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Namibian Defence Force

The Namibian Defence Force was created when South West Africa gained full independence from South Africa in 1990. The constitution of Namibia defines the role of the military as "defending the territory and national interests." Namibia's military was born from the integration of the belligerent People's Liberation Army of Namibia, military wing of the South West African People's Organization, the South West African Territorial Force - a security arm of the former South African administration. The British formulated the force integration plan and began training the NDF, which consists of five battalions and a small headquarters element; the United Nations Transitional Assistance Group's Kenyan infantry battalion remained in Namibia for three months after independence to assist in training the NDF and stabilize the north. Martin Shalli and Charles'Ho Chi Minh' Namoloh were involved in the negotiations that allowed the Kenyan infantry battalion to remain for that period; the main roles of the Namibian Defence Force are to ensure the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country by guarding against external aggression, both conventional and unconventional.

Defence spending and percentage of GDP included $90 million in 1997/98, 2.6% of GDP. The 73.1 million figure in 2002 was 2.4% of GDP. These figures are certainly CIA World Factbook estimates. Major General A W Dennis, CB, OBE, British Army Director of Military Assistance Overseas, made the following comments on the initial phase in Namibia at a conference in Pretoria, South Africa on 6 August 1992: You will no doubt recall that the Angola accords were signed in Luanda on 22 December 1988. In November 1989 SWAPO won 57% of the votes in the Namibian General Election and requested the help of a British Military Advisory and Training Team following independence on 21 March 1990; the team 55 strong, was duly deployed on 26 March 1990 and the first leaders cadre, for the 1st and 2nd Battalions, was run from 17 April to 2 June. By 1 July, the 1st Battalion, about 1 000 men strong, accompanied by 5 BMATT Advisors, had deployed to the northern border. By November 1990, only four months the 5th Battalion had deployed and in early 1991 the 21st Guards Battalion had been formed, four staff courses had been run, support weapons and logistics training was well advanced and an operational test exercise had been conducted.

In addition the Ministry of Defence, a mixture of civilian and military personnel, was operating as a department of state. No-one would pretend that everything was working nevertheless, a great deal had been achieved in the first year following independence. Most people would agree that at some 7 500 strong the Army is unnecessarily large, but sensible plans will need to be made for the employment of any surplus soldiers before they are discharged. Integration has not been easy to achieve, at least in part, because of the need to use several interpreters to cope with the wide variety of languages involved. Battalions are made up of 70% ex-PLAN and 30% ex-SWATF; this mixture could have proved explosive but hounded by their BMATT instructors they united in a common task and soon realised that they could work well together. At the higher levels, integration has been more patchy, at least in part because of the departure of most white South African and SWATF officers, but the Government's intentions seem clear in that it decided to split the four MOD directorates evenly, appointing two white and two black directors.

In all this, BMATT Namibia has played a role remarkably similar to that of BMATT Zimbabwe. In August 1999, a separatist Lozi faction in the Caprivi Strip launched a coup attempt, summarily put down by the Namibian Defence Force; the army has conducted security operations along the northern border with Angola. In the process of these operations, there were allegations in 2001 that the army has tortured people suspected of being UNITA sympathisers. IRIN reported that the Ministry of Defence had admitted that two Namibian soldiers died fighting suspected UNITA rebels in southern Angola in July 2001; the Namibian Defence Force assists in putting out wildfires. As of 13 October 2010, Sibbinda councillor Felix Mukupi has requested a meeting with the regional army commander in order to request'the NDF to deploy its troops stretching from Wenela to Kongola' in order to curtail stock thefts by gangs of cattle thieves from Zambia. On 24 May 2010, Chen Bingde, Chief of the General Staff Department of the People's Liberation Army and member of the Central Military Commission, met Charles Namoloh and Peter Nambundunga, acting commander of the Namibian Defence Forces, in Windhoek.

