At the end of the year, Bandai launched its first product under guarantee, a mini replica of the Toyopet Crown car. In 1958, Bandai introduced its first television commercial using the slogan « The Red Box means a BC-guaranteed toy ». In the middle of the following year, the company launched a lineup of mini toys representing car models from all over the world dubbed as "Cars of the World"; the company logo was redesigned to emphasize on the quality of Bandai's products and was known as the "Banzai mark". In the 1960s Bandai expanded to include international export sales.
The management was handed to a new subsidiary created in New York called Bandai Overseas Supply. Bandai's racing car set, which first appeared in 1962, became a huge success. In 1963, Bandai separated the transportation service from the company to become its own subsidiary called Bandai Transport. Due to an increase of activity volume, the company relocated to new offices in Asakusa, Taitō. Bandai launched the toy Astro Boy, based on the character of the animated series, it was the first time. Bandai continued to expand in the 1970s with the creation of several subsidiaries. Although not their most profitable range, Bandai's 1/48 scale AFV models dominated that segment of the model kit market. Bandai America Inc. was established as local US sales/marketing operation in 1978. Spacewarp, a line of build-it-yourself toy rolling ball "roller coasters" was introduced by Bandai in the 1980s. In May 1980, Makoto Yamashina, son of the founder, became president of Bandai. Naoharu Yamashina became chairman of the board.
Upon his arrival, Makoto Yamashina changed the aging staff of Bandai and replaced it with young employees with the intent of not only bringing new ideas, but revisiting the strategy of the group. The new president took a different commercial approach by selling directly to retailers rather than going through intermediates. In July 1980, Bandai launched the Gundam Plastic Model based on the animated series which gave birth to the Gunpla series. In November, the subsidiary Celent was created. In November 1985, Bandai introduced the first video game based on the manga Kinnikuman: the NES title Tag Team Match: MUSCLE, which sold more than one million copies. Since the 1980s, Bandai has become the leading toy company of Japan, to this day, has the main toy licenses in Japan to popular properties including Daikaiju, Super Robot, Kamen Rider, the Super Sentai and Power Rangers series and many others; the management of Bandai and Sega discussed a merger in the late 1990s and voted to implement it, but the merger was cancelled, citing "cultural differences", after a large scale protest by Bandai's middle management.
Makoto Yamashina stepped down as president afterwards, stating, "I feel responsible for the troubles related to the merger."After its merger with game developer and amusement facility operator Namco in 2005, Bandai Company is now under the management and a member of Bandai Namco Holdings. Following a group reorganisation in 2006, Bandai heads the group's Toys and Hobby Strategic Business Unit. On February 2018, Saban Brands and Bandai's US division jointly announced a mutual agreement to not renew their Power Rangers master toy license, effective Spring 2019, after which competing toy company Hasbro will inherit the license; this transition will not effect Bandai Japan's Super Sentai master toy license with Toei. A sister company, Bandai Spirits Co. Ltd, was established on February 15, 2018. On April 1, 2018, the division of Bandai Co. Ltd that dealt with products for adult customers as well as Banpresto's prizes business were transferred over to Bandai Spirits. Before the formation of Bandai Namco Holdings, Bandai had many subsidiaries.
After group reorganization in 2006, they are managed under several strategic business units of the group. Further detail: In 1971, Bandai founded its subsidiary c
Mazda Motor Corporation referred to as Mazda, is a Japanese multinational automaker based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. In 2015, Mazda produced 1.5 million vehicles for global sales, the majority of which were produced in the company's Japanese plants, with the remainder coming from a variety of other plants worldwide. In 2015, Mazda was the fifteenth biggest automaker by production worldwide; the name Mazda came into existence with the production of the company's first three-wheeled trucks. Other candidates for a model name included Tenshi-Go and more; the company states that The name was associated with Ahura Mazda, with the hope that it would brighten the image of these compact vehicles. The company website further notes that the name derives from the name of the company's founder, Jujiro Matsuda; the other proposed names mean "god" and "angel". The Mazda lettering was used in combination with the corporate emblem of Mitsubishi, responsible for sales, to produce the Toyo Kogyo three-wheeled truck registered trademark.
