Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque, Duke of Goa, was a Portuguese general, a "great conqueror", a statesman, an empire builder. Afonso advanced the three-fold Portuguese grand scheme of combating Islam, spreading Christianity, securing the trade of spices by establishing a Portuguese Asian empire. Among his achievements, Afonso managed to conquer the island of Goa and was the first European of the Renaissance to raid the Persian Gulf, he led the first voyage by a European fleet into the Red Sea, his military and administrative works are regarded as among the most vital to building and securing the Portuguese Empire in the Orient, the Middle East, the spice routes of eastern Oceania. Afonso is considered a military genius, "probably the greatest naval commander of the age" given his successful strategy—he attempted to close all the Indian Ocean naval passages to the Atlantic, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, to the Pacific, transforming it into a Portuguese mare clausum established over the opposition of the Ottoman Empire and its Muslim and Hindu allies.
In the expansion of the Portuguese Empire, Afonso initiated a rivalry that would become known as the Ottoman–Portuguese war, which would endure for many years. Many of the Ottoman–Portuguese conflicts in which he was directly involved took place in the Indian Ocean, in the Persian Gulf regions for control of the trade routes, on the coasts of India, it was his military brilliance in these initial campaigns against the much larger Ottoman Empire and its allies that enabled Portugal to become the first global empire in history. He had a record of defeating much larger armies and fleets. For example, his capture of Ormuz in 1507 against the Persians was accomplished with a fleet of seven ships. Other famous battles and offensives which he led include the conquest of Goa in 1510 and the capture of Malacca in 1511, he became admiral of the Indian Ocean, was appointed head of the "fleet of the Arabian and Persian sea" in 1506. During the last five years of his life, he turned to administration, where his actions as the second governor of Portuguese India were crucial to the longevity of the Portuguese Empire.
He pioneered European sea trade with China during the Ming Dynasty with envoy Rafael Perestrello, Thailand with Duarte Fernandes as envoy, with Timor, passing through Malaysia and Indonesia in a voyage headed by António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão. He aided diplomatic relations with Ethiopia using priest envoys João Gomes and João Sanches, established diplomatic ties with Persia, during the Safavid dynasty, he became known as "the Great", "the Terrible", "the Caesar of the East", "the Lion of the Seas", "the Portuguese Mars". Afonso de Albuquerque was born in 1453 near Lisbon, he was the second son of Gonçalo de Albuquerque, Lord of Vila Verde dos Francos, Dona Leonor de Menezes. His father held an important position at court and was connected by remote illegitimate descent with the Portuguese monarchy, he was educated in mathematics and Latin at the court of Afonso V of Portugal, where he befriended Prince John, the future King John II of Portugal. Afonso's early training is described by Diogo Barbosa Machado: “D. Alfonso de Albuquerque, surnamed the Great, by reason of the heroic deeds wherewith he filled Europe with admiration, Asia with fear and trembling, was born in the year 1453, in the Estate called, for the loveliness of its situation, the Paradise of the Town of Alhandra, six leagues distant from Lisbon.
He was the second son of Gonçalo de Albuquerque, Lord of Villaverde, of D. Leonor de Menezes, daughter of D. Álvaro Gonçalves de Athayde, Count of Atouguia, of his wife D. Guiomar de Castro, corrected this injustice of nature by climbing to the summit of every virtue, both political and moral, he was educated in the Palace of the King D. Afonso V, in whose palaestra he strove emulously to become the rival of that African Mars”. Afonso served 10 years in North Africa, where he gained military experience in fierce campaigns against Muslim powers and Ottoman Turks. In 1471, under the command of Afonso V of Portugal, he was present at the conquest of Tangier and Arzila in Morocco, serving there as an officer for some years. In 1476 he accompanied Prince John in wars against Castile, including the Battle of Toro, he participated in the campaign on the Italian peninsula in 1480 to rescue Ferdinand II of Aragon from the Ottoman invasion of Otranto that ended in victory. On his return in 1481, when Prince John was crowned as King John II, Afonso was made Master of the Horse for his distinguished exploits, chief equerry to the King, a post which he held throughout John's reign.