At their meeting, the two sides had in-depth discussions on further strengthening exchanges and cooperation between the two armed forces. Chen was accompanied by the chief of staff of the Second Artillery Corps and two PLA Military Region chiefs of staff. Chen met President Pohamba that day. In 2012, NDF officials announced the suspension of its recruitment campaign due to a lack of "accommodation facilities" for new personnel for a two-year period; the suspension how did not include the recruitment of specialist personnel as the Namibian Navy in 2013 had a recruitment exercise for sailors and marines. In 2014 recruitment resumed; the Chief Of Defence Force is the highest-ranking officer

Human ethology

Human ethology is the study of human behavior. Ethology as a discipline is thought of as a sub-category of biology, though psychological theories have been developed based on ethological ideas; the bridging between biological sciences and social sciences creates an understanding of human ethology. Ethology has its roots in the study of evolution after evolution's increasing popularity after Darwin's detailed observations, it became a distinct discipline in the 1930s with zoologists Konrad Lorenz, Niko Tinbergen and Karl Von Frisch. These three scientist are known as the major contributors to human ethology, they are regarded as the fathers or founders of ethology. Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen rejected theories that relied on stimuli and learning alone, elaborated on concepts that had not been well understood, such as instinct, they promoted the theory that evolution had placed within creatures innate abilities and responses to certain stimuli that advanced the thriving of the species. Konrad Lorenz indicated in his earlier works that animal behavior can be a major reference for human behavior.

He believed that the research and findings of animal behaviors can lead to findings of human behaviors as well. In 1943, Lorenz devoted much of his book, "Die angeborenen Formen moglicher Erfahrung" to human behavior, he designated that one of the most important factors of ethology was testing the hypothesis derived from animal behavioral studies on human behavioral studies. Due to Lorenz promoting the similarities between studying animal and human behavior, human ethology derived from the study of anima behavior; the other founder of ethology, Karl von Frisch, received a Nobel Prize in 1973, for their overarching career discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behavior patterns. Many developmental psychologists were eager to incorporate ethological principles into their theories as a way of explaining observable phenomenon in babies that could not be explained by learning or other concepts. John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth used ethology prominently to explain aspects of infant-caretaker‍‍ attachment theory‍‍.

Some important attachment concepts related to evolution: Attachment has evolved because it promotes the survival of helpless infants. Primates and other animals reflexively attach themselves physically to their parent, have some calls that elicit parental attention. Human babies have adaptively developed signaling mechanisms such as crying and smiling; these are seen as innate and not learned behaviors, because children born blind and deaf begin to smile at 6 weeks, cry and babble. These behaviors facilitate contact with the caregiver and increase the likelihood of infant survival. Early signaling behaviors and the baby's tendency to look at faces rather than objects lead to attachment between the caretaker and baby that solidifies around 6–9 months of age. Bowlby theorized that this attachment was evolutionarily fundamental to human survival and is the basis for all relationships into adulthood. Adults are adaptively bent toward attachment with infants. Typical "baby-ish" features, such as a large head and eyes in proportion to the body, round cheeks, are features that elicit affection in adults.

Many parents form a "bond" with their newborn baby within hours of its birth, leading to a deep sense of emotional attachment with one's own offspring and increased behaviors that promote infant survival. Many of Bowlby's early methods relied on ethological observations of children in their natural environments. In years, ethology played a large role in sociobiological theory and in evolutionary psychology, a new field of study. Evolutionary psychology combines ethology, primatology and other fields to study modern human behavior in relation to adaptive ancestral human behaviors. Humans are social animals. Just as wolves and lions create packs or hunting groups for self-preservation, humans create complex social structures, including families and nations. Humans are "biological organisms that have evolved within a particular environmental niche". Intelligence, social attachment and altruism are part of human nature because they "serve or once served a purpose in the struggle of the species to survive".

Children's developmental level is defined in terms of biologically based behaviors. Human's needs evolve based on their current environment. Humans must adapt. Cognitive thinking and communication arose as a result of a need for cooperation amongst individuals for survival. Lorenz believed that humans have an automatic, elicited nature of behavior, such as stimuli that elicit fixed action patterns.‍‍ His theory developed from the reflex model and the hydraulic or "flush toilet" model‍‍, which conceptualized behavior patterns of motivation. Certain fixed action patterns developed out of motivation for survival. Instinct is an example of fixed action patterns. Any behavior is instinctive. Reflexes can be instincts. For example, a newborn baby instinctively knows to search for and suckle its mother's breast for ‍‍nourishment. Bowlby believed, they are active participants who seek out a parent, food, or a mate ‍‍. Vygotsky believed that the way humans think is based on the culture they are rais