Mazda began as the Toyo Cork Kogyo Co. Ltd, founded in Hiroshima, Japan, 30 January 1920. Toyo Cork Kogyo renamed itself to Toyo Kogyo Co. Ltd. in 1927. In the late 1920s the company had to be saved from bankruptcy by Hiroshima Saving Bank and other business leaders in Hiroshima. In 1931 Toyo Kogyo moved from manufacturing machine tools to vehicles with the introduction of the Mazda-Go autorickshaw. Toyo Kogyo produced weapons for the Japanese military throughout the Second World War, most notably the series 30 through 35 Type 99 rifle; the company formally adopted the Mazda name in 1984, though every automobile sold from the beginning bore that name. The Mazda R360 was introduced in 1960, followed by the Mazda Carol in 1962. Beginning in the 1960s, Mazda was inspired by the NSU Ro 80 and decided to put a major engineering effort into development of the Wankel rotary engine as a way of differentiating itself from other Japanese auto companies; the company formed a business relationship with German company NSU and began with the limited-production Cosmo Sport of 1967, continuing to the present day with the Pro Mazda Championship, Mazda has become the sole manufacturer of Wankel-type engines for the automotive market by way of attrition This effort to bring attention to itself helped, as Mazda began to export its vehicles.
Both piston-powered and rotary-powered models made their way around the world. The rotary models became popular for their combination of good power and light weight when compared to piston-engined competitors that required heavier V6 or V8 engines to produce the same power; the R100 and the RX series led the company's export efforts. During 1968, Mazda started formal operations in Canada although Mazdas were seen in Canada as early as 1959. In 1970, Mazda formally entered the American market and was successful there, going so far as to create the Mazda Rotary Pickup for North American buyers. To this day, Mazda remains the only automaker to have produced a Wankel-powered pickup truck. Additionally, it is the only marque to have offered a rotary-powered bus or station wagon. After nine years of development, Mazda launched its new model in the U. S. in 1970. Mazda's rotary success continued until the onset of the 1973 oil crisis; as American buyers turned to vehicles with better fuel efficiency, the thirsty rotary-powered models began to fall out of favor.
Combined with being the least-efficient automaker in Japan, inability to adjust to excess inventory and over-reliance on the U. S. market, the company suffered a huge loss in 1975. An heavily indebted Toyo Kogyo was on the verge of bankruptcy and was only saved through the intervention of Sumitomo keiretsu group, namely Sumitomo Bank, the companies subcontractors and distributors. However, the company had not turned its back on piston engines, as it continued to produce a variety of four-cylinder models throughout the 1970s; the smaller Familia line in particular became important to Mazda's worldwide sales after 1973, as did the somewhat larger Capella series. Mazda refocused its efforts and made the rotary engine a choice for the sporting motorist rather than a mainstream powerplant. Starting with the lightweight RX-7 in 1978 and continuing with the modern RX-8, Mazda has continued its dedication to this unique powerplant; this switch in focus resulted in the development of another lightweight sports car, the piston-powered Mazda MX-5 Miata, inspired by the concept'jinba ittai'.
Introduced in 1989 to worldwide acclaim, the Roadster has been credited with reviving the concept of the small sports car after its decline in the late 1970s. From 1974 to 2015, Mazda had a partnership with the Ford Motor Company, which acquired a 24.5% stake in 1979, upped to a 33.4% ownership of Mazda in May 1995. Under the administration of Alan Mulally, Ford divested its stake in Mazda from 2008 to 2015, with Ford holding 2.1% of Mazda stock as of 2014 and severing most production as well as development ties. This partnership with Ford began owing to Mazda's financial diff
Bandai Namco Entertainment
Bandai Namco Entertainment Inc. is a Japanese video game development company and publisher. The company releases videos and other entertainment products related to its intellectual properties; the company is headquartered in Tokyo. Bandai Namco Entertainment is a wholly owned subsidiary of Bandai Namco Holdings and specializes in management and sales of video games and other related entertainment products, while its Bandai Namco Studios subsidiaries specialize in the development of these products, it is the core company of Bandai Namco Group's Content Strategic Business Unit. Bandai Namco Entertainment is the result of a merger in March 2006 between the video game operations of Namco and Bandai. Known as Namco Bandai Games, the company was renamed as Bandai Namco Games in January 2014. In April 2015, Bandai Namco Holdings changed its gaming name from Bandai Namco Games to Bandai Namco Entertainment. In 2005, Namco Ltd. and Bandai Co. Ltd. combined their operations. The merger took effect on 29 September 2005.