In 1489 he returned to military campaigns in North Africa, as commander of defense in the Graciosa fortress, an island in the river Luco near the city of Larache, in 1490 was part of the guard of King John II, returning to Arzila in 1495, where his younger brother Martim died fighting by his side. Afonso made his mark under the stern John II, won military campaigns in Africa and the Mediterranean sea, yet Asia is where he would make his greatest impact; when King Manuel I of Portugal was enthroned, he showed some reticence towards Afonso, a close friend of his dreaded predecessor and seventeen years his senior. Eight years on 6 April 1503, after a long military career and at a mature age, Afonso was sent on his first expedition to India together with his cousin Francisco de Albuquerque; each commanded three ships, sailing with Duarte Pacheco Nicolau Coelho. They engaged in several battles against the forces of the Zamorin of Calicut and succeeded in establishing the King of Cohin (Cohim, Ko
Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity and religion are interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel; the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah; some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as'Hebrews'. Though few sources mention the exilic periods in detail, the experience of diaspora life, from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian captivity and exile, to Babylonian captivity and exile, to Seleucid Imperial rule, to the Roman occupation and exile, the historical relations between Jews and their homeland thereafter, became a major feature of Jewish history and memory.
Prior to World War II, the worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million, representing around 0.7% of the world population at that time. 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since the population has risen again, as of 2016 was estimated at 14.4 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank, less than 0.2% of the total world population. The modern State of Israel is the only country, it defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state in the Basic Laws, Human Dignity and Liberty in particular, based on the Declaration of Independence. Israel's Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to Jews who have expressed their desire to settle in Israel. Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both and in modern times, including philosophy, literature, business, fine arts and architecture, music and cinema, science and technology, as well as religion. Jews have played a significant role in the development of Western Civilization.
The English word "Jew" continues Iewe. These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which through elision had dropped the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jew" and "Judean" / "of Judea"; the Greek term was a loan from Aramaic Y'hūdāi, corresponding to Hebrew יְהוּדִי Yehudi the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. Genesis 29:35 and 49:8 connect the name "Judah" with the verb yada, meaning "praise", but scholars agree that the name of both the patriarch and the kingdom instead have a geographic origin—possibly referring to the gorges and ravines of the region; the Hebrew word for "Jew" is יְהוּדִי Yehudi, with the plural יְהוּדִים Yehudim. Endonyms in other Jewish languages include the Yiddish ייִד Yid; the etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g. يَهُودِيّ yahūdī, al-yahūd, in Arabic, "Jude" in German, "judeu" in Portuguese, "Juif" /"Juive" in French, "jøde" in Danish and Norwegian, "judío/a" in Spanish, "jood" in Dutch, "żyd" in Polish etc. but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are in use to describe a Jew, e.g. in Italian, in Persian and Russian.
The German word "Jude" is pronounced, the corresponding adjective "jüdisch" is the origin of the word "Yiddish". According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth edition, It is recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility; some people, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the council, unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun. Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, a culture, making the definition of, a Jew vary depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used.
In modern secular usage Jews include three groups: people who were born to a Jewish family regardless of whether or not they follow the religion, those who have some Jewish ancestral background or lineage, people without any Jewish ancestral background or lineage who have formally converted to Judaism and therefore are followers of the religion. Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, halakhic conversions; these definitions of, a Jew date back to the codification of the Oral
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere the Americas, Oceania. The term originated in the early 16th century after Europeans made landfall in what would be called the Americas in the age of discovery, expanding the geographical horizon of classical geographers, who had thought of the world as consisting of Africa and Asia, collectively now referred to as the Old World; the phrase gained prominence after the publication of a pamphlet titled Mundus Novus attributed to Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci. The Americas were referred to as the "fourth part of the world"; the terms "Old World" vs. "New World" are meaningful in historical context and for the purpose of distinguishing the world's major ecozones, to classify plant and animal species that originated therein. One can speak of the "New World" in a historical context, e.g. when discussing the voyages of Christopher Columbus, the Spanish conquest of Yucatán and other events of the colonial period.