Phaseolus coccineus

Phaseolus coccineus, known as runner bean, scarlet runner bean, or multiflora bean, is a plant in the legume family, Fabaceae. Another common name is butter bean, however, can refer to the lima bean, a different species, it is grown both as an ornamental plant. This species originated from the mountains of Central America. Most varieties have red flowers and multicolored seeds, they are grown as ornamental plants; the vine can grow to 3 m or more in length. It differs from the common bean in several respects: the cotyledons stay in the ground during germination, the plant is a perennial vine with tuberous roots; the knife-shaped pods are green. An example of such a purple-podded runner bean is'Aeron Purple Star'. Runner beans have been called "Oregon lima bean", in Nahuatl ayocotl or in Spanish ayocote. Runner beans, like all beans, contain the toxic protein phytohaemagglutinin and thus should be cooked well before eating. In the US, in 1978, the scarlet runner was grown for its attractive flowers as an ornamental.

Since that time, many US gardeners have adopted the bean as a regular member of the vegetable garden. The flower is known as a favourite of hummingbirds. In the UK – where the vegetable is a popular choice for kitchen gardens and allotments – the flowers are ignored, or treated as an attractive bonus to cultivating the plant for the beans; the seeds of the plant can be used as dried beans. The pods are edible whole while they are not yet fibrous; the starchy roots are still eaten by Central American Natives. The beans are used in many cuisines, it is a popular side vegetable in British cuisine. A variety named'Judión de la Granja' producing large, edible beans is cultivated in San Ildefonso, Spain, it is the basis of a Segovian regional dish named Judiones de la Granja, in which the beans are mixed with pig's ears, pig's trotters, chorizo, amongst other ingredients. In Greece, cultivars of the runner bean with white blossom and white beans are known as fasolia gigantes, they are grown under protective law in the north of Greece within the regions of Kato Nevrokopi and Kastoria.

The beans have an important role in Greek cuisine. In English, they are sometimes colloquially referred to as elephant beans. In Austria the coloured versions are cultivated and served as "Käferbohnen", a dish made of the dry beans with pumpkin seed oil, it is considered a typical dish of regional Austrian cuisine, but dried runner beans are consumed to a small extent in Germany. Greece and northern Africa are the sources of pods of the runner beans sold as "green beans" in European markets during the cold period; the pods can be identified by the rougher surface. Cultivars include:'Aeron Purple Star"Black Runner"Butler"Case Knife"Hammond's Dwarf"Painted Lady"Pickwick Dwarf"Polestar"Scarlet Runner"White Dutch Runner'P. coccineus subsp. Darwinianus is a cultivated subspecies referred to as the botil bean in Mexico; the related species considered most useful for interbreeding with P. coccineus to increase its genetic diversity are P. dumosus and P. vulgaris. Media related to Phaseolus coccineus at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Phaseolus coccineus at Wikispecies

Philippe Friedrich Dietrich

Baron Philippe Friedrich Dietrich born 14 November 1748 in Strasbourg, guillotined on 29 December 1793 in Paris, was a scholar and Alsatian politician. He was most well known as the first mayor of Strasbourg who encouraged Rouget de l'Isle to write various patriotic songs, including the song which became known as La Marseillaise, first performed in his living room; as mayor of Strasbourg, he accelerated revolutionary reforms throughout the region. Dietrich came from an old Protestant family of bankers and foundry owners in Niederbronn, in the Lower Rhine, Reichshofen; the family was established in Strasbourg, with the 1549 birth of Dominique Didier, known in this bi-lingual territory as Dominick Dietrich. His father, Jean Dietrich, was the son of a foundry owner in Reichshofen, his mother, Amélie Hermanny, was the daughter of a prominent banker. He had one brother, who married Louise-Sophie de Glaubitz, established the family's ironworks in Saint Domingue, his own son, Jean-Albert Dietrich, was counselor of Bas-Rhin.

His granddaughter married the nephew of his successor as mayor of Strasbourg, William Turckheim, colonel of cavalry in the French army. Dietrich attended the Protestant gymnasium in Strasbourg and from 1772 continued his study through European travel. An encyclopaedist, a Freemason, he embraced the Enlightenment ideals the development ideas of science and technology, gender differences in men without religion or origin, international understanding and peace among peoples, he married Louise Sybille Ochs, sister of Peter Ochs, who became mayor of Basel and a militant supporter of the French-styled revolution in Switzerland in 1798–99. He received the position of secretary and charge-de-affaires of Swiss and Grison, bought by his father in 1771; this charge required him to reside in Paris half his time. In 1775, he demonstrated the volcanic origins of the Kaiserstuhl, near Freiburg im Breisgau, was admitted to the Academy of Sciences in 1786. In 1777 he participated in experiments conducted by Alessandro Volta in Strasbourg, on marsh gas, brought him membership into the Academy of Sciences, aided by Antoine Lavoisier.