For the first six months, both companies stayed intact under the umbrella of the newly created Namco Bandai Holdings. On 31 March 2006, the video games division of Bandai was merged into Namco which in turn became Namco Bandai Games. Namco Hometek and Bandai Games had merged on 2 January 2006, to form Namco Bandai Games America in the United States. On 1 April 2008, Banpresto's video game operations were absorbed by Namco Bandai Games. On 1 April 2009, Bandai Networks, Namco Bandai's mobile phone business, was dissolved and absorbed into Namco Bandai Games. In 2010, Namco Bandai Games entered the Guinness World Records as the company that released the most TV commercials for the same product, a Nintendo DS game called Solatorobo: Red the Hunter, they created 100 versions of the ad. In early 2011, Namco Networks was absorbed into Namco Bandai Games America consolidating Namco Bandai's American console and mobile video game development operations. On 2 April 2012, Namco Bandai Games spun off its development operations into a new company called Namco Bandai Studios.
The new company was spurred by Namco Bandai's interest in faster development times and tighter cohesion between disparate development teams. It comprises 1,000 employees, who were part of Namco Bandai. In March 2013, Namco Bandai Games established two new game studios; the first, Namco Bandai Studios Singapore, is Namco Bandai's "leading development center" in Asia and develops game content for the Asia Pacific market. The second studio, Namco Bandai Studios Vancouver, works on online social games and game content development for North America and Europe, is part of the Center for Digital Media. In July 2013, Namco Bandai Partners, which used to oversee the PAL distribution network since September 2012, merged with Namco Bandai Games Europe in order to push distribution and publishing into one entity, Namco Bandai Games Europe. In 2014, Namco Bandai Games and Namco Bandai Studios became Bandai Namco Games and Bandai Namco Studios, respectively; the change unified the brand internationally in order to increase the "value" and "appeal" of the name.
The full company name was changed to Bandai Namco Entertainment on April 1, 2015. On April 1, 2018, the amusement machine business division of Bandai Namco Entertainment was transferred over to sister company Bandai Namco Amusement. Bandai Namco Entertainment, plays the role of expanding the content business, while Bandai Namco Studios plays the role of creating content. Both companies cooperate to provide services around the world. Bandai Namco Entertainment is a core company of the Content Strategic Business Unit of Bandai Namco, is responsible for all aspects of Bandai Namco Group’s content business, from creation to sales. However, Bandai Namco Entertainment spun off its video games and related entertainment development to Bandai Namco Studios in April 2012; as such, Bandai Namco Entertainment is responsible for managing and marketing of developed content, not only from Bandai Namco Studios but from third-party developers as well. In addition to its core publisher operations in Japan, Bandai Namco Entertainment publishes content worldwide through different entities.
Bandai Namco Entertainment America manages operations and handles publishing across North America and oversees operations of Bandai Namco Entertainment Brazil, which operates and handles publishing in Brazil. Bandai Namco Entertainment Europe manages and oversees operations and handles publishing across EMEA, has branches in France, Greece, the Nordic countries, Spain, United Kingdom & Australia. Bandai Namco Entertainment Australia oversees publishing throughout Australia & New Zealand, as well as being the Australian distributor for Square Enix Europe, NIS America and Konami of Europe. Bandai Namco Entertainment Asia manages and oversees operations and handles publishing across Asia, has branches in Malaysia, Korea, Philippines and Hong Kong. Bandai Namco Studios functions as the core video game development studio of Bandai Namco Entertainment. In addition to its video game development operations, Bandai Namco Studios work on other entertainment content such as video and music, related to its video game IPs.
In addition to its core development studio in Tokyo, Bandai Namco Studios has development operations in Singapore, which develops game content for the Asia Pacific, Vancouver, British Columbia, which develops online social games for North America and Europe. Satoshi Oshita
The Soulcalibur series is a weapon-based fighting video game franchise by Bandai Namco Entertainment. There are seven main installments of video games and various media spin-offs, including music albums and a series of manga books. Released as an arcade game, Soul Edge, in 1995 and ported to video game consoles, more recent versions have been released for consoles only and have evolved to include online playing modes; the central motif of the series, set in a historical fantasy version of the late 16th and early 17th centuries, are mythical swords, the evil weapon called'Soul Edge' and the subsequent sword used to oppose this evil,'Soul Calibur'. While it has developed during its various iterations, some of the characters and gameplay elements have remained consistent throughout the series, it is one of the most successful franchises in the fighting game genre. Project Soul is the internal Namco development group responsible for the Soulcalibur franchise after the release of Soulcalibur II. Although the games are simply credited to Namco itself, the team established its name to draw attention to the group's combined accomplishments.