For lack of alternatives, the term is still useful to those discussing issues that concern the Americas and the nearby oceanic islands, such as Bermuda and Clipperton Island, collectively. The term "New World" is used in a biological context, when one speaks of Old World and New World species. Biological taxonomists attach the "New World" label to groups of species that are found in the Americas, to distinguish them from their counterparts in the "Old World", e.g. New World monkeys, New World vultures, New World warblers; the label is often used in agriculture. Asia and Europe share a common agricultural history stemming from the Neolithic Revolution, the same domesticated plants and animals spread through these three continents thousands of years ago, making them indistinct and useful to classify together as "Old World". Common Old World crops, domesticated animals did not exist in the Americas until they were introduced by post-Columbian contact in the 1490s. Conversely, many common crops were domesticated in the Americas before they spread worldwide after Columbian contact, are still referred to as "New World crops".
Other famous New World crops include the cashew, rubber, sunflower and vanilla, fruits like the guava and pineapple. There are rare instances of overlap, e.g. the calabash and yam, the dog, are believed to have been domesticated separately in both the Old and New World, their early forms brought along by Paleo-Indians from Asia during the last glacial period. In wine terminology, "New World" has a different definition. "New World wines" include not only North American and South American wines, but those from South Africa, New Zealand, all other locations outside the traditional wine-growing regions of Europe, North Africa and the Near East. The term "New World" was first coined by the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci, in a letter written to his friend and former patron Lorenzo di Pier Francesco de' Medici in the Spring of 1503, published in 1503–04 under the title Mundus Novus. Vespucci's letter contains arguably the first explicit articulation in print of the hypothesis that the lands discovered by European navigators to the west were not the edges of Asia, as asserted by Christopher Columbus, but rather an different continent, a "New World".
Vespucci first approached this realization in June 1502, during a famous chance meeting between two different expeditions at the watering stop of "Bezeguiche" – his own outgoing expedition, on its way to chart the coast of newly discovered Brazil, the vanguard ships of the Second Portuguese India armada of Pedro Álvares Cabral, returning home from India. Having visited the Americas in prior years, Vespucci found it difficult to reconcile what he had seen in the West Indies, with what the returning sailors told him of the East Indies. Vespucci wrote a preliminary letter to Lorenzo, while anchored at Bezeguiche, which he sent back with the Portuguese fleet – at this point only expressing a certain puzzlement about his conversations. Vespucci was convinced when he proceeded on his mapping expedition through 1501–02, covering the huge stretch of coast of eastern Brazil. After returning from Brazil, in the Spring of 1503, Amerigo Vespucci composed the Mundus Novus letter in Lisbon to Lorenzo in Florence, with its famous opening paragraph: In passed days I wrote fully to you of my return from new countries, which have been found and explored with the ships, at the cost and by the command of this Most Serene King of Portugal.
For the opinion of the ancients was, that the greater part of the world beyond the equinoctial line to the south was not land, but only sea, which they have called the Atlantic.
The True Cross is the name for physical remnants which, by a Christian Church tradition, are said to be from the cross upon which Jesus was crucified. According to post-Nicene historians such as Socrates of Constantinople, the Empress Helena, mother of Emperor Constantine, the first Christian Emperor of Rome, travelled to the Holy Land in 326–328, founding churches and establishing relief agencies for the poor. Historians Gelasius of Caesarea and Rufinus claimed that she discovered the hiding place of three crosses that were believed to have been used at the crucifixion of Jesus and of two thieves, St. Dismas and Gestas, executed with him. Many churches possess fragmentary remains that are by tradition alleged to be those of the True Cross, their authenticity is not accepted by all Christians Protestants. The acceptance and belief of that part of the tradition that pertains to the early Christian Church is restricted to the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church, the Church of the East.