They wrote joint articles on the subject. On 11 January 1785, he was appointed commissioner of the king's factories and forests of the, a position he shared with Barthélemy Faujas de Saint-Fond; the creation of this function was necessitated by the depletion of forests and the need to replace wood with coal and coke. In the course of his duties, he compiled the Description of ore bodies and mouths to fire the kingdom in three volumes: the Pyrenees and Lower Alsace and the southern Lorraine. Dietrich was mayor of Strasbourg from March 1790 to August 1792. At his home during a dinner in honor of the officers of the garrison of Strasbourg he asked the Captain Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, stationed in his city, to write the Song the Army of the Rhine, future La Marseillaise. Rouget de l'Isle composed the song in the night of 24–25 April 1792. According to sources, Dietrich would have sung the song himself, accompanied on the piano by his wife, for he was good musician. Baron Dietrich knew the Captain Rouget de l'Isle to be like him, a Freemason and attend the same Masonic lodge of Strasbourg.

Summoned before the bar of the Convention, which accused him of supporting the refractory priests and to have protested against the insurgency days of 20 June–10 August 1792, Dietrich took refuge first in Basel, in the home of his brother-in-law, Peter Ochs, was taken prisoner. The Jacobins sent him to the court of Besançon on 7 March 1793, he was transported to Paris, where Maximilien Robespierre considered a "dangerous man", "one of the greatest conspirators of the Republic." Putting pressure on the court, Robespierre declared to the Jacobins: "National justice requires that he be punished, the interest of the people demand it to be quickly". The Revolutionary Court sentenced him to death, he was guillotined on 29 December 1793. On 23 August 1795, the National Convention rehabilitated the reputation of Dietrich as a hero of the Revolution

Lock, the Fox

Lock, the Fox is an album by saxophonist Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis recorded in 1966 for the RCA Victor label. The Allmusic site awarded the album 3 stars. "Nina Never Knew" - 2:34 "Speak Low" - 4:01 "Midnight Sun" - 3:50 "On Green Dolphin Street" - 3:42 "Save Your Love for Me" - 3:11 "On a Clear Day" - 3:23 "West Coast Blues" - 4:06 "Days of Wine and Roses" - 3:21 "The Good Life" - 3:39 "Oh!! Gee!!" - 3:03 Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis - tenor saxophone Ross Tompkins - piano Les Spann - guitar Russell George - bass Chuck Lampkin - drums Ray Barretto - congas

Gonda, Uttar Pradesh

Gonda is a city and municipal board of Gonda district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is situated 120 km north east of the state capital Lucknow. Gonda is divided into four tehsils named Gonda, Colonelganj and Mankapur; the name of this district comes from the Sanskrit-Hindi word goshala. The cowsheds of the royal lineage of Ayodhya viz. Ikshavaku of the Solar dynasty were located here; the territory covered by the present district of Gonda is a part of the ancient Kosala Kingdom. After the departure to Saket Dham of Lord Rama, the celebrated sovereign of the Solar line who ruled Kosala, the kingdom was divided into two portions defined by the Ghaghara river; the northern portion was ruled by his son, with the city of Sravasti as his capital. More ancient Buddhist remains dating to the early days of Buddhism have been found throughout the region, including Sravasti; as per provisional data of 2011 census, Gonda urban agglomeration had a population of 138,929, out of which males were 71,475 and females were 67,454.

The population in the age range of 0 to 6 years was 15,608. The total number of literates were 99,057, of which 43,990 were females; the sex ratio was 944. The effective literacy rate of 7+ population was 80.32 per cent. The founder of the Swaminarayan Sampradaya, Swaminarayan was born as Ghanshyam Pandey in the village Chhapaiya of Gonda; as a child, he lived in Ayodhya and visited the town of Gonda on a pilgrimage with his parents. The Swaminarayan Akshardham temple in New Delhi is dedicated to him, as Akshardham is his divine abode. Kakori Conspiracy Rajendra Nath Lahiri Dukh Haran Nath Temple Official Web Site Of the District Gonda