The series has seven main installments, four spin-offs and one remake: Soul Edge: Arcade and PlayStation. Soulcalibur: Arcade and Xbox Live Arcade. Soulcalibur II: Arcade, GameCube, PlayStation 2 and Xbox Soulcalibur III: Arcade and PlayStation 2 Soulcalibur Legends: Wii Soulcalibur IV: PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 Soulcalibur: Broken Destiny: PlayStation Portable Soulcalibur V: PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 Soulcalibur II HD Online: Xbox Live Arcade and PlayStation Network Soulcalibur: Lost Swords: PlayStation Network Soulcalibur: Unbreakable Soul: iOS Soulcalibur VI: Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4, Xbox OneWikipedia uses a standardized naming convention of Soulcalibur for all games in the series except for the original Soul Edge. However, most usages of Soulcalibur are written as SoulCalibur or Soul Calibur, SOULCALIBUR in all capital letters as it is used in the games' documentation and official websites but not in logos and only since Soulcalibur III. Various western media outlets use either Soulcalibur or Soul Calibur.
All games in the series before Soulcalibur III were released as arcade games, subsequently ported to home consoles. The ported versions are known for their extra features, including new characters, new costumes, art galleries, martial arts demonstrations and involved single player modes, when compared to the original arcade versions. For example, Seung Han Myong is not featured in the arcade version of Soul Edge and in home versions there is an RPG-type mode titled "Edge Master" where the player can unlock various items including weapons for the default characters; the first installment was titled Soul Edge in the arcades, was updated to Soul Edge Ver. II and exported overseas as Soul Blade on the Sony PlayStation hardware. Set in the late sixteenth century, the game follows nine warriors in a quest, each of whom has his or her own reasons for joining the quest but they all share a common goal: to obtain the legendary sword, called'Soul Edge'. Sega's Golden Axe had employed a similar setting.
After appearing first in arcades, the game was made available for the PlayStation consoles in 1996. Along with its soundtrack, this weapon-based title has been praised for being innovative yet traditional to the fighting genre of games. With Versus, Time Attack, Team Battle and Training modes, the console port saw the addition of Edge Master, a single-player mode in which the player would guide one of the ten main characters in a story-like manner while obtaining a variety of weapons for use; the sequel to Soul Edge arrived in video arcades a year with an exclusive porting to the Dreamcast console in 1999. The plot is set two–three years after the first game's and the title is derived from Soul Calibur, a legendary weapon which opposes the evil of Soul Edge; this title would come to express the Soul series as a whole, establishing its popularity in video gaming history as it garnered positive reviews from gaming fans and critics. Though retaining elements of its predecessor, Soulcalibur incorporated an extensive number of new features, including the "8-Way Run".
In 2008, Namco Bandai released Soulcalibur on the Xbox Live Arcade for the Xbox 360. Although online leaderboards and achievements were supported in this version, there was no online playing mode or mission mode, as there was in the Dreamcast version. 2002's Soulcalibur II further improved and expanded on the Soulcalibur original, in both graphics and gameplay. Soulcalibur II was released in arcade format three years after the previous release in the series, was subsequently ported to all three active sixth-generation consoles; this is the first game in the Soulcalibur series to feature characters in other media, such as Link from Nintendo's The Legend of Zelda, playable on the GameCube. Specially featured on the PlayStation 2 version's roster is Heihachi Mishima of Tekken fame, while Image Comic's character Spawn was an exclusive addition for the Xbox version. A high definition-optimized enha
Galaxian is an arcade game, developed and published by Namco and released to the Japanese market in October 1979. In December, it was imported to North America by Midway; the game is a fixed shooter in which the player controls a spaceship at the bottom of the screen and shoots enemies descending in various directions. It was designed to compete with the success of Space Invaders. Galaxian was successful for Namco and introduced several "firsts" to the medium. Although not the first color video game, it improved RGB color graphics with multi-colored animated sprites and explosions, different colored fonts for the score and high score, a scrolling starfield, graphic icons that show the number of lives left and number of stages completed; the game spawned an more successful and long-lived sequel, Galaga, in 1981, the lesser-known Gaplus and Galaga'88, in 1984 and 1987, respectively. Galaxian expanded on the formula pioneered by Space Invaders; as in the earlier game, Galaxian features a horde of attacking aliens that exchanged shots with the player.