The medieval legends that developed concerning the provenance of the True Cross differ between Catholic and Orthodox tradition. In the Latin-speaking traditions of Western Europe, the story of the pre-Christian origins of the True Cross was well established by the 13th century when, in 1260, it was recorded by Jacopo de Voragine, Bishop of Genoa, in the Golden Legend; the Golden Legend contains several versions of the origin of the True Cross. In The Life of Adam, Voragine writes that the True Cross came from three trees which grew from three seeds from the "Tree of Mercy" which Seth collected and planted in the mouth of Adam's corpse. In another account contained in Of the invention of the Holy Cross, first of this word invention, Voragine writes that the True Cross came from a tree that grew from part of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, or "the tree that Adam ate of", that Seth planted on Adam's grave where it "endured there unto the time of Solomon". After many centuries, the tree was cut down and the wood used to build a bridge over which the Queen of Sheba passed, on her journey to meet King Solomon.
So struck was she by the portent contained in the timber of the bridge that she fell on her knees and revered it. On her visit to Solomon, she told him that a piece of wood from the bridge would bring about the replacement of God's covenant with the Jewish people by a new order. Solomon, fearing the eventual destruction of his people, had the timber buried. After fourteen generations, the wood taken from the bridge was fashioned into the Cross used to crucify Christ. Voragine goes on to describe its finding by Helena, mother of the Emperor Constantine. In the late Middle Ages and Early Renaissance, there was a wide general acceptance of the origin of the True Cross and its history preceding the crucifixion of Jesus, as recorded by Voragine; this general acceptance is confirmed by the numerous artworks that depict this subject, culminating in one of the most famous fresco cycles of the Renaissance, the Legend of the True Cross by Piero della Francesca, painted on the walls of the chancel of the Church of San Francesco in Arezzo between 1452 and 1466, in which he reproduces faithfully the traditional episodes of the story as recorded in The Golden Legend.
The Golden Legend and many of its sources developed after the East-West Schism of 1054, thus is unknown in the Greek- or Syriac-speaking worlds. The above pre-crucifixion history, therefore, is not to be found in Eastern Christianity. According to the sacred tradition of the Eastern Orthodox Church the True Cross was made from three different types of wood: cedar and cypress; this is an allusion to Isaiah 60:13: "The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee, the fir tree, the pine tree, the box together to beautify the place of my sanctuary, I will make the place of my feet glorious." The link between this verse and the Crucifixion lies in the words "the place of my feet", interpreted as referring to the suppedāneum on which Jesus' feet were nailed.. There is a tradition that the three trees from which the True Cross was constructed grew together in one spot. A traditional Orthodox icon depicts the nephew of Abraham, watering the trees. According to tradition, these trees were used to construct the Temple in Jerusalem.
During Herod's reconstruction of the Temple, the wood from these trees was removed from the Temple and discarded being used to construct the cross on which Jesus was crucified. According to the 1955 Roman Catholic Marian Missal, Helena went to Jerusalem to search for the True Cross and found it September 14, 320. In the eighth century, the feast of the Finding was transferred to May 3, September 14 became the celebration of the "Exaltation of the Cross", the commemoration of a victory over the Persians by Heraclius, as a result of which the relic was returned to Jerusalem. Eusebius of Caesarea who, through his Life of Constantine, is the earliest and main historical source on the rediscovery of the Tomb of Jesus and the construction of the first church at the site, does not mention the finding of the True Cross. In his Life of Const
São Francisco River
The São Francisco River or Rio São Francisco is a river in Brazil. With a length of 2,914 kilometres, it is the longest river that runs in Brazilian territory, the fourth longest in South America and overall in Brazil, it used to be known as the Opara by the indigenous people before colonisation, is today known as Velho Chico. The São Francisco originates in the Canastra mountain range in the central-western part of the state of Minas Gerais, it runs north in the states of Minas Gerais and Bahia, behind the coastal range, draining an area of over 630,000 square kilometres, before turning east to form the border between Bahia on the right bank and the states of Pernambuco and Alagoas on the left one. After that, it forms the boundary between the states of Alagoas and Sergipe and washes into the Atlantic Ocean. In addition to the five states which the São Francisco directly traverses or borders, its drainage basin includes tributaries from the state of Goiás and the Federal District, it is an important river for Brazil, called "the river of national integration" because it unites diverse climes and regions of the country, in particular the Southeast with the Northeast.
It is navigable between the cities of Pirapora and Juazeiro, as well as between Piranhas and the mouth on the ocean, but traditional passenger navigation has all but disappeared in recent years due to changes in the river flow. The river is named for Saint Francis of Assisi, from its first discovery by Europeans on his feast day in 1501; the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci first saw the river on 4 October 1501. In 1865 the British explorer and diplomat Richard Francis Burton was transferred to Santos in Brazil, he explored the central highlands, canoeing down the São Francisco river from its source to the falls of Paulo Afonso. The course of the river, running through five states, may be divided into four sections, as follows: The high part, from its source to Pirapora in Minas Gerais The upper middle part, from Pirapora, where the navigable part begins, up to Remanso and the Sobradinho Dam The lower middle part, from the Sobradinho dam to Paulo Afonso in Bahia, ending at the Itaparica Dam The low part, from Paulo Afonso to the river's mouth on the Atlantic Ocean The river obtains water from 168 rivers and streams, of which 90 are on the right bank and 78 on the left bank.
The main tributaries are: Paraopeba River Abaeté River Das Velhas River Jequitaí River Paracatu River Urucuia River Verde Grande River Carinhanha River Corrente River Grande River The São Francisco is navigable all through the year between Pirapora and the twin cities of Petrolina and Juazeiro, a length of 1,371 kilometres. However, there are large variations in depth depending on the rainfall; because of the diversity of physical characteristics over the course of the navigable stretch, it may be divided into three substretches, as follows: From Pirapora to Pilão Arcado, a length of 1,015 kilometres. From Pilão Arcado to the Sobradinho Dam. From the Sobradinho dam to Petrolina/Juazeiro, with a length of 42 kilometres and an average depth of 2 metres, sustained by a flow of 1,500 m3/s; until recent years, the São Francisco was navigated by a type of passenger boat called gaiola. These were paddle-wheel steamboats, some of them having been Mississippi riverboats and dating from the time of the American Civil War.
After the Sobradinho dam was built in Bahia, the conditions of navigability were altered since the reservoir's large size allowed for the formation of short waves of considerable height. Although the dam has a navigation lock, the waves and currents made traversing the lake difficult for the gaiolas. At the same time and excessive agricultural use of the upper-course waters of the São Francisco and its tributaries reduced the water flow in the middle course, creating sand banks and islands that hindered navigation. In a short time, conditions were such that navigation became impossible for the large gaiolas, although still possible for smaller boats; the shells of those old riverboats can still be seen on the river at Pirapora. As of 2009, a single boat, the Benjamim Guimarães, remains in activity, making short-distance tourist cruises from Pirapora to São Romão and back. More than 200 fish species are known from the São Francisco River basin and it is expected that several additional species will be discovered in the future from the poorly known upper parts of the river.
About 10% of the fish species known from the river basin are threatened and about 13% are important in fisheries. About 64% of the fish species known from the basin are endemic, including Conorhynchos conirostris, Lophiosilurus alexandri, Franciscodoras marmoratus, Pygocentrus piraya, Orthospinus franciscensis, Hasemania nana, Salminus franciscanus. More than 40 annual killifish species are found in the São Francisco River basin from the genera Cynolebias and Hypsolebias. Dams and pollution do pr
Paubrasilia echinata is a species of flowering plant in the legume family, is endemic to the Atlantic Forest. It is a Brazilian timber tree known as Pernambuco wood or Brazilwood and is the nation tree of Brazil; this plant has a dense, orange-red heartwood that takes a high shine, it is the premier wood used for making bows for stringed instruments. The wood yields a red dye called brazilin, which oxidizes to brazilein; the name pau-brasil was applied to certain species of the genus Caesalpinia in the medieval period, was given its original scientific binomial name Caesalpinia echinata in 1785 by Lamarck.. More recent taxonomic studies have suggested that it merits recognition as a separate genus, it was thus suggested to be renamed Paubrasilia echinata in 2016; the name of Brazil is shortened from Terra do Brasil "land of brazilwood". When Portuguese explorers found these trees on the coast of South America, they recognised it as a relative of those Asian species of Caesalpinia that were used in Europe for dye, or Portuguese pau-brasil, or as Sappanwood.