In contrast to Space Invaders, Galaxian added an element of drama by having the aliens periodically make kamikaze-like dives at the player's ship, the Galaxip. The game's plot consists of a title screen that displayed the message "We are the Galaxians / Mission:Destroy Aliens". Swarm after swarm of alien armies attack the player's ship that moves left and right at the bottom of the wraparound screen; the Galaxip can only have one shot on screen at a time. The player defeats one swarm, only to have it replaced by another more aggressive and challenging swarm in the next stage. A starfield scrolls in the background; the game plays a simple theme tune upon starting the game, as well as looping background sounds while playing. The game was developed by Namco in 1979, released in Japan that year, it was designed to build and improve upon the formula of Taito's game Space Invaders, which revolutionized the gaming industry upon its release a year earlier. Galaxian incorporated new technology into its dedicated arcade system board, the Namco Galaxian board.
Unlike Space Invaders, black and white and featured enemies that could only move vertically and horizontally as they descended, Galaxian had a color screen and enemies that descended in patterns and came from various directions. The result was more difficult play; the game's Namco Galaxian arcade system board introduced a tilemap hardware model, which renders a tilemap consisting of 8×8 pixel tiles. This reduced processing and memory requirements by up to 64 times compared to the traditional framebuffer model used by Space Invaders; the Galaxian board pioneered a hardware sprite system which animates pre-loaded sprites over a scrolling background. Soon after the Japanese release, Namco partnered with the American company Midway to release the game in North America. Midway had released Space Invaders to the market, but had to seek new foreign partners when Taito decided to market their games themselves. Video magazine in 1982 reviewed the Astrocade version of Galaxian, noting that the graphics were inferior to the coin-op and PC versions, but praising the play-action as "magnificent" compared to other console versions.
The Astrocade version would be awarded a Certificate of Merit for "Best Arcade-to-Home Video Game Translation" at the 4th annual Arkie Awards. Arcade Express reviewed the Atari 5200 version in November 1982 and scored it 7 out of 10. Home Computing Weekly in 1983 gave the Spectrum version of Galaxian 3/5 stars describing it as a well-written version and praising the graphics as fast although flickery. Softline in 1983 criticized the Atari 8-bit version of the game for being shipped on ROM cartridge, which raised its cost, stated that "this game becomes tedious quickly". Galaxian spawned several follow-up games; the most popular of these was its immediate successor, which eclipsed its predecessor in popularity, introducing aliens attacking in intricate formations, multiple shots, bonus stages. A third game in the series, was released in 1984; as with Galaga, this was a fixed shooter, with limited vertical movement. However, by 1984 the novelty of the Space Invaders formula had faded, it was no longer successful.
A fourth game, Galaga'88, was released in 1987, imported to North America by Atari Games. The Namco Galaxian board's 2D rendering system, which animates pre-loaded sprites over a scrolling tiled background, became the basis for arcade system boards such as Nintendo's Radar Scope and Donkey Kong arcade hardware, home consoles such as the Nintendo Entertainment System. Atari, Inc. published ports of Galaxian for its own systems—Atari 8-bit family, Atari 2600, Atari 5200— in 1982-3, three or more years after Galaxian appeared in arcades and a year or more after Galaga. Additional ports were published under the Atarisoft label: Apple II, ColecoVision, Commodore 64, VIC-20, IBM PC, ZX Spectrum. Ports from other companies were sold for MSX, NEC PC-8801, Famicom and Sharp X1. A Bally Astrocade version was published as Galaxian, but the name was changed to Galactic Invasion. Coleco released a stand-alone Mini-Arcade tabletop version of Galaxian in 1981, along with Pac-Man, Donkey Kong, Frogger, sold three million units combined.
Entex released a handheld electronic game called Galaxian 2 in 1981. The game is called Galaxian 2, it is not a sequel. Gala