The South American trees soon became the better source of red dye. Brazilwood trees were such a large part of the exports and economy of the land that the country which sprang up in that part of the world took its name from them and is now called Brazil. Botanically, several tree species are involved, all in the family Fabaceae; the term "brazilwood" is most used to refer to the species Paubrasilia echinata, but it is applied to other species, such as Caesalpinia sappan and Haematoxylum brasiletto. The tree is known by other names, as ibirapitanga, Tupi for "red wood". In the bow-making business it is usual to refer to some species other than Paubrasilia echinata as "Brazilwood"; the prized Paubrasilia echinata is called "Pernambuco wood" in this particular context. The brazilwood tree may reach up to 15 metres in height, the dark brown bark flakes in large patches, revealing the lustrous blood-red heartwood underneath; the leaves are pinnate and each consists of between 9 and 19 small, leathery leaflets, which are broadly oblong in shape.
The flower stalk, or inflorescence, is branched and contains between 15 and 40 yellow perfumed flowers, which may be pollinated by bees. The petals are yellow with a blood-red blotch; the fruits are oval-shaped woody seedpods, measuring up to 7.3 centimetres long and 2.6 centimetres across. The branches and fruit are covered with small thorns. There are some important differences between geographically distinct populations and it is thought that separate subspecies of the pau brasil may exist; this tree may have some medicinal properties and has been used as an astringent and antidiuretic by local people. Starting in the 16th centuries, brazilwood became valued in Europe and quite difficult to get. A related wood Sappanwood coming from Asia was traded in powder form and used as a red dye in the manufacture of luxury textiles, such as velvet, in high demand during the Renaissance; when Portuguese navigators discovered present-day Brazil, on April 22, 1500, they saw that brazilwood was abundant along the coast and in its hinterland, along the rivers.
In a few years, a hectic and profitable operation for felling and shipping all the brazilwood logs they could get was established, as a crown-granted Portuguese monopoly. The rich commerce which soon followed stimulated other nations to try to harvest and smuggle brazilwood contraband out of Brazil, corsairs to attack loaded Portuguese ships in order to steal their cargo. For example, the unsuccessful attempt in 1555 of a French expedition led by Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon, vice-admiral of Brittany and corsair under the King, to establish a colony in present-day Rio de Janeiro was motivated in part by the bounty generated by economic exploitation of brazilwood. In addition, this plant is cited in Flora Brasiliensis by Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius. Restoration of the species in the wild is hampered by the fact that it is a climax community species, which will develop well only when planted amongst secondary forest vegetation. Although many saplings have been distributed or sold during recent decades, that has led to the tree being planted in places outside its natural range, with somewhat poor results, such as happens with brazilwood trees used for urban landscaping in the city of São Paulo, whose development and flowering is hampered by the colder environment.
Excessive harvesting led to a steep decrease in the number of brazilwood trees in the 18th century, causing the collapse of this economic activity. Presently, the species is nearly extirpated in most of its original range. Brazilwood is listed as an endangered species by the IUCN, it is cited in the official list of endangered flora of Brazil; the trade of brazilwood is to be banned in the immediate future, creating a major problem in the bow-making industry which values this wood. The International Pernambuco Conservation Initiative, whose members are the bowmakers who rely on pernambuco for their livelihoods, is working to replant the trees. IPCI advocates the use of other woods for violin bows to raise money to plant pernambuco seedlings; the shortage of pernambuco has helped the carbon fiber and composite bow industry t
Porto Seguro is a city located in the far south of Bahia, Brazil. The city has an estimated population of 145,431, covers 2,287 square kilometres, has a population density of 52.7 residents per square kilometer. The area that includes Porto Seguro and neighboring Santa Cruz Cabrália and Prado holds a distinctive place in Brazilian history: in 1500 it was the first landing point of Portuguese navigators, principally Pedro Álvares Cabral; the crime rate is considered high, as is the case in all Bahia State The weather is always hot and humid in the summer, though reaching 40°C, mild in the winter, averaging 25°C with a minimum of 19°C. During July and November the probability of rain is greater. Porto Seguro is divided into five districts Porto Seguro, it contains the 894 hectares Rio dos Frades Wildlife Refuge, created in 2007 to protect the mouth of the Frades River. The municipality contains part of the Corumbau Marine Extractive Reserve, a protected offshore fishing area of 89,597 hectares.
The city is now considered one of the most important destinations of Brazil, receiving tourists from Brazil, Argentina and Chile. The city and surrounding area have some luxury hotels and hundreds of smaller hotels, as well as an airport well connected with the major Brazilian cities. Apart from tourism, other important activities are agriculture, reforestation with eucalyptus trees and trade and services; the city offers one of the most famous Carnival parties in Bahia. “Electric Trios”, dancing “blocos” and “cordões” drag thousands of tourists along the "Passarela do Álcool" Passageway and to beach bars. Historical Downtown Area The historical site in the Cidade Alta area is a National Heritage Monument put under government trust by federal decree since 1973, it was one of the first towns in Brazil and played an important role during the first years of European colonization. It includes three churches and around 40 buildings, restored by the state government for the 500th anniversary celebration of Brazilian discovery.
Monte Pascoal National Park Created in 1961 to preserve the place where Brazil was discovered by Portuguese warriors. It includes swamp areas, salt marshes, river marshes, a coastline around the rocky, round hill, considered the first point of land to be seen by the Portuguese traveler Pedro Álvares Cabral’s crew, it extends over an area of 144.8 square kilometres, including the Pataxó tribe’s indigenous protection land. Besides its historical importance, it offers protection to one of the last stretches of Atlantic forest in the Northeastern area of Brazil; the area is aimed at preserving valuable woods such as Brazil wood, still hosts many species of animals threatened by extinction, including the collared sloth and black bear. Recife de Fora Sea Park It was the first city-owned park in Brazil. During low tide, visitors can view a wide range of coral reefs and many sea species. Glória Hillock These are ruins of what many consider to be the São Francisco Church, where Ynaiá, an Indian woman who died for the love of a crewmember of Portuguese navigator Gonçalo Coelho's fleet, was buried.
The São Francisco Church is said to be the first one built in Brazil in baroque style in 1504, whose ruins date to 1730. The Nossa Senhora da Penha Matrix Church Located on Pero de Campos Tourinho Square, in Cidade Alta, it was built at the end of the 18th century, it comprises a nave, a main chapel, a sacristy, a bell tower. Jaqueira Indigenous Protection Reservation A huge jackfruit tree trunk, tumbled down by nature itself, represents the return to one’s origins and acts as a historical and cultural reference to honor the ancestral fathers and mothers of Pataxó families who moved into this 8.27 square kilometres Indian protection area. Their huts, spread around original Atlantic Forest woods, retain the original formats, giving visitors the impression of being back 500 years in time to pre-Columbian Brazil; the Discovery Outdoors Museum An outdoors, natural museum, whose “art galleries” are its beaches and natural trails and whose “collection” is a set of geographical formations and traditional villages, disposed as art works in permanent exhibition, engraved in ancient media, which are spread along the 130 square kilometres length of Bahia’s historical southern coastline.
Porto Seguro Airport was opened in 1982. Its passenger terminal was simple and small. In 1997, the airport was reopened, having received a new passenger terminal, new aircraft parking lot, extension of runway to operate large aircraft. In 2010 the airport had some major renovations preparing the city to host several of the International football teams who had a training camp in Porto Seguro for the World Cup 2014. Saiba Tudo Acesse: Porto Seguro - Bahia